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19 God, the one who has reigned as king from long ago,
will hear and humiliate them.[a] (Selah)
They refuse to change,
and do not fear God.[b]

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  1. Psalm 55:19 tc Heb “God will hear and answer them, even [the] one who sits [from] ancient times.” The prefixed verbal from with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the anticipatory force of the preceding imperfect. The verb appears to be a Qal form from עָנָה (ʿanah, “to answer”). If this reading is retained, the point would be that God “answered” them in judgment. The translation assumes an emendation to the Piel וַיְעַנֵּם (vayeʿannem; see 2 Kgs 17:20) and understands the root as עָנָה (ʿanah, “to afflict”; see also 1 Kgs 8:35).
  2. Psalm 55:19 tn Heb “[the ones] for whom there are no changes, and they do not fear God.”