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Portrayal of the Destruction of Nineveh

The chariot drivers will crack their whips;[a]
the chariot wheels will shake the ground.[b]
The chariot horses[c] will gallop;[d]
the war chariots[e] will bolt forward![f]

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  1. Nahum 3:2 tn Heb “the sound of a whip.”
  2. Nahum 3:2 tn Heb “the shaking of a chariot wheel.”
  3. Nahum 3:2 tn Heb “a horse.”
  4. Nahum 3:2 tn Albright argues that the term דֹּהֵר (doher) should be translated as “chariot driver” (W. F. Albright, “The Song of Deborah in Light of Archaeology,” BASOR 62 [1936]: 30). More recent research indicates that this term denotes “to dash” (HALOT 215 s.v.) or “to gallop, neigh” (DCH 2:417 s.v. דהר I). It is used as a synonym for רָקַד (raqad, “to skip”). This Hebrew verb is related to Egyptian thr (“to travel by chariot”) and Arabic dahara VII (“to hurry”). The related noun דַּהֲרָה (daharah) means “dashing, galloping” (Judg 5:22; HALOT 215 s.v.; DCH 2:417 s.v. דַּהֲרָה I).
  5. Nahum 3:2 tn Heb “a chariot.”
  6. Nahum 3:2 tn The Piel participle מְרַקֵּדָה (meraqqedah, “jolting”) is from רַקַד (raqad); this verb means “to dance, to leap” (of children, Job 21:11), “to skip about, to dance” (Eccl 3:4), and “to leap” (of chariots, Joel 2:5). In related Semitic languages (Akkadian, Ugaritic, and Arabic) the root raqad means “to dance, to skip about.” Here, the verb is used as a figurative expression (hypocatastasis) to describe the jostling of the madly rushing war-chariots.