New English Translation
Job’s Reply to Eliphaz[a]
16 Then Job replied:
2 “I have heard many things like these before.
What miserable comforters[b] are you all!
3 Will[c] there be an end to your[d] windy words?[e]
Or what provokes[f] you that you answer?[g]
4 I also could speak[h] like you,
if[i] you were in my place;
I could pile up[j] words against you
and I could shake my head at you.[k]
5 But[l] I would strengthen[m] you with my words;[n]
comfort from my lips would bring[o] you relief.
Abandonment by God and Man
6 “But[p] if I speak, my pain is not relieved,[q]
and if I refrain from speaking,
how much[r] of it goes away?
7 Surely now he[s] has worn me out,
you have devastated my entire household.
8 You have seized me,[t]
and it[u] has become a witness;
my leanness[v] has risen up against me
and testifies against me.
9 His[w] anger has torn me[x] and persecuted[y] me;
he has gnashed at me with his teeth;
my adversary locks[z] his eyes on me.
10 People[aa] have opened their mouths against me,
they have struck my cheek in scorn;[ab]
they unite[ac] together against me.
11 God abandons me to evil men,[ad]
and throws[ae] me into the hands of wicked men.
12 I was in peace, and he has shattered me.[af]
He has seized me by the neck and crushed me.[ag]
He has made me his target;
13 his archers[ah] surround me.
Without pity[ai] he pierces[aj] my kidneys
and pours out my gall[ak] on the ground.
14 He breaks through against me, time and time again;[al]
he rushes[am] against me like a warrior.
15 I have sewed sackcloth on my skin,[an]
and buried[ao] my horn[ap] in the dust;
16 my face is reddened[aq] because of weeping,[ar]
and on my eyelids there is a deep darkness,[as]
17 although[at] there is no violence in my hands
and my prayer is pure.
An Appeal to God as Witness
18 “O earth, do not cover my blood,[au]
nor let there be a secret[av] place for my cry.
19 Even now my witness[aw] is in heaven;
my advocate[ax] is on high.
20 My intercessor is my friend[ay]
as my eyes pour out tears[az] to God;
21 and[ba] he contends with God on behalf of man
as a man[bb] pleads[bc] for his friend.
22 For the years that lie ahead are few,[bd]
and then I will go on the way of no return.[be]
- Job 16:1 sn In the next two chapters we have Job’s second reply to Eliphaz. Job now feels abandoned by God and by his friends, and so complains that this all intensifies his sufferings. But he still holds to his innocence as he continues his appeal to God as his witness. There are four sections to this speech: in vv. 2-5 he dismisses the consolation his friends offered; in vv. 6-17 he laments that he is abandoned by God and man; in 16:8-17:9 he makes his appeal to God in heaven as a witness; and finally, in 10-16 he anticipates death.
- Job 16:2 tn The expression uses the Piel participle in construct: מְנַחֲמֵי עָמָל (menahame ʿamal, “comforters of trouble”), i.e., comforters who increase trouble instead of relieving it. D. W. Thomas translates this “breathers out of trouble” (“A Note on the Hebrew Root naham,” ExpTim 44 [1932/33]: 192).
- Job 16:3 tn Disjunctive questions are introduced with the sign of the interrogative; the second part is introduced with אוֹ (ʾo, see GKC 475 §150.g).
- Job 16:3 tn In v. 3 the second person singular is employed rather than the plural as in vv. 2 and 4. The singular might be an indication that the words of v. 3 were directed at Eliphaz specifically.
- Job 16:3 tn Heb “words of wind.”
- Job 16:3 tn The Hiphil of מָרַץ (marats) does not occur anywhere else. The word means “to compel; to force” (see 6:25).
- Job 16:3 tn The LXX seems to have gone a different way: “What, is there any reason in vain words, or what will hinder you from answering?”
- Job 16:4 tn For the use of the cohortative in the apodosis of conditional sentences, see GKC 322 §109.f.
- Job 16:4 tn The conjunction לוּ (lu) is used to introduce the optative, a condition that is incapable of fulfillment (see GKC 494-95 §159.l).
