Joseph Dreams of Greatness

37 Now Jacob dwelt in the land (A)where his father was a [a]stranger, in the land of Canaan. This is the history of Jacob.

Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brothers. And the lad was with the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah, his father’s wives; and Joseph brought (B)a bad report of them to his father.

Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was (C)the son of his old age. Also he (D)made him a tunic of many colors. But when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they (E)hated him and could not speak peaceably to him.

Now Joseph had a dream, and he told it to his brothers; and they hated him even more. So he said to them, “Please hear this dream which I have dreamed: (F)There we were, binding sheaves in the field. Then behold, my sheaf arose and also stood upright; and indeed your sheaves stood all around and bowed down to my sheaf.”

And his brothers said to him, “Shall you indeed reign over us? Or shall you indeed have dominion over us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words.

Then he dreamed still another dream and told it to his brothers, and said, “Look, I have dreamed another dream. And this time, (G)the sun, the moon, and the eleven stars bowed down to me.”

10 So he told it to his father and his brothers; and his father rebuked him and said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Shall your mother and I and (H)your brothers indeed come to bow down to the earth before you?” 11 And (I)his brothers envied him, but his father (J)kept the matter in mind.

Joseph Sold by His Brothers

12 Then his brothers went to feed their father’s flock in (K)Shechem. 13 And Israel said to Joseph, “Are not your brothers feeding the flock in Shechem? Come, I will send you to them.”

So he said to him, “Here I am.”

14 Then he said to him, “Please go and see if it is well with your brothers and well with the flocks, and bring back word to me.” So he sent him out of the Valley of (L)Hebron, and he went to Shechem.

15 Now a certain man found him, and there he was, wandering in the field. And the man asked him, saying, “What are you seeking?”

16 So he said, “I am seeking my brothers. (M)Please tell me where they are feeding their flocks.

17 And the man said, “They have departed from here, for I heard them say, ‘Let us go to Dothan.’ ” So Joseph went after his brothers and found them in (N)Dothan.

18 Now when they saw him afar off, even before he came near them, (O)they conspired against him to kill him. 19 Then they said to one another, “Look, this [b]dreamer is coming! 20 (P)Come therefore, let us now kill him and cast him into some pit; and we shall say, ‘Some wild beast has devoured him.’ We shall see what will become of his dreams!”

21 But (Q)Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands, and said, “Let us not kill him.” 22 And Reuben said to them, “Shed no blood, but cast him into this pit which is in the wilderness, and do not lay a hand on him”—that he might deliver him out of their hands, and bring him back to his father.

23 So it came to pass, when Joseph had come to his brothers, that they (R)stripped Joseph of his tunic, the tunic of many colors that was on him. 24 Then they took him and cast him into a pit. And the pit was empty; there was no water in it.

25 (S)And they sat down to eat a meal. Then they lifted their eyes and looked, and there was a company of (T)Ishmaelites, coming from Gilead with their camels, bearing spices, (U)balm, and myrrh, on their way to carry them down to Egypt. 26 So Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is there if we kill our brother and (V)conceal his blood? 27 Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and (W)let not our hand be upon him, for he is (X)our brother and (Y)our flesh.” And his brothers listened. 28 Then (Z)Midianite traders passed by; so the brothers pulled Joseph up and lifted him out of the pit, (AA)and sold him to the Ishmaelites for (AB)twenty shekels of silver. And they took Joseph to Egypt.

29 Then Reuben returned to the pit, and indeed Joseph was not in the pit; and he (AC)tore his clothes. 30 And he returned to his brothers and said, “The lad (AD)is no more; and I, where shall I go?”

31 So they took (AE)Joseph’s tunic, killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the tunic in the blood. 32 Then they sent the tunic of many colors, and they brought it to their father and said, “We have found this. Do you know whether it is your son’s tunic or not?”

33 And he recognized it and said, “It is my son’s tunic. A (AF)wild beast has devoured him. Without doubt Joseph is torn to pieces.” 34 Then Jacob (AG)tore his clothes, put sackcloth on his waist, and (AH)mourned for his son many days. 35 And all his sons and all his daughters (AI)arose to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted, and he said, “For (AJ)I shall go down into the grave to my son in mourning.” Thus his father wept for him.

36 Now (AK)the [c]Midianites had sold him in Egypt to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh and captain of the guard.

Judah and Tamar

38 It came to pass at that time that Judah departed from his brothers, and (AL)visited a certain Adullamite whose name was Hirah. And Judah (AM)saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite whose name was (AN)Shua, and he married her and went in to her. So she conceived and bore a son, and he called his name (AO)Er. She conceived again and bore a son, and she called his name (AP)Onan. And she conceived yet again and bore a son, and called his name (AQ)Shelah. He was at Chezib when she bore him.

Then Judah (AR)took a wife for Er his firstborn, and her name was (AS)Tamar. But (AT)Er, Judah’s firstborn, was wicked in the sight of the Lord, (AU)and the Lord killed him. And Judah said to Onan, “Go in to (AV)your brother’s wife and marry her, and raise up an heir to your brother.” But Onan knew that the heir would not be (AW)his; and it came to pass, when he went in to his brother’s wife, that he emitted on the ground, lest he should give an heir to his brother. 10 And the thing which he did [d]displeased the Lord; therefore He killed (AX)him also.

11 Then Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, (AY)“Remain a widow in your father’s house till my son Shelah is grown.” For he said, “Lest he also die like his brothers.” And Tamar went and dwelt (AZ)in her father’s house.

12 Now in the process of time the daughter of Shua, Judah’s wife, died; and Judah (BA)was comforted, and went up to his sheepshearers at Timnah, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite. 13 And it was told Tamar, saying, “Look, your father-in-law is going up (BB)to Timnah to shear his sheep.” 14 So she took off her widow’s garments, covered herself with a veil and wrapped herself, and (BC)sat in an open place which was on the way to Timnah; for she saw (BD)that Shelah was grown, and she was not given to him as a wife. 15 When Judah saw her, he thought she was a harlot, because she had covered her face. 16 Then he turned to her by the way, and said, “Please let me come in to you”; for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law.

So she said, “What will you give me, that you may come in to me?”

17 And he said, (BE)“I will send a young goat from the flock.”

So she said, (BF)“Will you give me a pledge till you send it?

18 Then he said, “What pledge shall I give you?”

So she said, (BG)“Your signet and cord, and your staff that is in your hand.” Then he gave them to her, and went in to her, and she conceived by him. 19 So she arose and went away, and (BH)laid aside her veil and put on the garments of her widowhood.

20 And Judah sent the young goat by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive his pledge from the woman’s hand, but he did not find her. 21 Then he asked the men of that place, saying, “Where is the harlot who was [e]openly by the roadside?”

And they said, “There was no harlot in this place.

22 So he returned to Judah and said, “I cannot find her. Also, the men of the place said there was no harlot in this place.

23 Then Judah said, “Let her take them for herself, lest we be shamed; for I sent this young goat and you have not found her.”

24 And it came to pass, about three months after, that Judah was told, saying, “Tamar your daughter-in-law has (BI)played the harlot; furthermore she is [f]with child by harlotry.”

