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The Arrival of Ezra

Now after these things had happened, during the reign of King Artaxerxes[a] of Persia, Ezra came up from Babylon.[b] Ezra was the son of Seraiah, who was the son of Azariah, who was the son of Hilkiah, who was the son of Shallum, who was the son of Zadok, who was the son of Ahitub, who was the son of Amariah, who was the son of Azariah, who was the son of Meraioth, who was the son of Zerahiah, who was the son of Uzzi, who was the son of Bukki, who was the son of Abishua, who was the son of Phinehas, who was the son of Eleazar, who was the son of Aaron the chief priest. This Ezra is the one who came up from Babylon. He was a scribe who was skilled in the law of Moses which the Lord God of Israel had given. The king supplied him with everything he requested, for the hand of the Lord his God was on him. In the seventh year of King Artaxerxes, Ezra brought up[c] to Jerusalem some of the Israelites and some of the priests, the Levites, the attendants, the gatekeepers, and the temple servants. He entered Jerusalem in the fifth month of the seventh year of the king. On the first day of the first month he had determined to make[d] the ascent from Babylon, and on the first day of the fifth month he arrived at Jerusalem,[e] for the good hand of his God was on him. 10 Now Ezra had dedicated himself[f] to the study of the law of the Lord, to its observance, and to teaching[g] its statutes and judgments in Israel.

Artaxerxes Gives Official Endorsement to Ezra’s Mission

11 What follows[h] is a copy of the letter that King Artaxerxes gave to Ezra the priestly scribe.[i] Ezra was[j] a scribe in matters pertaining to the commandments of the Lord and his statutes over Israel:

12 [k] “Artaxerxes, king of kings, to Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven:[l] 13 I have now issued a decree[m] that anyone in my kingdom from the people of Israel—even the priests and Levites—who wishes to do so may go up with you to Jerusalem. 14 You are authorized[n] by the king and his seven advisers to inquire concerning Judah and Jerusalem, according to the law of your God which is in your possession,[o] 15 and to bring silver and gold which the king and his advisers have freely contributed to the God of Israel, who resides in Jerusalem, 16 along with all the silver and gold that you may collect[p] throughout all the province of Babylon and the contributions of the people and the priests for the temple of their God which is in Jerusalem. 17 With this money you should be sure to purchase bulls, rams, and lambs, along with the appropriate[q] meal offerings and libations. You should bring them to the altar of the temple of your God which is in Jerusalem. 18 You may do whatever seems appropriate to you and your colleagues[r] with the rest of the silver and the gold, in keeping with the will of your God. 19 Deliver to[s] the God of Jerusalem the vessels that are given to you for the service of the temple of your God. 20 The rest of the needs for the temple of your God that you may have to supply,[t] you may do so from the royal treasury.

21 “I, King Artaxerxes, hereby issue orders to all the treasurers of[u] Trans-Euphrates, that you precisely execute all that Ezra the priestly scribe of the law of the God of heaven may request of you— 22 up to 100 talents of silver, 100 cors of wheat, 100 baths of wine, 100 baths of olive oil,[v] and unlimited[w] salt. 23 Everything that the God of heaven has required should be precisely done for the temple of the God of heaven. Why should there be wrath[x] against the empire of the king and his sons? 24 Furthermore, be aware of the fact[y] that you have no authority to impose tax, tribute, or toll on any of the priests, the Levites, the musicians, the doorkeepers, the temple servants, or the attendants at the temple of this God.

25 “Now you, Ezra, in keeping with the wisdom of your God which you possess,[z] appoint judges[aa] and court officials who can arbitrate cases on behalf of all the people who are in Trans-Euphrates who know the laws of your God. Those who do not know this law should be taught. 26 Everyone who does not observe both the law of your God and the law of the king will be completely[ab] liable to the appropriate penalty, whether it is death or banishment or confiscation of property or detainment in prison.”

27 [ac] Blessed be the Lord God of our fathers, who so moved in the heart of the king to so honor the temple of the Lord which is in Jerusalem! 28 He has also conferred his favor on me before the king, his advisers, and all the influential leaders of the king. I gained strength as the hand of the Lord my God was on me, and I gathered leaders from Israel to go up with me.