- Job 16:4 tn This verb אַחְבִּירָה (ʾakhbirah) is usually connected to חָבַר (khavar, “to bind”). There are several suggestions for this word. J. J. Finkelstein proposed a second root, a homonym, meaning “to make a sound,” and so here “to harangue” (“Hebrew habar and Semitic HBR,” JBL 75 : 328-31; see also O. Loretz, “HBR in Job 16:4, ” CBQ 23 : 293-94, who renders it “I could make noisy speeches”). Other suggestions have been for new meanings based on cognate studies, such as “to make beautiful” (i.e., make polished speeches).
- Job 16:4 sn The action is a sign of mockery (see Ps 22:7 ; Isa 37:22; Matt 27:39).
- Job 16:5 tn “But” has been added in the translation to strengthen the contrast.
- Job 16:5 tn The Piel of אָמַץ (ʾamats) means “to strengthen, fortify.”
- Job 16:5 tn Heb “my mouth.”
- Job 16:5 tn The verb יַחְשֹׂךְ (yakhsokh) means “to restrain; to withhold.” There is no object, so many make it first person subject, “I will not restrain.” The LXX and the Syriac have a different person—“I would not restrain.” G. R. Driver, arguing that the verb is intransitive here, made it “the solace of my lips would not [added] be withheld” (see JTS 34 : 380). D. J. A. Clines says that what is definitive is the use of the verb in the next line, where it clearly means “soothed, assuaged.”
- Job 16:6 tn “But” is supplied in the translation to strengthen the contrast.
- Job 16:6 tn The Niphal יֵחָשֵׂךְ (yekhasekh) means “to be soothed; to be assuaged.”
- Job 16:6 tn Some argue that מָה (mah) in the text is the Arabic ma, the simple negative. This would then mean “it does not depart far from me.” The interrogative used rhetorically amounts to the same thing, however, so the suggestion is not necessary.
- Job 16:7 tn In poetic discourse there is often an abrupt change from one person to another. See GKC 462 §144.p. Some take the subject of this verb to be God, others the pain (“surely now it has worn me out”).
- Job 16:8 tn The verb is קָמַט (qamat) which is used only here and in 22:16; it means “to seize; to grasp.” By God’s seizing him, Job means his afflictions.
- Job 16:8 tn The subject is “my calamity.”
- Job 16:8 tn The verb is used in Ps 109:24 to mean “to be lean”; and so “leanness” is accepted here for the noun by most. Otherwise the word is “lie, deceit.” Accordingly, some take it here as “my slanderer” or “my liar” (gives evidence against me).
- Job 16:9 tn The referent of these pronouns in v. 9 (“his anger…he has gnashed…his teeth…his eyes”) is best taken as God.
- Job 16:9 sn The figure used now is that of a wild beast. God’s affliction of Job is compared to the attack of such an animal. Cf. Amos 1:11.
- Job 16:9 tn The verb שָׂטַם (satam) is translated “hate” in the RSV, but this is not accepted by very many. Many emend it to שָׁמט (shamat), reading “and he dropped me” (from his mouth). But that suggests escape. D. J. A. Clines notes that usage shows it reflects ongoing hatred represented by an action such as persecution or attack (Job [WBC], 370).
- Job 16:9 tn The verb is used of sharpening a sword in Ps 7:12; here it means “to look intently” as an animal looks for prey. The verse describes God’s relentless pursuit of Job.
- Job 16:10 tn “People” is supplied; the Hebrew verb is third plural. The colon reads, “they have opened against me with [the preposition is instrumental] their mouth.” The gestures here follow the animal imagery; they reflect destructive opposition and attack (see Ps 22:13 among others).
- Job 16:10 tn This is an “insult” or a “reproach.”
- Job 16:10 tn The verb יִתְמַלָּאוּן (yitmallaʾun) is taken from מָלֵא (maleʾ), “to be full,” and in this stem, “to pile up; to press together.” The term has a military connotation, such as “to mobilize” (see D. W. Thomas, “mlʾw in Jeremiah 4:5 : a military term,” JJS 3 : 47-52). Job sees himself surrounded by enemies who persecute him and mock him.