So Judah said, “Bring her out (BJ)and let her be burned!”

25 When she was brought out, she sent to her father-in-law, saying, “By the man to whom these belong, I am with child.” And she said, (BK)“Please determine whose these are—the signet and cord, and staff.”

26 So Judah (BL)acknowledged them and said, (BM)“She has been more righteous than I, because (BN)I did not give her to Shelah my son.” And he (BO)never knew her again.

27 Now it came to pass, at the time for giving birth, that behold, twins were in her womb. 28 And so it was, when she was giving birth, that the one put out his hand; and the midwife took a scarlet thread and bound it on his hand, saying, “This one came out first.” 29 Then it happened, as he drew back his hand, that his brother came out unexpectedly; and she said, “How did you break through? This breach be upon you!” Therefore his name was called (BP)Perez.[g] 30 Afterward his brother came out who had the scarlet thread on his hand. And his name was called (BQ)Zerah.

Joseph a Slave in Egypt

39 Now Joseph had been taken (BR)down to Egypt. And (BS)Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, (BT)bought him from the Ishmaelites who had taken him down there. (BU)The Lord was with Joseph, and he was a successful man; and he was in the house of his master the Egyptian. And his master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord (BV)made all he did [h]to prosper in his hand. So Joseph (BW)found favor in his sight, and served him. Then he made him (BX)overseer of his house, and all that he had he put [i]under his authority. So it was, from the time that he had made him overseer of his house and all that he had, that (BY)the Lord blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; and the blessing of the Lord was on all that he had in the house and in the field. Thus he left all that he had in Joseph’s [j]hand, and he did not know what he had except for the [k]bread which he ate.

Now Joseph (BZ)was handsome in form and appearance.

And it came to pass after these things that his master’s wife [l]cast longing eyes on Joseph, and she said, (CA)“Lie with me.”

But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Look, my master does not know what is with me in the house, and he has committed all that he has to my hand. There is no one greater in this house than I, nor has he kept back anything from me but you, because you are his wife. (CB)How then can I do this great wickedness, and (CC)sin against God?”

10 So it was, as she spoke to Joseph day by day, that he (CD)did not heed her, to lie with her or to be with her.

11 But it happened about this time, when Joseph went into the house to do his work, and none of the men of the house was inside, 12 that she (CE)caught him by his garment, saying, “Lie with me.” But he left his garment in her hand, and fled and ran outside. 13 And so it was, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and fled outside, 14 that she called to the men of her house and spoke to them, saying, “See, he has brought in to us a (CF)Hebrew to [m]mock us. He came in to me to lie with me, and I cried out with a loud voice. 15 And it happened, when he heard that I lifted my voice and cried out, that he left his garment with me, and fled and went outside.”

16 So she kept his garment with her until his master came home. 17 Then she (CG)spoke to him with words like these, saying, “The Hebrew servant whom you brought to us came in to me to mock me; 18 so it happened, as I lifted my voice and cried out, that he left his garment with me and fled outside.”

19 So it was, when his master heard the words which his wife spoke to him, saying, “Your servant did to me after this manner,” that his (CH)anger was aroused. 20 Then Joseph’s master took him and (CI)put him into the (CJ)prison, a place where the king’s prisoners were confined. And he was there in the prison. 21 But the Lord was with Joseph and showed him mercy, and He (CK)gave[n] him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. 22 And the keeper of the prison (CL)committed to Joseph’s hand all the prisoners who were in the prison; whatever they did there, it was his doing. 23 The keeper of the prison did not look into anything that was under [o]Joseph’s authority, because (CM)the Lord was with him; and whatever he did, the Lord made it prosper.

The Prisoners’ Dreams

40 It came to pass after these things that the (CN)butler and the baker of the king of Egypt offended their lord, the king of Egypt. And Pharaoh was (CO)angry with his two officers, the chief butler and the chief baker. (CP)So he put them in custody in the house of the captain of the guard, in the prison, the place where Joseph was confined. And the captain of the guard charged Joseph with them, and he served them; so they were in custody for a while.

Then the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were confined in the prison, (CQ)had a dream, both of them, each man’s dream in one night and each man’s dream with its own interpretation. And Joseph came in to them in the morning and looked at them, and saw that they were [p]sad. So he asked Pharaoh’s officers who were with him in the custody of his lord’s house, saying, (CR)“Why do you look so sad today?”

And they said to him, (CS)“We each have had a dream, and there is no interpreter of it.”

So Joseph said to them, (CT)“Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell them to me, please.”

Then the chief butler told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, “Behold, in my dream a vine was before me, 10 and in the vine were three branches; it was as though it budded, its blossoms shot forth, and its clusters brought forth ripe grapes. 11 Then Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand; and I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and placed the cup in Pharaoh’s hand.”

12 And Joseph said to him, (CU)“This is the interpretation of it: The three branches (CV)are three days. 13 Now within three days Pharaoh will (CW)lift up your head and restore you to your [q]place, and you will put Pharaoh’s cup in his hand according to the former manner, when you were his butler. 14 But (CX)remember me when it is well with you, and (CY)please show kindness to me; make mention of me to Pharaoh, and get me out of this house. 15 For indeed I was (CZ)stolen away from the land of the Hebrews; (DA)and also I have done nothing here that they should put me into the dungeon.”

16 When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good, he said to Joseph, “I also was in my dream, and there were three [r]white baskets on my head. 17 In the uppermost basket were all kinds of baked goods for Pharaoh, and the birds ate them out of the basket on my head.”

18 So Joseph answered and said, (DB)“This is the interpretation of it: The three baskets are three days. 19 (DC)Within three days Pharaoh will lift [s]off your head from you and (DD)hang you on a tree; and the birds will eat your flesh from you.”

20 Now it came to pass on the third day, which was Pharaoh’s (DE)birthday, that he (DF)made a feast for all his servants; and he (DG)lifted up the head of the chief butler and of the chief baker among his servants. 21 Then he (DH)restored the chief butler to his butlership again, and (DI)he placed the cup in Pharaoh’s hand. 22 But he (DJ)hanged the chief baker, as Joseph had interpreted to them. 23 Yet the chief butler did not remember Joseph, but (DK)forgot him.

Pharaoh’s Dreams

41 Then it came to pass, at the end of two full years, that (DL)Pharaoh had a dream; and behold, he stood by the river. Suddenly there came up out of the river seven cows, fine looking and fat; and they fed in the meadow. Then behold, seven other cows came up after them out of the river, ugly and gaunt, and stood by the other cows on the bank of the river. And the ugly and gaunt cows ate up the seven fine looking and fat cows. So Pharaoh awoke. He slept and dreamed a second time; and suddenly seven heads of grain came up on one stalk, plump and good. Then behold, seven thin heads, blighted by the (DM)east wind, sprang up after them. And the seven thin heads devoured the seven plump and full heads. So Pharaoh awoke, and indeed, it was a dream. Now it came to pass in the morning (DN)that his spirit was troubled, and he sent and called for all (DO)the magicians of Egypt and all its (DP)wise men. And Pharaoh told them his dreams, but there was no one who could interpret them for Pharaoh.