The Leaders Who Returned with Ezra

These are the leaders[ad] and those enrolled with them by genealogy who were coming up with me from Babylon during the reign of King Artaxerxes:

from the descendants of Phinehas, Gershom;

from the descendants of Ithamar, Daniel;

from the descendants of David, Hattush the son of Shecaniah;[ae]

from the descendants of Parosh, Zechariah, and with him were enrolled by genealogy 150 men;

from the descendants of Pahath Moab, Eliehoenai son of Zerahiah, and with him 200 men;

from the descendants of Zattu,[af] Shecaniah son of Jahaziel, and with him 300 men;

from the descendants of Adin, Ebed son of Jonathan, and with him 50 men;

from the descendants of Elam, Jeshaiah son of Athaliah, and with him 70 men;

from the descendants of Shephatiah, Zebadiah son of Michael, and with him 80 men;

from the descendants of Joab, Obadiah son of Jehiel, and with him 218 men;

10 from the descendants of Bani,[ag] Shelomith son of Josiphiah, and with him 160 men;

11 from the descendants of Bebai, Zechariah son of Bebai, and with him 28 men;

12 from the descendants of Azgad, Johanan son of Hakkatan, and with him 110 men;

13 from the descendants of Adonikam there were the latter ones.[ah] Their names were Eliphelet, Jeuel, and Shemaiah, and with them 60 men;

14 from the descendants of Bigvai, Uthai, and Zaccur,[ai] and with them[aj] 70 men.

The Exiles Travel to Jerusalem

15 I had them assemble[ak] at the canal[al] that flows toward Ahava, and we camped there for three days. I observed that the people and the priests were present, but I found no Levites there. 16 So I sent for Eliezer, Ariel, Shemaiah, Elnathan, Jarib, Elnathan,[am] Nathan, Zechariah, and Meshullam, who were leaders, and Joiarib and Elnathan, who were teachers. 17 I sent them to Iddo, who was the leader in the place called Casiphia. I told them[an] what to say to Iddo and his relatives,[ao] who were the temple servants in[ap] Casiphia, so they would bring us attendants for the temple of our God.

18 Due to the fact that the good hand of our God was on us, they brought us a skilled man, from the descendants of Mahli the son of Levi son of Israel. This man was Sherebiah,[aq] who was accompanied by his sons and brothers,[ar] 18 men; 19 and Hashabiah, along with Jeshaiah from the descendants of Merari, with his brothers and their sons, 20 men; 20 and some of the temple servants that David and his officials had established for the work of the Levites—220 of them. They were all designated by name.

21 I called for a fast there by the Ahava Canal, so that we might humble ourselves before our God and seek from him a safe journey[as] for us, our children, and all our property. 22 I was embarrassed to request soldiers and horsemen from the king to protect us from the enemy[at] along the way, because we had said to the king, “The good hand of our God is on everyone who is seeking him, but his great anger[au] is against everyone who forsakes him.” 23 So we fasted and prayed to our God about this, and he answered us.

24 Then I set apart twelve of the leading priests, together with[av] Sherebiah, Hashabiah, and ten of their brothers,[aw] 25 and I weighed out to them the silver, the gold, and the vessels intended for the temple of our God—items that the king, his advisers, his officials, and all Israel who were present had contributed. 26 I weighed out to them:[ax] 650 talents of silver, silver vessels worth 100 talents,[ay] 100 talents of gold, 27 20 gold bowls worth 1,000 darics, and 2 exquisite vessels of gleaming bronze, as valuable as gold. 28 Then I said to them, “You are holy to the Lord, just as these vessels are holy. The silver and the gold are a voluntary offering to the Lord, the God of your fathers. 29 Be careful with them and protect them, until you weigh them out before the leading priests and the Levites and the family leaders of Israel in Jerusalem, in the storerooms of the temple of the Lord.

30 Then the priests and the Levites took charge of[az] the silver, the gold, and the vessels that had been weighed out, to transport them to Jerusalem to the temple of our God.

