New English Translation
The Census and the Birth of Jesus
2 Now[a] in those days a decree[b] went out from Caesar[c] Augustus[d] to register[e] all the empire[f] for taxes. 2 This was the first registration, taken when Quirinius was governor[g] of Syria. 3 Everyone[h] went to his own town[i] to be registered. 4 So[j] Joseph also went up from the town of Nazareth[k] in Galilee to Judea, to the city[l] of David called Bethlehem,[m] because he was of the house[n] and family line[o] of David. 5 He went[p] to be registered with Mary, who was promised in marriage to him,[q] and who was expecting a child. 6 While[r] they were there, the time came for her to deliver her child.[s] 7 And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him in strips of cloth[t] and laid him in a manger,[u] because there was no place for them in the inn.[v]
The Shepherds’ Visit
8 Now[w] there were shepherds[x] nearby[y] living out in the field, keeping guard[z] over their flock at night. 9 An[aa] angel of the Lord[ab] appeared to[ac] them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were absolutely terrified.[ad] 10 But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid! Listen carefully,[ae] for I proclaim to you good news[af] that brings great joy to all the people: 11 Today[ag] your Savior is born in the city[ah] of David.[ai] He is Christ[aj] the Lord. 12 This[ak] will be a sign[al] for you: You will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth and lying in a manger.”[am] 13 Suddenly[an] a vast, heavenly army[ao] appeared with the angel, praising God and saying,
15 When[as] the angels left them and went back to heaven, the shepherds said to one another, “Let us go over to Bethlehem and see this thing that has taken place, that the Lord[at] has made known to us.” 16 So they hurried off and located Mary and Joseph, and found the baby lying in a manger.[au] 17 When[av] they saw him,[aw] they related what they had been told[ax] about this child, 18 and all who heard it were astonished[ay] at what the shepherds said. 19 But Mary treasured up all these words, pondering in her heart what they might mean.[az] 20 So[ba] the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising[bb] God for all they had heard and seen; everything was just as they had been told.[bc]Read full chapter
- Luke 2:1 tn Grk “Now it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 2:1 sn This decree was a formal decree from the Roman Senate.
- Luke 2:1 tn Or “from the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).
- Luke 2:1 sn Caesar Augustus refers to Octavian, who was Caesar from 27 b.c. to a.d. 14. He was known for his administrative prowess.
- Luke 2:1 tn Grk “to be registered.” The passive infinitive ἀπογράφεσθαι (apographesthai) has been rendered as an active in the translation to improve the English style. The verb is regarded as a technical term for official registration in tax lists (BDAG 108 s.v. ἀπογράφω a).sn This census (a decree…to register all the empire) is one of the more disputed historical remarks in Luke. Josephus (Ant. 18.1.1 [18.1-2]) only mentions a census in a.d. 6, too late for this setting. Such a census would have been a massive undertaking; it could have started under one ruler and emerged under another, to whose name it became attached. This is one possibility to explain the data. Another is that Quirinius, who became governor in Syria for the later census, may have been merely an administrator for this census. See also Luke 2:2.
- Luke 2:1 tn Grk “the whole (inhabited) world,” but this was a way to refer to the Roman empire (L&N 1.83).
- Luke 2:2 tn Or “was a minister of Syria.” This term could simply refer to an administrative role Quirinius held as opposed to being governor (Josephus, Ant. 18.4.2 [18.88]). See also Luke 2:1.
- Luke 2:3 tn Grk “And everyone.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:3 tn Or “hometown” (so CEV).
- Luke 2:4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the consequential nature of the action.
- Luke 2:4 sn On Nazareth see Luke 1:26.
- Luke 2:4 tn Or “town.” The translation “city” is used here because of its collocation with “of David,” suggesting its importance, though not its size.
- Luke 2:4 sn The journey from Nazareth to the city of David called Bethlehem was a journey of about 90 mi (150 km). Bethlehem was a small village located about 7 miles south-southwest of Jerusalem.
- Luke 2:4 sn Luke’s use of the term “house” probably alludes to the original promise made to David outlined in the Nathan oracle of 2 Sam 7:12-16, especially in light of earlier connections between Jesus and David made in Luke 1:32. Further, the mention of Bethlehem reminds one of the promise of Mic 5:2, namely, that a great king would emerge from Bethlehem to rule over God’s people.
- Luke 2:4 tn Or “family,” “lineage.”
- Luke 2:5 tn The words “He went” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to begin a new sentence in the translation. The Greek sentence is longer and more complex than normal contemporary English usage.
- Luke 2:5 tn Traditionally, “Mary, his betrothed.” Although often rendered in contemporary English as “Mary, who was engaged to him,” this may give the modern reader a wrong impression, since Jewish marriages in this period were typically arranged marriages. The term ἐμνηστευμένῃ (emnēsteumenē) may suggest that the marriage is not yet consummated, not necessarily that they are not currently married. Some mss read “the betrothed to him wife”; others, simply “his wife.” These readings, though probably not autographic, may give the right sense.
- Luke 2:6 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:6 tn The words “her child” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to clarify what was being delivered. The wording here is like Luke 1:57. Grk “the days for her to give birth were fulfilled.”
- Luke 2:7 sn The strips of cloth (traditionally, “swaddling cloths”) were strips of linen that would be wrapped around the arms and legs of an infant to keep the limbs protected.
- Luke 2:7 tn Or “a feeding trough.”