Then the (DQ)chief butler spoke to Pharaoh, saying: “I remember my faults this day. 10 When Pharaoh was (DR)angry with his servants, (DS)and put me in custody in the house of the captain of the guard, both me and the chief baker, 11 (DT)we each had a dream in one night, he and I. Each of us dreamed according to the interpretation of his own dream. 12 Now there was a young (DU)Hebrew man with us there, a (DV)servant of the captain of the guard. And we told him, and he (DW)interpreted our dreams for us; to each man he interpreted according to his own dream. 13 And it came to pass, just (DX)as he interpreted for us, so it happened. He restored me to my office, and he hanged him.”

14 (DY)Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they (DZ)brought him quickly (EA)out of the dungeon; and he shaved, (EB)changed his clothing, and came to Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. (EC)But I have heard it said of you that you can understand a dream, to interpret it.”

16 So Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, (ED)It is not in me; (EE)God will give Pharaoh an answer of peace.”

17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph: “Behold, (EF)in my dream I stood on the bank of the river. 18 Suddenly seven cows came up out of the river, fine looking and fat; and they fed in the meadow. 19 Then behold, seven other cows came up after them, poor and very ugly and gaunt, such ugliness as I have never seen in all the land of Egypt. 20 And the gaunt and ugly cows ate up the first seven, the fat cows. 21 When they had eaten them up, no one would have known that they had eaten them, for they were just as ugly as at the beginning. So I awoke. 22 Also I saw in my dream, and suddenly seven [t]heads came up on one stalk, full and good. 23 Then behold, seven heads, withered, thin, and blighted by the east wind, sprang up after them. 24 And the thin heads devoured the seven good heads. So (EG)I told this to the magicians, but there was no one who could explain it to me.”

25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are one; (EH)God has shown Pharaoh what He is about to do: 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good [u]heads are seven years; the dreams are one. 27 And the seven thin and ugly cows which came up after them are seven years, and the seven empty heads blighted by the east wind are (EI)seven years of famine. 28 (EJ)This is the thing which I have spoken to Pharaoh. God has shown Pharaoh what He is about to do. 29 Indeed (EK)seven years of great plenty will come throughout all the land of Egypt; 30 but after them seven years of famine will (EL)arise, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine (EM)will deplete the land. 31 So the plenty will not be known in the land because of the famine following, for it will be very severe. 32 And the dream was repeated to Pharaoh twice because the (EN)thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass.

33 “Now therefore, let Pharaoh select a discerning and wise man, and set him over the land of Egypt. 34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint [v]officers over the land, (EO)to collect one-fifth of the produce of the land of Egypt in the seven plentiful years. 35 And (EP)let them gather all the food of those good years that are coming, and store up grain under the [w]authority of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities. 36 Then that food shall be as a [x]reserve for the land for the seven years of famine which shall be in the land of Egypt, that the land (EQ)may not [y]perish during the famine.”

Joseph’s Rise to Power

37 So (ER)the advice was good in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find such a one as this, a man (ES)in whom is the Spirit of God?”

39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Inasmuch as God has shown you all this, there is no one as discerning and wise as you. 40 (ET)You shall be [z]over my house, and all my people shall be ruled according to your word; only in regard to the throne will I be greater than you.” 41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have (EU)set you over all the land of Egypt.”

42 Then Pharaoh (EV)took his signet ring off his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand; and he (EW)clothed him in garments of fine linen (EX)and put a gold chain around his neck. 43 And he had him ride in the second (EY)chariot which he had; (EZ)and they cried out before him, “Bow the knee!” So he set him (FA)over all the land of Egypt. 44 Pharaoh also said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without your consent no man may lift his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.” 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name [aa]Zaphnath-Paaneah. And he gave him as a wife (FB)Asenath, the daughter of Poti-Pherah priest of On. So Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt.

46 Joseph was thirty years old when he (FC)stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt. 47 Now in the seven plentiful years the ground brought forth [ab]abundantly. 48 So he gathered up all the food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities; he laid up in every city the food of the fields which surrounded them. 49 Joseph gathered very much grain, (FD)as the sand of the sea, until he stopped counting, for it was immeasurable.

50 (FE)And to Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, whom Asenath, the daughter of Poti-Pherah priest of On, bore to him. 51 Joseph called the name of the firstborn [ac]Manasseh: “For God has made me forget all my toil and all my (FF)father’s house.” 52 And the name of the second he called [ad]Ephraim: “For God has caused me to be (FG)fruitful in the land of my affliction.”

53 Then the seven years of plenty which were in the land of Egypt ended, 54 (FH)and the seven years of famine began to come, (FI)as Joseph had said. The famine was in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 So when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread. Then Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph; (FJ)whatever he says to you, do.” 56 The famine was over all the face of the earth, and Joseph opened [ae]all the storehouses and (FK)sold to the Egyptians. And the famine became severe in the land of Egypt. 57 (FL)So all countries came to Joseph in Egypt to (FM)buy grain, because the famine was severe in all lands.

Joseph’s Brothers Go to Egypt

42 When (FN)Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, “Why do you look at one another?” And he said, “Indeed I have heard that there is grain in Egypt; go down to that place and buy for us there, that we may (FO)live and not die.”

So Joseph’s ten brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt. But Jacob did not send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with his brothers, for he said, (FP)“Lest some calamity befall him.” And the sons of Israel went to buy grain among those who journeyed, for the famine was (FQ)in the land of Canaan.

Now Joseph was governor (FR)over the land; and it was he who sold to all the people of the land. And Joseph’s brothers came and (FS)bowed down before him with their faces to the earth. Joseph saw his brothers and recognized them, but he acted as (FT)a stranger to them and spoke [af]roughly to them. Then he said to them, “Where do you come from?”

And they said, “From the land of Canaan to buy food.”

So Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him. Then Joseph (FU)remembered the dreams which he had dreamed about them, and said to them, “You are spies! You have come to see the [ag]nakedness of the land!”

10 And they said to him, “No, my lord, but your servants have come to buy food. 11 We are all one man’s sons; we are honest men; your servants are not spies.”

12 But he said to them, “No, but you have come to see the nakedness of the land.”

13 And they said, “Your servants are twelve brothers, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan; and in fact, the youngest is with our father today, and one (FV)is no more.”

14 But Joseph said to them, “It is as I spoke to you, saying, ‘You are spies!’ 15 In this manner you shall be tested: (FW)By the life of Pharaoh, you shall not leave this place unless your youngest brother comes here. 16 Send one of you, and let him bring your brother; and you shall be [ah]kept in prison, that your words may be tested to see whether there is any truth in you; or else, by the life of Pharaoh, surely you are spies!” 17 So he [ai]put them all together in prison (FX)three days.

18 Then Joseph said to them the third day, “Do this and live, (FY)for I fear God: 19 If you are honest men, let one of your brothers be confined to your prison house; but you, go and carry grain for the famine of your houses. 20 And (FZ)bring your youngest brother to me; so your words will be verified, and you shall not die.”

