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19 Now the works of the flesh[a] are obvious:[b] sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 20 idolatry, sorcery,[c] hostilities,[d] strife,[e] jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions,[f] factions, 21 envying,[g] murder,[h] drunkenness, carousing,[i] and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God!

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  1. Galatians 5:19 tn See the note on the word “flesh” in Gal 5:13.
  2. Galatians 5:19 tn Or “clear,” “evident.”
  3. Galatians 5:20 tn Or “witchcraft.”
  4. Galatians 5:20 tn Or “enmities,” “[acts of] hatred.”
  5. Galatians 5:20 tn Or “discord” (L&N 39.22).
  6. Galatians 5:20 tn Or “discord(s)” (L&N 39.13).
  7. Galatians 5:21 tn This term is plural in Greek (as is “murder” and “carousing”), but for clarity these abstract nouns have been translated as singular.
  8. Galatians 5:21 tcφόνοι (phonoi, “murders”) is absent in such significant mss as P46 א B 33 81 323 945 sa, while the majority of mss (A C D F G Ψ 0122 0278 1175 1241 1505 1739 1881 2464 M lat bo) have the word. Although the pedigree of the mss which lack the term is of the highest degree, homoioteleuton may explain the shorter reading. The preceding word has merely one letter difference, making it quite possible to overlook this term (φθόνοι φόνοι, phthonoi phonoi). At the same time, φθόνου φόνου (phthonou phonou, “envy, murder”) is solidly attested in Rom 1:29, suggesting that scribes were not necessarily prone to dropping “murder” accidentally. A decision is difficult, with a slight preference for phonoi here.
  9. Galatians 5:21 tn Or “revelings,” “orgies” (L&N 88.287).

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