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Jacob and His Family Go to Egypt

46 Jacob packed up everything he owned and left for Egypt. On the way he stopped near the town of Beersheba and offered sacrifices to the God his father Isaac had worshiped. That night, God spoke to him and said, “Jacob! Jacob!”

“Here I am,” Jacob answered.

God said, “I am God, the same God your father worshiped. Don’t be afraid to go to Egypt. I will give you so many descendants that one day they will become a nation. I will go with you to Egypt, and later I will bring your descendants back here. Your son Joseph will be at your side when you die.”

5-7 Jacob and his family set out from Beersheba and headed for Egypt. His sons put him in the wagon that the king[a] had sent for him, and they put their small children and their wives in the other wagons. Jacob’s whole family went to Egypt, including his sons, his grandsons, his daughters, and his granddaughters. They took along their animals and everything else they owned.

8-15 When Jacob went to Egypt, his children who were born in northern Syria[b] also went along with their families.

Jacob and his wife Leah had a total of thirty-three children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren, but two of their grandchildren had died in Canaan.

Their oldest son Reuben took his sons Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.

Their son Simeon took his sons Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, whose mother was a Canaanite.

Their son Levi took his sons Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

Their son Judah took his sons Shelah, Perez, and Zerah. Judah’s sons Er and Onan had died in Canaan. Judah’s son Perez took his sons Hezron and Hamul.

Their son Issachar took his sons Tola, Puvah, Jashub,[c] and Shimron.

Their son Zebulun took his sons Sered, Elon, and Jahleel.

Their daughter Dinah also went.

16-18 Jacob and Zilpah, the servant woman Laban had given his daughter Leah, had a total of sixteen children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren.

Their son Gad took his sons Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli.

Their son Asher took his sons Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah, who took his sons, Heber and Malchiel.

Serah, the daughter of Asher, also went.

19-22 Jacob and Rachel had fourteen children and grandchildren.

Their son Joseph was already in Egypt, where he had married Asenath, daughter of Potiphera, the priest of Heliopolis.[d] Joseph and Asenath had two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.

Jacob and Rachel’s son Benjamin took his sons Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard.

23-25 Jacob and Bilhah, the servant woman Laban had given his daughter Rachel, had seven children and grandchildren.

Their son Dan took his son Hushim.

Their son Naphtali took his sons Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.

26 Sixty-six members of Jacob’s family went to Egypt with him, not counting his daughters-in-law. 27 Jacob’s two grandsons who were born there made it a total of seventy members of Jacob’s family in Egypt.

28 Jacob had sent his son Judah ahead of him to ask Joseph to meet them in Goshen. 29 So Joseph got in his chariot and went to meet his father. When they met, Joseph hugged his father around the neck and cried for a long time. 30 Jacob said to Joseph, “Now that I have seen you and know you are still alive, I am ready to die.”

31 Then Joseph said to his brothers and to everyone who had come with them:

I must go and tell the king[e] that you have arrived from Canaan. 32 I will tell him that you are shepherds and that you have brought your sheep, goats, cattle, and everything else you own. 33 The king will call you in and ask what you do for a living. 34 When he does, be sure to say, “We are shepherds. Our families have always raised sheep.” If you tell him this, he will let you settle in the region of Goshen.

Joseph wanted them to say this to the king, because the Egyptians did not like to be around anyone who raised sheep.

47 1-2 Joseph took five of his brothers to the king and told him, “My father and my brothers have come from Canaan. They have brought their sheep, goats, cattle, and everything else they own to the region of Goshen.”

Then he introduced his brothers to the king, who asked them, “What do you do for a living?”

“Sir, we are shepherds,” was their answer. “Our families have always raised sheep. But in our country all the pastures are dried up, and our sheep have no grass to eat. So we, your servants, have come here. Please let us live in the region of Goshen.”

The king said to Joseph, “It’s good that your father and brothers have arrived. I will let them live anywhere they choose in the land of Egypt, but I suggest that they settle in Goshen, the best part of our land. I would also like for your finest shepherds to watch after my own sheep and goats.”

Then Joseph brought his father Jacob and introduced him to the king. Jacob gave the king his blessing, and the king asked him, “How old are you?”