And they did so. 21 Then they said to one another, (GA)“We are truly guilty concerning our brother, for we saw the anguish of his soul when he pleaded with us, and we would not hear; (GB)therefore this distress has come upon us.”

22 And Reuben answered them, saying, (GC)“Did I not speak to you, saying, ‘Do not sin against the boy’; and you would not listen? Therefore behold, his blood is now (GD)required of us.” 23 But they did not know that Joseph understood them, for he spoke to them through an interpreter. 24 And he turned himself away from them and (GE)wept. Then he returned to them again, and talked with them. And he took (GF)Simeon from them and bound him before their eyes.

The Brothers Return to Canaan

25 Then Joseph (GG)gave a command to fill their sacks with grain, to (GH)restore every man’s money to his sack, and to give them provisions for the journey. (GI)Thus he did for them. 26 So they loaded their donkeys with the grain and departed from there. 27 But as (GJ)one of them opened his sack to give his donkey feed at the encampment, he saw his money; and there it was, in the mouth of his sack. 28 So he said to his brothers, “My money has been restored, and there it is, in my sack!” Then their hearts [aj]failed them and they were afraid, saying to one another, “What is this that God has done to us?”

29 Then they went to Jacob their father in the land of Canaan and told him all that had happened to them, saying: 30 “The man who is lord of the land (GK)spoke [ak]roughly to us, and took us for spies of the country. 31 But we said to him, ‘We are honest men; we are not spies. 32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our father; one is no more, and the youngest is with our father this day in the land of Canaan.’ 33 Then the man, the lord of the country, said to us, (GL)‘By this I will know that you are honest men: Leave one of your brothers here with me, take food for the famine of your households, and be gone. 34 And bring your (GM)youngest brother to me; so I shall know that you are not spies, but that you are honest men. I will grant your brother to you, and you may (GN)trade in the land.’ ”

35 Then it happened as they emptied their sacks, that surprisingly (GO)each man’s bundle of money was in his sack; and when they and their father saw the bundles of money, they were afraid. 36 And Jacob their father said to them, “You have (GP)bereaved me: Joseph is no more, Simeon is no more, and you want to take (GQ)Benjamin. All these things are against me.”

37 Then Reuben spoke to his father, saying, “Kill my two sons if I do not bring him back to you; put him in my hands, and I will bring him back to you.”

38 But he said, “My son shall not go down with you, for (GR)his brother is dead, and he is left alone. (GS)If any calamity should befall him along the way in which you go, then you would (GT)bring down my gray hair with sorrow to the grave.”

Joseph’s Brothers Return with Benjamin

43 Now the famine was (GU)severe in the land. And it came to pass, when they had eaten up the grain which they had brought from Egypt, that their father said to them, “Go (GV)back, buy us a little food.”

But Judah spoke to him, saying, “The man solemnly warned us, saying, ‘You shall not see my face unless your (GW)brother is with you.’ If you send our brother with us, we will go down and buy you food. But if you will not send him, we will not go down; for the man said to us, ‘You shall not see my face unless your brother is with you.’ ”

And Israel said, “Why did you deal so [al]wrongfully with me as to tell the man whether you had still another brother?”

But they said, “The man asked us pointedly about ourselves and our family, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ And we told him according to these words. Could we possibly have known that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”

Then Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go, that we may (GX)live and not die, both we and you and also our little ones. I myself will be surety for him; from my hand you shall require him. (GY)If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever. 10 For if we had not lingered, surely by now we would have returned this second time.”

11 And their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: Take some of the best fruits of the land in your vessels and (GZ)carry down a present for the man—a little (HA)balm and a little honey, spices and myrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds. 12 Take double money in your hand, and take back in your hand the money (HB)that was returned in the mouth of your sacks; perhaps it was an oversight. 13 Take your brother also, and arise, go back to the man. 14 And may God (HC)Almighty (HD)give you mercy before the man, that he may release your other brother and Benjamin. (HE)If I am bereaved, I am bereaved!”

15 So the men took that present and Benjamin, and they took double money in their hand, and arose and went (HF)down to Egypt; and they stood before Joseph. 16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the (HG)steward of his house, “Take these men to my home, and slaughter [am]an animal and make ready; for these men will dine with me at noon.” 17 Then the man did as Joseph ordered, and the man brought the men into Joseph’s house.

18 Now the men were (HH)afraid because they were brought into Joseph’s house; and they said, “It is because of the money, which was returned in our sacks the first time, that we are brought in, so that he may [an]make a case against us and seize us, to take us as slaves with our donkeys.”

19 When they drew near to the steward of Joseph’s house, they talked with him at the door of the house, 20 and said, “O sir, (HI)we indeed came down the first time to buy food; 21 but (HJ)it happened, when we came to the encampment, that we opened our sacks, and there, each man’s money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight; so we have brought it back in our hand. 22 And we have brought down other money in our hands to buy food. We do not know who put our money in our sacks.”

23 But he said, “Peace be with you, do not be afraid. Your God and the God of your father has given you treasure in your sacks; I had your money.” Then he brought (HK)Simeon out to them.

24 So the man brought the men into Joseph’s house and (HL)gave them water, and they washed their feet; and he gave their donkeys feed. 25 Then they made the present ready for Joseph’s coming at noon, for they heard that they would eat bread there.

26 And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which was in their hand into the house, and (HM)bowed down before him to the earth. 27 Then he asked them about their well-being, and said, “Is your father well, the old man (HN)of whom you spoke? Is he still alive?”

28 And they answered, “Your servant our father is in good health; he is still alive.” (HO)And they bowed their heads down and prostrated themselves.

29 Then he lifted his eyes and saw his brother Benjamin, (HP)his mother’s son, and said, “Is this your younger brother (HQ)of whom you spoke to me?” And he said, “God be gracious to you, my son.” 30 Now (HR)his heart yearned for his brother; so Joseph made haste and sought somewhere to weep. And he went into his chamber and (HS)wept there. 31 Then he washed his face and came out; and he restrained himself, and said, “Serve the (HT)bread.”

32 So they set him a place by himself, and them by themselves, and the Egyptians who ate with him by themselves; because the Egyptians could not eat food with the (HU)Hebrews, for that is (HV)an abomination to the Egyptians. 33 And they sat before him, the firstborn according to his (HW)birthright and the youngest according to his youth; and the men looked in astonishment at one another. 34 Then he took servings to them from before him, but Benjamin’s serving was (HX)five times as much as any of theirs. So they drank and were merry with him.

Joseph’s Cup

44 And he commanded [ao]the (HY)steward of his house, saying, (HZ)“Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man’s money in the mouth of his sack. Also put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and his grain money.” So he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken. As soon as the morning dawned, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys. When they had gone out of the city, and were not yet far off, Joseph said to his steward, “Get up, follow the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why have you (IA)repaid evil for good? Is not this the one from which my lord drinks, and with which he indeed practices divination? You have done evil in so doing.’ ”

So he overtook them, and he spoke to them these same words. And they said to him, “Why does my lord say these words? Far be it from us that your servants should do such a thing. Look, we brought back to you from the land of Canaan (IB)the money which we found in the mouth of our sacks. How then could we steal silver or gold from your lord’s house? With whomever of your servants it is found, (IC)let him die, and we also will be my lord’s slaves.”