- Job 16:11 tn The word עֲוִיל (ʿavil) means “child,” and this cannot be right here. If it is read as עַוָּל (ʿavval) as in Job 27:7 it would be the unrighteous.sn Job does not refer here to his friends, but more likely to the wicked men who set about to destroy him and his possessions, or to the rabble in ch. 30.
- Job 16:11 tn The word יִרְטֵנִי (yirteni) does not derive from the root רָטָה (ratah) as would fit the pointing in the MT, but from יָרַט (yarat), cognate to Arabic warrata, “to throw; to hurl.” E. Dhorme (Job, 236) thinks that since the normal form would have been יִירְטֵנִי (yireteni), it is probable that one of the yods (י) would have affected the earlier word עֲוִיל (ʿavil)—but that seems out of place.
- Job 16:12 tn The verb פָּרַר (parar) means “to shake.” In the Hiphil it means “to break; to shatter” (5:12; 15:4). The Pilpel means “to break in pieces,” and in the Poel in Jer 23:29 “to smash up.” So Job was living at ease, and God shattered his life.
- Job 16:12 tn Here is another Pilpel, now from פָּצַץ (patsats) with a similar meaning to the other verb. It means “to dash into pieces” and even scatter the pieces. The LXX translates this line, “he took me by the hair of the head and plucked it out.”
- Job 16:13 tn The meaning of “his archers” is supported for רַבָּיו (rabbayv) in view of Jer 50:29. The LXX, Syriac, Vulgate, Targum Job, followed by several translations and commentators prefer “arrows.” They see this as a more appropriate figure without raising the question of who the archers might be (see 6:4). The point is an unnecessary distinction, for the figure is an illustration of the affliction that God has brought on him.
- Job 16:13 tn Heb “and he does not pity,” but the clause is functioning adverbially in the line.
- Job 16:13 tn The verb פָּלַח (palakh) in the Piel means “to pierce” (see Prov 7:23). A fuller comparison should be made with Lam 3:12-13.
- Job 16:13 tn This word מְרֵרָתִי (mererati, “my gall”) is found only here. It is close to the form in Job 13:26, “bitter things.” In Job 20:14 it may mean “poison.” The thought is also found in Lam 2:11.
- Job 16:14 tn The word פָּרַץ (parats) means “to make a breach” in a wall (Isa 5:5; Ps 80:13). It is used figuratively in the birth and naming of Peres in Gen 38:29. Here the image is now of a military attack that breaks through a wall. The text uses the cognate accusative, and then with the addition of עַל־פְּנֵי (ʿal pene, “in addition”) it repeats the cognate noun. A smooth translation that reflects the three words is difficult. E. Dhorme (Job, 237) has “he batters me down, breach upon breach.”
- Job 16:14 tn Heb “runs.”
- Job 16:15 sn The language is hyperbolic; Job is saying that the sackcloth he has put on in his lamentable state is now stuck to his skin as if he had stitched it into the skin. It is now a habitual garment that he never takes off.
- Job 16:15 tn The Poel עֹלַלְתִּי (ʿolalti) from עָלַל (ʿalal, “to enter”) has here the meaning of “to thrust in.” The activity is the opposite of “raising high the horn,” a picture of dignity and victory.
- Job 16:15 tn There is no English term that captures exactly what “horn” is meant to do. Drawn from the animal world, the image was meant to convey strength and pride and victory. Some modern commentators have made other proposals for the line. Svi Rin suggested from Ugaritic that the verb be translated “lower” or “dip” (“Ugaritic—Old Testament Affinities,” BZ 7 : 22-33).
- Job 16:16 tn An intensive form, a Qetaltal form of the root חָמַר (khamar, “red”) is used here. This word has as probable derivatives חֹמֶר (khomer, “[red] clay”) and חֲמוֹר (khamor, “[red] ass”) and the like. Because of the weeping, his whole complexion has been reddened (the LXX reads “my belly”).
- Job 16:16 sn A. B. Davidson (Job, 122) notes that spontaneous and repeated weeping is one of the symptoms of elephantiasis.