- Luke 2:7 tn The Greek word κατάλυμα is flexible, and usage in the LXX and NT refers to a variety of places for lodging (see BDAG 521 s.v.). Most likely Joseph and Mary sought lodging in the public accommodations in the city of Bethlehem (see J. Nolland, Luke [WBC], 1:105), which would have been crude shelters for people and animals. However, it has been suggested by various scholars that Joseph and Mary were staying with relatives in Bethlehem (e.g., C. S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament, 194; B. Witherington, “Birth of Jesus,” DJG, 69-70); if that were so the term would refer to the guest room in the relatives’ house, which would have been filled beyond capacity with all the other relatives who had to journey to Bethlehem for the census.sn There was no place for them in the inn. There is no drama in how this is told. There is no search for a variety of places to stay or a heartless innkeeper. (Such items are later, nonbiblical embellishments.) Bethlehem was not large and there was simply no other place to stay. The humble surroundings of the birth are ironic in view of the birth’s significance.
- Luke 2:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Luke 2:8 sn Some argue that shepherds were among the culturally despised, but the evidence for this view of shepherds is late, coming from 5th century Jewish materials. December 25 as the celebrated date of Jesus’ birth arose around the time of Constantine (ca. a.d. 306-337), though it is mentioned in material from Hippolytus (a.d. 165-235). Some think that the reason for celebration on this date was that it coincided with the pagan Roman festival of Saturnalia, and Christians could celebrate their own festival at this time without fear of persecution. On the basis of the statement that the shepherds were living out in the field, keeping guard over their flock at night it is often suggested that Jesus’ birth took place in early spring, since it was only at lambing time that shepherds stood guard over their flocks in the field. This is not absolutely certain, however.
- Luke 2:8 tn Grk “in that region.”
- Luke 2:8 tn Grk “living in the field (see BDAG 15 s.v. ἀγραυλέω) and guarding their flock.”
- Luke 2:9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:9 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 1:11.
- Luke 2:9 tn Or “stood in front of.”
- Luke 2:9 tn Grk “they feared a great fear” (a Semitic idiom which intensifies the main idea, in this case their fear).sn Terrified. See similar responses in Luke 1:12, 29.
- Luke 2:10 tn Grk “behold.”
- Luke 2:10 tn Grk “I evangelize to you great joy.”
- Luke 2:11 sn The Greek word for today (σήμερον, sēmeron) occurs eleven times in the Gospel of Luke (2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 12:28; 13:32-33; 19:5, 9; 22:34, 61; 23:43) and nine times in Acts. Its use, especially in passages such as 2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 19:5, 9, signifies the dawning of the era of messianic salvation and the fulfillment of the plan of God. Not only does it underscore the idea of present fulfillment in Jesus’ ministry, but it also indicates salvific fulfillment present in the church (cf. Acts 1:6; 3:18; D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 1:412; I. H. Marshall, Luke, [NIGTC], 873).
- Luke 2:11 tn Or “town.” See the note on “city” in v. 4.
- Luke 2:11 tn This is another indication of a royal, messianic connection.
- Luke 2:11 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn The term χριστός (christos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
- Luke 2:12 tn Grk “And this.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:12 sn The sign functions for the shepherds like Elizabeth’s conception served for Mary in 1:36.
- Luke 2:12 tn Or “a feeding trough,” see Luke 2:7.
- Luke 2:13 tn Grk “And suddenly.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:13 tn Grk “a multitude of the armies of heaven.”
- Luke 2:14 sn Glory here refers to giving honor to God.
- Luke 2:14 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) referring to both males and females.
- Luke 2:14 tc Most witnesses (א2 B2 L Θ Ξ Ψ ƒ1,13 M sy bo) have ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία (en anthrōpois eudokia, “good will among people”) instead of ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας (en anthrōpois eudokias, “among people with whom he is pleased”), a reading attested by א* A B* D W (sa). Most of the Itala witnesses and some other versional witnesses reflect a Greek text which has the genitive εὐδοκίας but drops the preposition ἐν. Not only is the genitive reading better attested, but it is more difficult than the nominative. “The meaning seems to be, not that divine peace can be bestowed only where human good will is already present, but that at the birth of the Saviour God’s peace rests on those whom he has chosen in accord with his good pleasure” (TCGNT 111).
- Luke 2:15 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:15 sn Note how although angels delivered the message, it was the Lord whose message is made known, coming through them.
- Luke 2:16 tn Or “a feeding trough.”
- Luke 2:17 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:17 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Luke 2:17 tn Grk “the word which had been spoken to them.”
- Luke 2:18 tn Grk “marveled.” It is a hard word to translate with one term in this context. There is a mixture of amazement and pondering at work in considering the surprising events here. See Luke 1:21, 63; 2:33.
- Luke 2:19 tn The term συμβάλλουσα (sumballousa) suggests more than remembering. She is trying to put things together here (Josephus, Ant. 2.5.3 [2.72]). The words “what they might mean” have been supplied in the translation to make this clear. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Luke 2:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the topic.
- Luke 2:20 sn The mention of glorifying and praising God is the second note of praise in this section; see Luke 2:13-14.
- Luke 2:20 tn Grk “just as [it] had been spoken to them.” This has been simplified in the English translation by making the prepositional phrase (“to them”) the subject of the passive verb.sn The closing remark just as they had been told notes a major theme of Luke 1-2 as he sought to reassure Theophilus: God does what he says he will do.