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28 Her children[a] have risen[b] and called[c] her blessed;
her husband[d] also has praised[e] her:

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  1. Proverbs 31:28 sn This is certainly not an activity of infants and toddlers and probably refers to her grown children. In addition to the past tense verbs that describe her, this is another indication that this passage is giving us a retrospective view of her life and not a glimpse at her day-planner.
  2. Proverbs 31:28 tn The first word of the nineteenth line begins with ק (qof), the nineteenth letter of the Hebrew The verb (קָמוּ; qamu) is the perfect form of a dynamic verb and should be understood as past tense or perfective. It is implied that her children have done this on more than one The deliberate action of “rising up” to call her blessed is the Hebrew way of indicating something important is about to be done that has to be prepared for.
  3. Proverbs 31:28 tn The verb וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהוּ (vayeʾasheruhu) is a preterite and therefore is past tense.
  4. Proverbs 31:28 tn The text uses an independent nominative absolute to draw attention to her husband: “her husband, and he praises her.” Prominent as he is, her husband speaks in glowing terms of his noble wife.
  5. Proverbs 31:28 tn The verb וַיְהַלְלָהּ (vayehalelah) is a preterite and therefore is past tense.