- Job 16:16 sn See Job 3:5. Just as joy brings light and life to the eyes, sorrow and suffering bring darkness. The “eyelids” here would be synecdoche, reflecting the whole facial expression as sad and sullen.
- Job 16:17 tn For the use of the preposition עַל (ʿal) to introduce concessive clauses, see GKC 499 §160.c.
- Job 16:18 sn Job knows that he will die, and that his death, signified here by blood on the ground, will cry out for vindication.
- Job 16:18 tn The word is simply “a place,” but in the context it surely means a hidden place, a secret place that would never be discovered (see 18:21).
- Job 16:19 sn The witness in heaven must be God, to whom the cries and prayers come. Job’s dilemma is serious, but common to the human experience: the hostility of God toward him is baffling, but he is conscious of his innocence and can call on God to be his witness.
- Job 16:19 tn The parallelism now uses the Aramaic word “my advocate”—the one who testifies on my behalf. The word again appears in Gen 31:47 for Laban’s naming of the “heap of witness” in Aramaic—“Sahadutha.”
- Job 16:20 tn The first two words of this verse are problematic: מְלִיצַי רֵעָי (melitsay reʿay, “my scorners are my friends”). The word מֵלִיץ (melits), from or related to the word for “scorner” (לִיץ, lits) in wisdom literature especially, can also mean “mediator” (Job 33:23), “interpreter” (Gen 42:23). This gives the idea that “scorn” has to do with the way words are used. It may be that the word here should have the singular suffix and be taken as “my spokesman.” This may not be from the same root as “scorn” (see N. H. Richardson, “Some Notes on lis and Its Derivatives,” VT 5 : 434-36). This is the view of the NIV, NJPS, JB, NAB, as well as a number of commentators. The idea of “my friends are scorners” is out of place in this section, unless taken as a parenthesis. Other suggestions are not convincing. The LXX has “May my prayer come to the Lord, and before him may my eye shed tears.” Some have tried to change the Hebrew to fit this. The word “my friends” also calls for some attention. Instead of a plural noun suffix, most would see it as a singular, a slight vocalic change. But others think it is not the word “friend.” D. J. A. Clines accepts the view that it is not “friends” but “thoughts” (רֵעַ, reaʿ). E. Dhorme takes it as “clamor,” from רוּעַ (ruaʿ) and so interprets “my claimant word has reached God.” J. B. Curtis tries “My intercessor is my shepherd,” from רֹעִי (roʿi). See “On Job’s Witness in Heaven,” JBL 102 : 549-62.
- Job 16:20 tn The Hebrew verb means “to drip; to stream; to flow”; the expression is cryptic, but understandable: “my eye flows [with tears as I cry out] to God.” But many suggestions have been made for this line too. Driver suggested in connection with cognate words that it be given the meaning “sleepless” (JTS 34 : 375-85), but this would also require additional words for a smooth reading. See also E. A. Speiser, “The Semantic Range of dalapu,” JCS 5 (1951): 64-66, for the Akkadian connection. But for the retention of “dripping eyes” based on the Talmudic use, see J. C. Greenfield, “Lexicographical Notes I,” HUCA 29 (1958): 203-28.
- Job 16:21 tn E. Dhorme (Job, 240) alters this slightly to read “Would that” or “Ah! if only.”
- Job 16:21 tn This is the simple translation of the expression “son of man” in Job. But some commentators wish to change the word בֵּן (ben, “son”) to בֵּין (ben, “between”). It would then be “[as] between a man and [for] his friend.” Even though a few mss have this reading, it is to be rejected. But see J. Barr, “Some Notes on ‘ben’ in Classical Hebrew,” JSS 23 (1978): 1-22.
- Job 16:21 tn The verb is supplied from the parallel clause.
- Job 16:22 tn The expression is “years of number,” meaning that they can be counted, and so “the years are few.” The verb simply means “comes” or “lie ahead.”
- Job 16:22 tn The verbal expression “I will not return” serves here to modify the journey that he will take. It is “the road [of] I will not return.”