Jacob answered, “I have lived only a hundred thirty years, and I have had to move from place to place. My parents and my grandparents also had to move from place to place. But they lived much longer, and their life was not as hard as mine.” 10 Then Jacob gave the king his blessing once again and left. 11 Joseph obeyed the king’s orders and gave his father and brothers some of the best land in Egypt near the city of Rameses. 12 Joseph also provided food for their families.

A Famine in Egypt

13 The famine was bad everywhere in Egypt and Canaan, and the people were suffering terribly. 14 So Joseph sold them the grain that had been stored up, and he put the money[f] in the king’s treasury. 15 But when everyone had run out of money, the Egyptians came to Joseph and demanded, “Give us more grain! If you don’t, we’ll soon be dead, because our money’s all gone.”

16 “If you don’t have any money,” Joseph answered, “give me your animals, and I’ll let you have some grain.” 17 From then on, they brought him their horses and donkeys and their sheep and goats in exchange for grain.

Within a year Joseph had collected every animal in Egypt. 18 Then the people came to him and said:

Sir, there’s no way we can hide the truth from you. We are broke, and we don’t have any more animals. We have nothing left except ourselves and our land. 19 Don’t let us starve and our land be ruined. If you’ll give us grain to eat and seed to plant, we’ll sell ourselves and our land to the king.[g] We’ll become his slaves.

20 The famine became so severe that Joseph finally bought every piece of land in Egypt for the king 21 and made everyone the king’s slaves,[h] 22 except the priests. The king gave the priests a regular food allowance, so they did not have to sell their land. 23 Then Joseph said to the people, “You and your land now belong to the king. I’m giving you seed to plant, 24 but one-fifth of your crops must go to the king. You can keep the rest as seed or as food for your families.”

25 “Sir, you have saved our lives!” they answered. “We are glad to be slaves of the king.” 26 Then Joseph made a law that one-fifth of the harvest would always belong to the king. Only the priests did not lose their land.

Jacob Becomes an Old Man

27 The people of Israel made their home in the land of Goshen, where they became prosperous and had large families. 28 Jacob himself lived there for seventeen years, before dying at the age of one hundred forty-seven. 29 When Jacob knew he did not have long to live, he called in Joseph and said, “If you really love me, you must make a solemn promise not to bury me in Egypt. 30 Instead, bury me in the place where my ancestors are buried.”

“I will do what you have asked,” Joseph answered.

31 “Will you give me your word?” Jacob asked.

“Yes, I will,” Joseph promised. After this, Jacob bowed down and prayed at the head of his bed.

Jacob Blesses Joseph’s Two Sons

48 Joseph was told that his father Jacob had become very sick. So Joseph went to see him and took along his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. When Joseph arrived, someone told Jacob, “Your son Joseph has come to see you.” Jacob sat up in bed, but it took almost all his strength.

Jacob told Joseph:

God All-Powerful appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan, where he gave me his blessing and promised, “I will give you a large family with many descendants that will grow into a nation. And I am giving you this land that will belong to you and your family forever.”

Then Jacob went on to say:

Joseph, your two sons Ephraim and Manasseh were born in Egypt, but I accept them as my own, just as Reuben and Simeon are mine. Any children you have later will be considered yours, but their inheritance will come from Ephraim and Manasseh. Unfortunately, your mother Rachel died in Canaan after we had left northern Syria[i] and before we reached Bethlehem.[j] And I had to bury her along the way.

8-10 Jacob was very old and almost blind. He did not recognize the two boys, and so he asked Joseph, “Who are these boys?”

Joseph answered, “They are my sons. God has given them to me here in Egypt.”

“Bring them to me,” Jacob said. “I want to give them my blessing.” Joseph brought the boys to him, and he hugged and kissed them.

11 Jacob turned to Joseph and told him, “For many years I thought you were dead and that I would never see you again. But now God has even let me live to see your children.” 12 Then Joseph made his sons move away from Jacob’s knees,[k] and Joseph bowed down in front of him with his face to the ground.

13 After Joseph got up, he brought his two sons over to Jacob again. He led his younger son Ephraim to the left side of Jacob and his older son Manasseh to the right. 14 But before Jacob gave them his blessing, he crossed his arms, putting his right hand on the head of Ephraim and his left hand on the head of Manasseh. 15 Then he gave Joseph his blessing and said:

My grandfather Abraham and my father Isaac worshiped the Lord God. He has been with me all my life, 16 and his angel has kept me safe. Now I pray that he will bless these boys and that my name and the names of Abraham and Isaac will live on because of them. I ask God to give them many children and many descendants as well.

