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Nations Grow and Spread

10 This is the family history of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham and Japheth. After the flood these three men had sons.

Japheth’s Sons

The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras.

The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah.

The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim[a] and Rodanim. Those who lived in the lands around the Mediterranean Sea came from these sons of Japheth. All the families grew and became different nations. Each nation had its own land and its own language.

Ham’s Sons

The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim,[b] Put and Canaan.

The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteca.

The sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.

Cush also had a descendant named Nimrod. Nimrod became a very powerful man on earth. He was a great hunter before the Lord. That is why people say someone is “like Nimrod, a great hunter before the Lord.” 10 At first Nimrod’s kingdom covered Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calneh in the land of Babylonia. 11 From there he went to Assyria. There he built the cities of Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir and Calah. 12 He also built Resen, the great city between Nineveh and Calah.

13 Mizraim was the father of the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 14 Pathrusites, Casluhites and the people of Crete. (The Philistines came from the Casluhites.)

15 Canaan was the father of Sidon his first son and of Heth. 16 Canaan was also the father of the Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, 17 Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, 18 Arvadites, Zemarites and Hamathites. The families of the Canaanites scattered. 19 The land of the Canaanites reached from Sidon to Gerar as far as Gaza. And it reached to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha.

20 All these people were the sons of Ham. All these families had their own languages, their own lands and their own nations.

Shem’s Sons

21 Shem, Japheth’s older brother, also had sons. One of his descendants was the father of all the sons of Eber.

22 The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram.

23 The sons of Aram were Uz, Hul, Gether and Meshech.

24 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah. Shelah was the father of Eber. 25 Eber was the father of two sons. One son was named Peleg[c] because the earth was divided during his life. Eber’s other son was named Joktan.

26 Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah and Jobab. All these people were the sons of Joktan. 30 These people lived in the area between Mesha and Sephar in the hill country in the East.

31 These are the people from the family of Shem. They are arranged by families, languages, countries and nations.

32 This is the list of the families from the sons of Noah. They are arranged according to their nations. From these families came all the nations who spread across the earth after the flood.


  1. 10:4 Kittim His descendants were the people of Cyprus.
  2. 10:6 Mizraim This is another name for Egypt.
  3. 10:25 Peleg This name sounds like the Hebrew word for “divided.”

The Table of Nations

10 This is the account(A) of Shem, Ham and Japheth,(B) Noah’s sons,(C) who themselves had sons after the flood.

The Japhethites(D)

The sons[a] of Japheth:

Gomer,(E) Magog,(F) Madai, Javan,(G) Tubal,(H) Meshek(I) and Tiras.

The sons of Gomer:

Ashkenaz,(J) Riphath and Togarmah.(K)

The sons of Javan:

Elishah,(L) Tarshish,(M) the Kittites(N) and the Rodanites.[b] (From these the maritime peoples spread out into their territories by their clans within their nations, each with its own language.)(O)

The Hamites(P)

The sons of Ham:

Cush,(Q) Egypt, Put(R) and Canaan.(S)

The sons of Cush:

Seba,(T) Havilah,(U) Sabtah, Raamah(V) and Sabteka.

The sons of Raamah:

Sheba(W) and Dedan.(X)

Cush was the father[c] of Nimrod,(Y) who became a mighty warrior on the earth. He was a mighty(Z) hunter(AA) before the Lord; that is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.” 10 The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon,(AB) Uruk,(AC) Akkad and Kalneh,(AD) in[d] Shinar.[e](AE) 11 From that land he went to Assyria,(AF) where he built Nineveh,(AG) Rehoboth Ir,[f] Calah 12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah—which is the great city.

13 Egypt was the father of

the Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtuhites, 14 Pathrusites, Kasluhites (from whom the Philistines(AH) came) and Caphtorites.(AI)

15 Canaan(AJ) was the father of

Sidon(AK) his firstborn,[g](AL) and of the Hittites,(AM) 16 Jebusites,(AN) Amorites,(AO) Girgashites,(AP) 17 Hivites,(AQ) Arkites, Sinites, 18 Arvadites,(AR) Zemarites and Hamathites.(AS)

Later the Canaanite(AT) clans scattered 19 and the borders of Canaan(AU) reached from Sidon(AV) toward Gerar(AW) as far as Gaza,(AX) and then toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim,(AY) as far as Lasha.

20 These are the sons of Ham by their clans and languages, in their territories and nations.

The Semites(AZ)

21 Sons were also born to Shem, whose older brother was[h] Japheth; Shem was the ancestor of all the sons of Eber.(BA)

22 The sons of Shem:

Elam,(BB) Ashur,(BC) Arphaxad,(BD) Lud and Aram.(BE)

23 The sons of Aram:

Uz,(BF) Hul, Gether and Meshek.[i]

24 Arphaxad was the father of[j] Shelah,

and Shelah the father of Eber.(BG)

25 Two sons were born to Eber:

One was named Peleg,[k] because in his time the earth was divided; his brother was named Joktan.

26 Joktan was the father of

Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal,(BH) Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba,(BI) 29 Ophir,(BJ) Havilah and Jobab. All these were sons of Joktan.

30 The region where they lived stretched from Mesha toward Sephar, in the eastern hill country.

31 These are the sons of Shem by their clans and languages, in their territories and nations.

32 These are the clans of Noah’s sons,(BK) according to their lines of descent, within their nations. From these the nations spread out over the earth(BL) after the flood.


  1. Genesis 10:2 Sons may mean descendants or successors or nations; also in verses 3, 4, 6, 7, 20-23, 29 and 31.
  2. Genesis 10:4 Some manuscripts of the Masoretic Text and Samaritan Pentateuch (see also Septuagint and 1 Chron. 1:7); most manuscripts of the Masoretic Text Dodanites
  3. Genesis 10:8 Father may mean ancestor or predecessor or founder; also in verses 13, 15, 24 and 26.
  4. Genesis 10:10 Or Uruk and Akkad—all of them in
  5. Genesis 10:10 That is, Babylonia
  6. Genesis 10:11 Or Nineveh with its city squares
  7. Genesis 10:15 Or of the Sidonians, the foremost
  8. Genesis 10:21 Or Shem, the older brother of
  9. Genesis 10:23 See Septuagint and 1 Chron. 1:17; Hebrew Mash.
  10. Genesis 10:24 Hebrew; Septuagint father of Cainan, and Cainan was the father of
  11. Genesis 10:25 Peleg means division.