10 And he said, “Now also let it be according to your words; he with whom it is found shall be my slave, and you shall be blameless.” 11 Then each man speedily let down his sack to the ground, and each opened his sack. 12 So he searched. He began with the oldest and [ap]left off with the youngest; and the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. 13 Then they (ID)tore their clothes, and each man loaded his donkey and returned to the city.

14 So Judah and his brothers came to Joseph’s house, and he was still there; and they (IE)fell before him on the ground. 15 And Joseph said to them, “What deed is this you have done? Did you not know that such a man as I can certainly practice divination?”

16 Then Judah said, “What shall we say to my lord? What shall we speak? Or how shall we clear ourselves? God has (IF)found out the iniquity of your servants; here (IG)we are, my lord’s slaves, both we and he also with whom the cup was found.”

17 But he said, (IH)“Far be it from me that I should do so; the man in whose hand the cup was found, he shall be my slave. And as for you, go up in peace to your father.”

Judah Intercedes for Benjamin

18 Then Judah came near to him and said: “O my lord, please let your servant speak a word in my lord’s hearing, and (II)do not let your anger burn against your servant; for you are even like Pharaoh. 19 My lord asked his servants, saying, ‘Have you a father or a brother?’ 20 And we said to my lord, ‘We have a father, an old man, and (IJ)a child of his old age, who is young; his brother is (IK)dead, and he (IL)alone is left of his mother’s children, and his (IM)father loves him.’ 21 Then you said to your servants, (IN)‘Bring him down to me, that I may set my eyes on him.’ 22 And we said to my lord, ‘The lad cannot leave his father, for if he should leave his father, his father would die.’ 23 But you said to your servants, (IO)‘Unless your youngest brother comes down with you, you shall see my face no more.’

24 “So it was, when we went up to your servant my father, that we told him the words of my lord. 25 And (IP)our father said, ‘Go back and buy us a little food.’ 26 But we said, ‘We cannot go down; if our youngest brother is with us, then we will go down; for we may not see the man’s face unless our youngest brother is with us.’ 27 Then your servant my father said to us, ‘You know that (IQ)my wife bore me two sons; 28 and the one went out from me, and I said, (IR)“Surely he is torn to pieces”; and I have not seen him since. 29 But if you (IS)take this one also from me, and calamity befalls him, you shall bring down my gray hair with sorrow to the grave.’

30 “Now therefore, when I come to your servant my father, and the lad is not with us, since (IT)his life is bound up in the lad’s life, 31 it will happen, when he sees that the lad is not with us, that he will die. So your servants will bring down the gray hair of your servant our father with sorrow to the grave. 32 For your servant became surety for the lad to my father, saying, (IU)‘If I do not bring him back to you, then I shall bear the blame before my father forever.’ 33 Now therefore, please (IV)let your servant remain instead of the lad as a slave to my lord, and let the lad go up with his brothers. 34 For how shall I go up to my father if the lad is not with me, lest perhaps I see the evil that would [aq]come upon my father?”

Joseph Revealed to His Brothers

45 Then Joseph could not restrain himself before all those who stood by him, and he cried out, “Make everyone go out from me!” So no one stood with him (IW)while Joseph made himself known to his brothers. And he (IX)wept aloud, and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard it.

Then Joseph said to his brothers, (IY)“I am Joseph; does my father still live?” But his brothers could not answer him, for they were dismayed in his presence. And Joseph said to his brothers, “Please come near to me.” So they came near. Then he said: “I am Joseph your brother, (IZ)whom you sold into Egypt. But now, do not therefore be grieved or angry with yourselves because you sold me here; (JA)for God sent me before you to preserve life. For these two years the (JB)famine has been in the land, and there are still five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvesting. And God (JC)sent me before you to preserve a [ar]posterity for you in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance. So now it was not you who sent me here, but (JD)God; and He has made me (JE)a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a (JF)ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.

“Hurry and go up to my father, and say to him, ‘Thus says your son Joseph: “God has made me lord of all Egypt; come down to me, do not [as]tarry. 10 (JG)You shall dwell in the land of Goshen, and you shall be near to me, you and your children, your children’s children, your flocks and your herds, and all that you have. 11 There I will (JH)provide for you, lest you and your household, and all that you have, come to poverty; for there are still five years of famine.” ’

12 “And behold, your eyes and the eyes of my brother Benjamin see that it is (JI)my mouth that speaks to you. 13 So you shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that you have seen; and you shall hurry and (JJ)bring my father down here.”

14 Then he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck and wept, and Benjamin wept on his neck. 15 Moreover he (JK)kissed all his brothers and wept over them, and after that his brothers talked with him.

16 Now the report of it was heard in Pharaoh’s house, saying, “Joseph’s brothers have come.” So it pleased Pharaoh and his servants well. 17 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Say to your brothers, ‘Do this: Load your animals and depart; go to the land of Canaan. 18 Bring your father and your households and come to me; I will give you the best of the land of Egypt, and you will eat (JL)the [at]fat of the land. 19 Now you are commanded—do this: Take carts out of the land of Egypt for your little ones and your wives; bring your father and come. 20 Also do not be concerned about your goods, for the best of all the land of Egypt is yours.’ ”

21 Then the sons of Israel did so; and Joseph gave them (JM)carts,[au] according to the command of Pharaoh, and he gave them provisions for the journey. 22 He gave to all of them, to each man, (JN)changes of garments; but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver and (JO)five changes of garments. 23 And he sent to his father these things: ten donkeys loaded with the good things of Egypt, and ten female donkeys loaded with grain, bread, and food for his father for the journey. 24 So he sent his brothers away, and they departed; and he said to them, “See that you do not become troubled along the way.”

25 Then they went up out of Egypt, and came to the land of Canaan to Jacob their father. 26 And they told him, saying, “Joseph is still alive, and he is governor over all the land of Egypt.” (JP)And Jacob’s heart stood still, because he did not believe them. 27 But when they told him all the words which Joseph had said to them, and when he saw the carts which Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit (JQ)of Jacob their father revived. 28 Then Israel said, “It is enough. Joseph my son is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.”

Jacob’s Journey to Egypt(JR)

46 So Israel took his journey with all that he had, and came to (JS)Beersheba, and offered sacrifices (JT)to the God of his father Isaac. Then God spoke to Israel (JU)in the visions of the night, and said, “Jacob, Jacob!”

And he said, “Here I am.”

So He said, “I am God, (JV)the God of your father; do not fear to go down to Egypt, for I will (JW)make of you a great nation there. (JX)I will go down with you to Egypt, and I will also surely (JY)bring you up again; and (JZ)Joseph [av]will put his hand on your eyes.”