17 Joseph did not like it when he saw his father place his right hand on the head of the younger son. So he tried to move his father’s right hand from Ephraim’s head and place it on Manasseh. 18 Joseph said, “Father, you have made a mistake. This is the older boy. Put your right hand on him.”

19 But his father said, “Son, I know what I am doing. It’s true that Manasseh’s family will someday become a great nation. But Ephraim will be even greater than Manasseh, because his descendants will become many great nations.”

20 Jacob told him that in the future the people of Israel would ask God’s blessings on one another by saying, “I pray for God to bless you as much as he blessed Ephraim and Manasseh.” Jacob put Ephraim’s name first to show that he would be greater than Manasseh. 21 After that, Jacob said, “Joseph, you can see that I won’t live much longer. But God will be with you and will lead you back to the land he promised our family long ago. 22 Meanwhile, I’m giving you the hillside[l] I captured from the Amorites.”

Jacob Blesses His Sons

49 Jacob called his sons together and said:

My sons, I am Jacob,
    your father Israel.
Come, gather around,
    as I tell your future.

Reuben, you are my oldest,
born at the peak of my powers;
    you were an honored leader.
Uncontrollable as a flood,
you slept with my wife
    and disgraced my bed.
And so you no longer deserve
    the place of honor.

Simeon and Levi,
you are brothers,
    each a gruesome sword.
I never want to take part
    in your plans or deeds.
You slaughtered people
    in your anger,
and you crippled cattle
    for no reason.
Now I place a curse on you
because of
    your fierce anger.
Your descendants
will be scattered
    among the tribes of Israel.

Judah, you will be praised
    by your brothers;
they will bow down to you,
    as you defeat your enemies.
My son, you are a lion
    ready to eat your victim!
You are terribly fierce;
    no one will bother you.
10 You will have power and rule
until nations obey you[m]
    and come bringing gifts.
11 You will tie your donkey
    to a choice grapevine
and wash your clothes
    in wine from those grapes.
12 Your eyes are darker than wine,
    your teeth whiter than milk.

13 Zebulun, you will settle
    along the seashore
and provide safe harbors
    as far north as Sidon.

14 Issachar, you are a strong donkey
    resting in the meadows.[n]
15 You found them so pleasant
that you worked too hard
    and became a slave.

16 Dan,[o] you are the tribe
that will bring justice
    to Israel.
17 You are a snake that bites
the heel of a horse,
    making its rider fall.

18 Our Lord, I am waiting
    for you to save us.

19 Gad,[p] you will be attacked,
    then attack your attackers.

20 Asher, you will eat food
    fancy enough for a king.

21 Naphtali, you are a wild deer
    with lovely fawns.[q]

22 Joseph, you are a fruitful vine
growing near a stream
    and climbing a wall.[r]
23 Enemies attacked with arrows,
    refusing to show mercy.
24 But you stood your ground,
    swiftly shooting back
with the help of Jacob’s God,
    the All-Powerful One—
his name is the Shepherd,
    Israel’s mighty rock.[s]
25 Your help came from the God
your father worshiped,
    from God All-Powerful.
God will bless you with rain
    and streams from the earth;
he will bless you
    with many descendants.
26 My son, the blessings I give
are better than the promise
    of ancient mountains
    or eternal hills.[t]
Joseph, I pray these blessings
    will come to you,
because you are the leader
    of your brothers.

27 Benjamin, you are a fierce wolf,
destroying your enemies
    morning and evening.

28 These are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is how Jacob gave each of them their proper blessings.

Jacob’s Death

29-31 Jacob told his sons:

Soon I will die, and I want you to bury me in Machpelah Cave. Abraham bought this cave as a burial place from Ephron the Hittite, and it is near the town of Mamre in Canaan. Abraham and Sarah are buried there, and so are Isaac and Rebekah. I buried Leah there too. 32 Both the cave and the land that goes with it were bought from the Hittites.

33 When Jacob had finished giving these instructions to his sons, he lay down on his bed and died. 50 Joseph started crying, then leaned over to hug and kiss his father.