31 On the twelfth day of the first month we began traveling from the Ahava Canal to go to Jerusalem. The hand of our God was on us, and he delivered us from our enemies and from bandits[ba] along the way. 32 So we came to Jerusalem, and we stayed there for three days. 33 On the fourth day we weighed out the silver, the gold, and the vessels in the house of our God into the care[bb] of Meremoth son of Uriah, the priest, and Eleazar son of Phinehas, who were accompanied by Jozabad son of Jeshua and Noadiah son of Binnui, who were Levites. 34 Everything was verified[bc] by number and by weight, and the total weight was written down at that time.

35 The exiles who were returning from the captivity offered burnt offerings to the God of Israel—twelve bulls for all Israel, ninety-six rams, seventy-seven male lambs, along with twelve male goats as a sin offering. All this was a burnt offering to the Lord. 36 Then they presented the decrees of the king to the king’s satraps and to the governors of Trans-Euphrates, who assisted the people and the temple of God.

A Prayer of Ezra

Now when these things had been completed, the leaders approached me and said, “The people of Israel, the priests, and the Levites have not separated themselves from the local residents[bd] who practice detestable things similar to those of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites. Indeed, they have taken some of their daughters as wives for themselves and for their sons, so that the holy race[be] has become intermingled with the local residents. Worse still, the leaders and the officials have been at the forefront of all this unfaithfulness!”

When I heard this report, I tore my tunic and my robe and ripped out some of the hair from my head and beard. Then I sat down, quite devastated. Everyone who held the words of the God of Israel in awe[bf] gathered around me because of the unfaithful acts of the people of the exile.[bg] Devastated, I continued to sit there until the evening offering.

At the time of the evening offering I got up from my self-abasement,[bh] with my tunic and robe torn, and then dropped to my knees and spread my hands to the Lord my God. I prayed:[bi]

“O my God, I am ashamed and embarrassed to lift my face to you, my God! For our iniquities have climbed higher than our heads, and our guilt extends to the heavens. From the days of our fathers until this very day our guilt has been great. Because of our iniquities we, along with our kings and[bj] priests, have been delivered over by the local kings[bk] to sword, captivity, plunder, and embarrassment—right up to the present time.

“But now briefly[bl] we have received mercy from the Lord our God, in that he has left us a remnant and has given us a secure position[bm] in his holy place. Thus our God has enlightened our eyes[bn] and has given us a little relief in our time of servitude. Although we are slaves, our God has not abandoned us in our servitude. He has extended kindness to us in the sight of the kings of Persia, in that he has revived us[bo] to restore the temple of our God and to raise up[bp] its ruins and to give us a protective wall in Judah and Jerusalem.

10 “And now what are we able to say after this, our God? For we have forsaken your commandments 11 which you commanded us through your servants the prophets with these words:[bq] ‘The land that you are entering to possess is a land defiled by the impurities of the local residents![br] With their abominations they have filled it from one end to the other with their filthiness. 12 Therefore do not give your daughters in marriage to their sons, and do not take their daughters in marriage for your sons. Do not ever seek their peace or welfare, so that you may be strong and may eat the good of the land and may leave it as an inheritance for your children[bs] forever.’

13 “Everything that has happened to us has come about because of our wicked actions and our great guilt. Even so, our God, you have exercised restraint[bt] toward our iniquities and have given us a remnant such as this. 14 Shall we once again break your commandments and intermarry with these abominable peoples? Would you not be so angered by us that you would wipe us out, with no survivor or remnant? 15 O Lord God of Israel, you are righteous, for we are left as a remnant this day. Indeed, we stand before you in our guilt. However, because of this guilt[bu] no one can really stand before you.”

The People Confess Their Sins

10 While Ezra was praying and confessing, weeping and throwing himself to the ground before the temple of God, a very large crowd of Israelites—men, women, and children alike—gathered around him. The people wept loudly.[bv] Then Shecaniah son of Jehiel, from the descendants of Elam,[bw] addressed Ezra:

“We have been unfaithful to our God by marrying[bx] foreign women from the local peoples.[by] Nonetheless, there is still hope for Israel in this regard.[bz] Therefore let us enact[ca] a covenant with our God to send away all these women and their offspring, in keeping with your counsel, my lord,[cb] and that of those who respect[cc] the commandments of our God. And let it be done according to the law. Get up, for this matter concerns you. We are with you, so be strong and act decisively!”

