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You uprooted a vine[a] from Egypt;
you drove out nations and transplanted it.
You cleared the ground for it;[b]
it took root,[c]
and filled the land.
10 The mountains were covered by its shadow,
the highest cedars[d] by its branches.
11 Its branches reached the Mediterranean Sea,[e]
and its shoots the Euphrates River.[f]
12 Why did you break down its walls,[g]
so that all who pass by pluck its fruit?[h]
13 The wild boars of the forest ruin it;[i]
the insects[j] of the field feed on it.

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  1. Psalm 80:8 sn The vine is here a metaphor for Israel (see Ezek 17:6-10; Hos 10:1).
  2. Psalm 80:9 tn Heb “you cleared away before it.”
  3. Psalm 80:9 tn Heb “and it took root [with] its roots.”
  4. Psalm 80:10 tn Heb “cedars of God.” The divine name אֵל (ʾel, “God”) is here used in an idiomatic manner to indicate the superlative.
  5. Psalm 80:11 tn Heb “to [the] sea.” The “sea” refers here to the Mediterranean Sea.
  6. Psalm 80:11 tn Heb “to [the] river.” The “river” is the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia. Israel expanded both to the west and to the east.
  7. Psalm 80:12 sn The protective walls of the metaphorical vineyard are in view here (see Isa 5:5).
  8. Psalm 80:12 tn Heb “pluck it.”
  9. Psalm 80:13 tn The Hebrew verb כִּרְסֵם (kirsem, “to eat away; to ruin”) occurs only here in the OT.
  10. Psalm 80:13 tn The precise referent of the Hebrew word translated “insects,” which occurs only here and in Ps 50:11, is uncertain. Aramaic, Arabic, and Akkadian cognates refer to insects, such as locusts or crickets.