Then (KA)Jacob arose from Beersheba; and the sons of Israel carried their father Jacob, their little ones, and their wives, in the [aw]carts (KB)which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. So they took their livestock and their goods, which they had acquired in the land of Canaan, and went to Egypt, (KC)Jacob and all his descendants with him. His sons and his sons’ sons, his daughters and his sons’ daughters, and all his descendants he brought with him to Egypt.

Now (KD)these were the names of the children of Israel, Jacob and his sons, who went to Egypt: (KE)Reuben was Jacob’s firstborn. The (KF)sons of Reuben were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. 10 (KG)The sons of Simeon were [ax]Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, [ay]Jachin, [az]Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. 11 The sons of (KH)Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 12 The sons of (KI)Judah were (KJ)Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah (but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan). (KK)The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul. 13 The sons of Issachar were Tola, [ba]Puvah, [bb]Job, and Shimron. 14 The (KL)sons of Zebulun were Sered, Elon, and Jahleel. 15 These were the (KM)sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Padan Aram, with his daughter Dinah. All the persons, his sons and his daughters, were thirty-three.

16 The sons of Gad were [bc]Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, [bd]Ezbon, Eri, [be]Arodi, and Areli. 17 (KN)The sons of Asher were Jimnah, Ishuah, Isui, Beriah, and Serah, their sister. And the sons of Beriah were Heber and Malchiel. 18 (KO)These were the sons of Zilpah, (KP)whom Laban gave to Leah his daughter; and these she bore to Jacob: sixteen persons.

19 The (KQ)sons of Rachel, (KR)Jacob’s wife, were Joseph and Benjamin. 20 (KS)And to Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath, the daughter of Poti-Pherah priest of On, bore to him. 21 (KT)The sons of Benjamin were Belah, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, (KU)Ehi, Rosh, (KV)Muppim, [bf]Huppim, and Ard. 22 These were the sons of Rachel, who were born to Jacob: fourteen persons in all.

23 The son of Dan was [bg]Hushim. 24 (KW)The sons of Naphtali were [bh]Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and [bi]Shillem. 25 (KX)These were the sons of Bilhah, (KY)whom Laban gave to Rachel his daughter, and she bore these to Jacob: seven persons in all.

26 (KZ)All the persons who went with Jacob to Egypt, who came from his body, (LA)besides Jacob’s sons’ wives, were sixty-six persons in all. 27 And the sons of Joseph who were born to him in Egypt were two persons. (LB)All the persons of the house of Jacob who went to Egypt were seventy.

Jacob Settles in Goshen

28 Then he sent Judah before him to Joseph, (LC)to point out before him the way to Goshen. And they came (LD)to the land of Goshen. 29 So Joseph made ready his (LE)chariot and went up to Goshen to meet his father Israel; and he presented himself to him, and (LF)fell on his neck and wept on his neck a good while.

30 And Israel said to Joseph, (LG)“Now let me die, since I have seen your face, because you are still alive.”

31 Then Joseph said to his brothers and to his father’s household, (LH)“I will go up and tell Pharaoh, and say to him, ‘My brothers and those of my father’s house, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me. 32 And the men are (LI)shepherds, for their occupation has been to feed livestock; and they have brought their flocks, their herds, and all that they have.’ 33 So it shall be, when Pharaoh calls you and says, (LJ)‘What is your occupation?’ 34 that you shall say, ‘Your servants’ (LK)occupation has been with livestock (LL)from our youth even till now, both we and also our fathers,’ that you may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is (LM)an[bj] abomination to the Egyptians.”

Joseph Is Governor of Egypt

47 Then Joseph (LN)went and told Pharaoh, and said, “My father and my brothers, their flocks and their herds and all that they possess, have come from the land of Canaan; and indeed they are in (LO)the land of Goshen.” And he took five men from among his brothers and (LP)presented them to Pharaoh. Then Pharaoh said to his brothers, (LQ)“What is your occupation?”

And they said to Pharaoh, (LR)“Your servants are shepherds, both we and also our fathers.” And they said to Pharaoh, (LS)“We have come to dwell in the land, because your servants have no pasture for their flocks, (LT)for the famine is severe in the land of Canaan. Now therefore, please let your servants (LU)dwell in the land of Goshen.”

Then Pharaoh spoke to Joseph, saying, “Your father and your brothers have come to you. (LV)The land of Egypt is before you. Have your father and brothers dwell in the best of the land; let them dwell (LW)in the land of Goshen. And if you know any competent men among them, then make them chief herdsmen over my livestock.”

Then Joseph brought in his father Jacob and set him before Pharaoh; and Jacob (LX)blessed Pharaoh. Pharaoh said to Jacob, “How old are you?”

And Jacob said to Pharaoh, (LY)“The days of the years of my [bk]pilgrimage are (LZ)one hundred and thirty years; (MA)few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, and (MB)they have not attained to the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage.” 10 So Jacob (MC)blessed Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh.

11 And Joseph situated his father and his brothers, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of (MD)Rameses, (ME)as Pharaoh had commanded. 12 Then Joseph provided (MF)his father, his brothers, and all his father’s household with bread, according to the number in their families.

Joseph Deals with the Famine

13 Now there was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very severe, (MG)so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan languished because of the famine. 14 (MH)And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, for the grain which they bought; and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house.

15 So when the money failed in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came to Joseph and said, “Give us bread, for (MI)why should we die in your presence? For the money has failed.”

16 Then Joseph said, “Give your livestock, and I will give you bread for your livestock, if the money is gone.” 17 So they brought their livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread in exchange for the horses, the flocks, the cattle of the herds, and for the donkeys. Thus he [bl]fed them with bread in exchange for all their livestock that year.

18 When that year had ended, they came to him the next year and said to him, “We will not hide from my lord that our money is gone; my lord also has our herds of livestock. There is nothing left in the sight of my lord but our bodies and our lands. 19 Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be servants of Pharaoh; give us seed, that we may (MJ)live and not die, that the land may not be desolate.”

20 Then Joseph (MK)bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for every man of the Egyptians sold his field, because the famine was severe upon them. So the land became Pharaoh’s. 21 And as for the people, he [bm]moved them into the cities, from one end of the borders of Egypt to the other end. 22 (ML)Only the land of the (MM)priests he did not buy; for the priests had rations allotted to them by Pharaoh, and they ate their rations which Pharaoh gave them; therefore they did not sell their lands.

23 Then Joseph said to the people, “Indeed I have bought you and your land this day for Pharaoh. Look, here is seed for you, and you shall sow the land. 24 And it shall come to pass in the harvest that you shall give one-fifth to Pharaoh. Four-fifths shall be your own, as seed for the field and for your food, for those of your households and as food for your little ones.”

25 So they said, “You have saved (MN)our lives; let us find favor in the sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh’s servants.” 26 And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt to this day, that Pharaoh should have one-fifth, (MO)except for the land of the priests only, which did not become Pharaoh’s.

Joseph’s Vow to Jacob

27 So Israel (MP)dwelt in the land of Egypt, in the country of Goshen; and they had possessions there and (MQ)grew and multiplied exceedingly. 28 And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years. So the length of Jacob’s life was one hundred and forty-seven years. 29 When the time (MR)drew near that Israel must die, he called his son Joseph and said to him, “Now if I have found favor in your sight, please (MS)put your hand under my thigh, and (MT)deal kindly and truly with me. (MU)Please do not bury me in Egypt, 30 but (MV)let me lie with my fathers; you shall carry me out of Egypt and (MW)bury me in their burial place.”