Joseph gave orders for Jacob’s body to be embalmed, and it took the usual forty days.

The Egyptians mourned seventy days for Jacob. When the time of mourning was over, Joseph said to the Egyptian leaders, “If you consider me your friend, please speak to the king[u] for me. Just before my father died, he made me promise to bury him in his burial cave in Canaan. If the king will give me permission to go, I will come back here.”

The king answered, “Go to Canaan and keep your promise to your father.”

7-9 When Joseph left Goshen with his brothers, his relatives, and his father’s relatives to bury Jacob, many of the king’s highest officials and even his military chariots and cavalry went along. The Israelites left behind only their children, their cattle, and their sheep and goats.

10 After crossing the Jordan River and reaching Atad’s threshing place, Joseph had everyone mourn and weep seven days for his father. 11 The Canaanites saw this and said, “The Egyptians are in great sorrow.” Then they named the place “Egypt in Sorrow.”[v]

12 So Jacob’s sons did just as their father had instructed. 13 They took him to Canaan and buried him in Machpelah Cave, the burial place Abraham had bought from Ephron the Hittite.

14 After the funeral, Joseph, his brothers, and everyone else returned to Egypt.

Joseph’s Promise to His Brothers

15 After Jacob died, Joseph’s brothers said to each other, “What if Joseph still hates us and wants to get even with us for all the cruel things we did to him?”

16 So they sent this message to Joseph:

Before our father died, 17 he told us, “You did some cruel and terrible things to Joseph, but you must ask him to forgive you.”

Now we ask you to please forgive the terrible things we did. After all, we serve the same God that your father worshiped.

When Joseph heard this, he started crying.

18 Right then, Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down to the ground in front of him and said, “We are your slaves.”

19 But Joseph told them, “Don’t be afraid! I have no right to change what God has decided. 20 You tried to harm me, but God made it turn out for the best, so that he could save all these people, as he is now doing. 21 Don’t be afraid! I will take care of you and your children.” After Joseph said this, his brothers felt much better.

Joseph’s Death

22 Joseph lived in Egypt with his brothers until he died at the age of one hundred ten. 23 Joseph lived long enough to see Ephraim’s children and grandchildren. He also lived to see the children of Manasseh’s son Machir, and he welcomed them into his family. 24 Before Joseph died, he told his brothers, “I won’t live much longer. But God will take care of you and lead you out of Egypt to the land he promised Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 25 Now promise me that you will take my body with you when God leads you to that land.”

26 So Joseph died in Egypt at the age of one hundred ten; his body was embalmed and put in a coffin.


  1. 44.18; 45.2; 46.5-7 the king: See the note at 12.15.
  2. 46.8-15 northern Syria: See the note at 24.10.
  3. 46.8-15 Jashub: The Samaritan Hebrew Text and one ancient translation; the Standard Hebrew Text “Iob.”
  4. 46.19-22 Heliopolis: See the note at 41.45.
  5. 46.31 the king: See the note at 12.15.
  6. 47.14 money: See the note at 42.25.
  7. 47.19 the king: See the note at 12.15.
  8. 47.21 made. . . slaves: One ancient translation and the Samaritan Hebrew Text; the Standard Hebrew Text “made everyone move to the cities.”
  9. 48.7 northern Syria: See the note at 24.10.
  10. 48.7 Bethlehem: The Hebrew text has “Ephrath, that is, Bethlehem.”
  11. 48.12 move. . . Jacob’s knees: The two boys were placed either on or between Jacob’s knees, as a sign that he had accepted them as his sons.
  12. 48.22 the hillside: Or “a larger share than your brothers, the land.”
  13. 49.10 until. . . you: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  14. 49.14 resting. . . meadows: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  15. 49.16 Dan: In Hebrew “Dan” means “justice” or “judgment.”
  16. 49.19 Gad: In Hebrew “Gad” sounds like “attack.”
  17. 49.21 with lovely fawns: Or “speaking lovely words.”
  18. 49.22 wall: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  19. 49.24 mighty rock: The Hebrew text has “rock,” which is sometimes used in poetry to compare the Lord to a mountain where his people can run for protection from their enemies.
  20. 49.26 eternal hills: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  21. 50.4 the king: See the note at 12.15.
  22. 50.11 Egypt in Sorrow: Or “Abel-Mizraim.”