And he said, “I will do as you have said.”

31 Then he said, “Swear to me.” And he swore to him. So (MX)Israel bowed himself on the head of the bed.

Jacob Blesses Joseph’s Sons(MY)

48 Now it came to pass after these things that Joseph was told, “Indeed your father is sick”; and he took with him his two sons, (MZ)Manasseh and Ephraim. And Jacob was told, “Look, your son Joseph is coming to you”; and Israel [bn]strengthened himself and sat up on the bed. Then Jacob said to Joseph: “God (NA)Almighty appeared to me at (NB)Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me, and said to me, ‘Behold, I will (NC)make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will make of you a multitude of people, and (ND)give this land to your descendants after you (NE)as an everlasting possession.’ And now your (NF)two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine. Your [bo]offspring [bp]whom you beget after them shall be yours; they will be called by the name of their brothers in their inheritance. But as for me, when I came from Padan, (NG)Rachel died beside me in the land of Canaan on the way, when there was but a little distance to go to Ephrath; and I buried her there on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem).”

Then Israel saw Joseph’s sons, and said, “Who are these?”

Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom God has given me in this place.

And he said, “Please bring them to me, and (NH)I will bless them.” 10 Now (NI)the eyes of Israel were dim with age, so that he could not see. Then Joseph brought them near him, and he (NJ)kissed them and embraced them. 11 And Israel said to Joseph, (NK)“I had not thought to see your face; but in fact, God has also shown me your offspring!”

12 So Joseph brought them from beside his knees, and he bowed down with his face to the earth. 13 And Joseph took them both, Ephraim with his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh with his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near him. 14 Then Israel stretched out his right hand and (NL)laid it on Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh’s head, (NM)guiding his hands knowingly, for Manasseh was the (NN)firstborn. 15 And (NO)he blessed Joseph, and said:

“God, (NP)before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked,
The God who has fed me all my life long to this day,
16 The Angel (NQ)who has redeemed me from all evil,
Bless the lads;
Let (NR)my name be named upon them,
And the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac;
And let them (NS)grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.”

17 Now when Joseph saw that his father (NT)laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him; so he took hold of his father’s hand to remove it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. 18 And Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father, for this one is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head.”

19 But his father refused and said, (NU)“I know, my son, I know. He also shall become a people, and he also shall be great; but truly (NV)his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his descendants shall become a multitude of nations.”

20 So he blessed them that day, saying, (NW)“By you Israel will bless, saying, ‘May God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh!’ ” And thus he set Ephraim before Manasseh.

21 Then Israel said to Joseph, “Behold, I am dying, but (NX)God will be with you and bring you back to the land of your fathers. 22 Moreover (NY)I have given to you one [bq]portion above your brothers, which I took from the hand (NZ)of the Amorite with my sword and my bow.”

Jacob’s Last Words to His Sons

49 And Jacob called his sons and said, “Gather together, that I may (OA)tell you what shall befall you (OB)in the last days:

“Gather together and hear, you sons of Jacob,
And listen to Israel your father.

“Reuben, you are (OC)my firstborn,
My might and the beginning of my strength,
The excellency of dignity and the excellency of power.
Unstable as water, you shall not excel,
Because you (OD)went up to your father’s bed;
Then you defiled it
He went up to my couch.

“Simeon and Levi are brothers;
Instruments of [br]cruelty are in their dwelling place.
(OE)Let not my soul enter their council;
Let not my honor be united (OF)to their assembly;
(OG)For in their anger they slew a man,
And in their self-will they [bs]hamstrung an ox.
Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce;
And their wrath, for it is cruel!
(OH)I will divide them in Jacob
And scatter them in Israel.

“Judah,(OI) you are he whom your brothers shall praise;
(OJ)Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies;
(OK)Your father’s children shall bow down before you.
Judah is (OL)a lion’s whelp;
From the prey, my son, you have gone up.
(OM)He [bt]bows down, he lies down as a lion;
And as a lion, who shall rouse him?
10 (ON)The [bu]scepter shall not depart from Judah,
Nor (OO)a lawgiver from between his feet,
(OP)Until Shiloh comes;
(OQ)And to Him shall be the obedience of the people.
11 Binding his donkey to the vine,
And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine,
He washed his garments in wine,
And his clothes in the blood of grapes.
12 His eyes are darker than wine,
And his teeth whiter than milk.

13 “Zebulun(OR) shall dwell by the haven of the sea;
He shall become a haven for ships,
And his border shall (OS)adjoin Sidon.

14 “Issachar(OT) is a strong donkey,
Lying down between two burdens;
15 He saw that rest was good,
And that the land was pleasant;
He bowed (OU)his shoulder to bear a burden,
And became a band of slaves.

16 “Dan(OV) shall judge his people
As one of the tribes of Israel.
17 (OW)Dan shall be a serpent by the way,
A viper by the path,
That bites the horse’s heels
So that its rider shall fall backward.
18 (OX)I have waited for your salvation, O Lord!

19 “Gad,(OY)[bv] a troop shall [bw]tramp upon him,
But he shall triumph at last.

20 “Bread from (OZ)Asher shall be rich,
And he shall yield royal dainties.

21 “Naphtali(PA) is a deer let loose;
He uses beautiful words.

22 “Joseph is a fruitful bough,
A fruitful bough by a well;
His branches run over the wall.
23 The archers have (PB)bitterly grieved him,
Shot at him and hated him.
24 But his (PC)bow remained in strength,
And the arms of his hands were [bx]made strong
By the hands of (PD)the Mighty God of Jacob
(PE)(From there (PF)is the Shepherd, (PG)the Stone of Israel),
25 (PH)By the God of your father who will help you,
(PI)And by the Almighty (PJ)who will bless you
With blessings of heaven above,
Blessings of the deep that lies beneath,
Blessings of the breasts and of the womb.
26 The blessings of your father
Have excelled the blessings of my ancestors,
(PK)Up to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills.
(PL)They shall be on the head of Joseph,
And on the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brothers.

27 “Benjamin is a (PM)ravenous wolf;
In the morning he shall devour the prey,
(PN)And at night he shall divide the spoil.”

28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father spoke to them. And he blessed them; he blessed each one according to his own blessing.

Jacob’s Death and Burial

29 Then he charged them and said to them: “I (PO)am to be gathered to my people; (PP)bury me with my fathers (PQ)in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, 30 in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre in the land of Canaan, (PR)which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite as a possession for a burial place. 31 (PS)There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife, (PT)there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife, and there I buried Leah. 32 The field and the cave that is there were purchased from the sons of Heth.” 33 And when Jacob had finished commanding his sons, he drew his feet up into the bed and breathed his last, and was gathered to his people.

Burial of Jacob

50 Then Joseph (PU)fell on his father’s face and (PV)wept over him, and kissed him. And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to (PW)embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel. Forty days were required for him, for such are the days required for those who are embalmed; and the Egyptians (PX)mourned[by] for him seventy days.

Now when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spoke to (PY)the household of Pharaoh, saying, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, please speak in the hearing of Pharaoh, saying, (PZ)‘My father made me swear, saying, “Behold, I am dying; in my grave (QA)which I dug for myself in the land of Canaan, there you shall bury me.” Now therefore, please let me go up and bury my father, and I will come back.’ ”

And Pharaoh said, “Go up and bury your father, as he made you swear.”

So Joseph went up to bury his father; and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, as well as all the house of Joseph, his brothers, and his father’s house. Only their little ones, their flocks, and their herds they left in the land of Goshen. And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen, and it was a very great gathering.

10 Then they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, and they (QB)mourned there with a great and very solemn lamentation. (QC)He observed seven days of mourning for his father. 11 And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning at the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a deep mourning of the Egyptians.” Therefore its name was called [bz]Abel Mizraim, which is beyond the Jordan.

12 So his sons did for him just as he had commanded them. 13 For (QD)his sons carried him to the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, before Mamre, which Abraham (QE)bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite as property for a burial place. 14 And after he had buried his father, Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers and all who went up with him to bury his father.

Joseph Reassures His Brothers

15 When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, (QF)they said, “Perhaps Joseph will hate us, and may [ca]actually repay us for all the evil which we did to him.” 16 So they sent messengers to Joseph, saying, “Before your father died he commanded, saying, 17 ‘Thus you shall say to Joseph: “I beg you, please forgive the trespass of your brothers and their sin; (QG)for they did evil to you.” ’ Now, please, forgive the trespass of the servants of (QH)the God of your father.” And Joseph wept when they spoke to him.

18 Then his brothers also went and (QI)fell down before his face, and they said, “Behold, we are your servants.”

19 Joseph said to them, (QJ)“Do not be afraid, (QK)for am I in the place of God? 20 (QL)But as for you, you meant evil against me; but (QM)God meant it for good, in order to bring it about as it is this day, to save many people alive. 21 Now therefore, do not be afraid; (QN)I will provide for you and your little ones.” And he comforted them and spoke [cb]kindly to them.

Death of Joseph(QO)

22 So Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he and his father’s household. And Joseph lived one hundred and ten years. 23 Joseph saw Ephraim’s children (QP)to the third generation. (QQ)The children of Machir, the son of Manasseh, (QR)were also brought up on Joseph’s knees.

24 And Joseph said to his brethren, “I am dying; but (QS)God will surely visit you, and bring you out of this land to the land (QT)of which He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.” 25 Then (QU)Joseph took an oath from the children of Israel, saying, “God will surely [cc]visit you, and (QV)you shall carry up my (QW)bones from here.” 26 So Joseph died, being one hundred and ten years old; and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.


  1. Genesis 37:1 sojourner, temporary resident
  2. Genesis 37:19 Lit. master of dreams
  3. Genesis 37:36 MT Medanites
  4. Genesis 38:10 Lit. was evil in the eyes of
  5. Genesis 38:21 in full view
  6. Genesis 38:24 pregnant
  7. Genesis 38:29 Lit. Breach or Breakthrough
  8. Genesis 39:3 to be a success
  9. Genesis 39:4 Lit. in his hand
  10. Genesis 39:6 Care
  11. Genesis 39:6 Food
  12. Genesis 39:7 Lit. lifted up her eyes toward
  13. Genesis 39:14 laugh at
  14. Genesis 39:21 Caused him to be viewed with favor by
  15. Genesis 39:23 Lit. his hand
  16. Genesis 40:6 dejected
  17. Genesis 40:13 position
  18. Genesis 40:16 Or baskets of white bread
  19. Genesis 40:19 Lit. up
  20. Genesis 41:22 Heads of grain
  21. Genesis 41:26 Heads of grain
  22. Genesis 41:34 overseers
  23. Genesis 41:35 Lit. hand
  24. Genesis 41:36 Lit. supply
  25. Genesis 41:36 be cut off
  26. Genesis 41:40 In charge of
  27. Genesis 41:45 Probably Egyptian for God Speaks and He Lives
  28. Genesis 41:47 Lit. by handfuls
  29. Genesis 41:51 Lit. Making Forgetful
  30. Genesis 41:52 Lit. Fruitfulness
  31. Genesis 41:56 Lit. all that was in them
  32. Genesis 42:7 harshly
  33. Genesis 42:9 Exposed parts
  34. Genesis 42:16 Lit. bound
  35. Genesis 42:17 Lit. gathered
  36. Genesis 42:28 sank
  37. Genesis 42:30 harshly
  38. Genesis 43:6 Lit. wickedly
  39. Genesis 43:16 Lit. a slaughter
  40. Genesis 43:18 Lit. roll himself upon us
  41. Genesis 44:1 Lit. the one over
  42. Genesis 44:12 finished with
  43. Genesis 44:34 Lit. find
  44. Genesis 45:7 remnant
  45. Genesis 45:9 delay
  46. Genesis 45:18 The choicest produce
  47. Genesis 45:21 wagons
  48. Genesis 46:4 Will close your eyes when you die
  49. Genesis 46:5 wagons
  50. Genesis 46:10 Nemuel, 1 Chr. 4:24
  51. Genesis 46:10 Jarib, 1 Chr. 4:24
  52. Genesis 46:10 Zerah, 1 Chr. 4:24
  53. Genesis 46:13 Puah, Num. 26:23; 1 Chr. 7:1
  54. Genesis 46:13 Jashub, Num. 26:24; 1 Chr. 7:1
  55. Genesis 46:16 Sam., LXX Zephon and Num. 26:15
  56. Genesis 46:16 Ozni, Num. 26:16
  57. Genesis 46:16 Arod, Num. 26:17
  58. Genesis 46:21 Hupham, Num. 26:39
  59. Genesis 46:23 Shuham, Num. 26:42
  60. Genesis 46:24 Jahziel, 1 Chr. 7:13
  61. Genesis 46:24 Shallum, 1 Chr. 7:13
  62. Genesis 46:34 loathsome
  63. Genesis 47:9 Lit. sojourning
  64. Genesis 47:17 supplied
  65. Genesis 47:21 So with MT, Tg.; Sam., LXX, Vg. made the people virtual slaves
  66. Genesis 48:2 Collected his strength
  67. Genesis 48:6 children
  68. Genesis 48:6 Who are born to you
  69. Genesis 48:22 Lit. shoulder
  70. Genesis 49:5 violence
  71. Genesis 49:6 lamed
  72. Genesis 49:9 couches
  73. Genesis 49:10 A symbol of kingship
  74. Genesis 49:19 Lit. Troop
  75. Genesis 49:19 Lit. raid
  76. Genesis 49:24 Or supple
  77. Genesis 50:3 Lit. wept
  78. Genesis 50:11 Lit. Mourning of Egypt
  79. Genesis 50:15 fully
  80. Genesis 50:21 Lit. to their hearts
  81. Genesis 50:25 give attention to

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