So Ezra got up and made the leading priests and Levites and all Israel take an oath to carry out this plan.[cd] And they all took a solemn oath. Then Ezra got up from in front of the temple of God and went to the room of Jehohanan son of Eliashib. While he stayed[ce] there, he did not eat food or drink water, for he was in mourning over the infidelity of the exiles.

A proclamation[cf] was circulated[cg] throughout Judah and Jerusalem that all the exiles were to be assembled in Jerusalem. Everyone who did not come within three days would thereby forfeit all his property, in keeping with the counsel of the officials and the elders. Furthermore, he himself would be excluded from the assembly of the exiles.

All the men of Judah and Benjamin were gathered in Jerusalem within the three days. (It was in the ninth month, on the twentieth day of that month.) All the people sat in the square at the temple of God, trembling because of this matter and because of the rains.

10 Then Ezra the priest stood up and said to them, “You have behaved in an unfaithful manner by taking foreign wives! This has contributed to the guilt of Israel. 11 Now give praise to the Lord God of your fathers, and do his will. Separate yourselves from the local residents[ch] and from these foreign wives.”

12 All the assembly replied in a loud voice: “We will do just as you have said![ci] 13 However, the people are numerous and it is the rainy season.[cj] We are unable to stand here outside. Furthermore, this business cannot be resolved in a day or two, for we have sinned greatly in this matter. 14 Let our leaders take steps[ck] on behalf of all the assembly. Let all those in our towns who have married foreign women come at an appointed time, and with them the elders of each town and its judges, until the hot anger of our God is turned away from us in this matter.”

15 Only Jonathan son of Asahel and Jahzeiah son of Tikvah were[cl] against this, assisted by Meshullam and Shabbethai the Levite. 16 So the exiles proceeded accordingly. Ezra the priest separated out[cm] by name men who were leaders in their family groups.[cn] They sat down to consider this matter on the first day of the tenth month, 17 and on the first day of the first month they finished considering all the men who had married foreign wives.

Those Who Had Taken Foreign Wives

18 It was determined[co] that from the descendants of the priests, the following had taken foreign wives: from the descendants of Jeshua son of Jozadak, and his brothers: Maaseiah, Eliezer, Jarib, and Gedaliah. 19 (They gave their word[cp] to send away their wives; their guilt offering was a ram from the flock for their guilt.)

20 From the descendants of Immer: Hanani and Zebadiah.

21 From the descendants of Harim: Maaseiah, Elijah, Shemaiah, Jehiel, and Uzziah.

22 From the descendants of Pashhur: Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethanel, Jozabad, and Elasah.

23 From the Levites: Jozabad, Shimei, Kelaiah (also known as Kelita), Pethahiah, Judah, and Eliezer.

24 From the singers: Eliashib. From the gatekeepers: Shallum, Telem, and Uri.

25 From the Israelites: from the descendants of Parosh: Ramiah, Izziah, Malkijah, Mijamin, Eleazar, Malkijah, and Benaiah.

26 From the descendants of Elam: Mattaniah, Zechariah, Jehiel, Abdi, Jeremoth, and Elijah.

27 From the descendants of Zattu: Elioenai, Eliashib, Mattaniah, Jeremoth, Zabad, and Aziza.

28 From the descendants of Bebai: Jehohanan, Hananiah, Zabbai, and Athlai.

29 From the descendants of Bani: Meshullam, Malluch, Adaiah, Jashub, Sheal, and Jeremoth.

30 From the descendants of Pahath Moab: Adna, Kelal, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattaniah, Bezalel, Binnui, and Manasseh.

31 From[cq] the descendants of Harim: Eliezer, Ishijah, Malkijah, Shemaiah, Shimeon, 32 Benjamin, Malluch, and Shemariah.

33 From the descendants of Hashum: Mattenai, Mattattah, Zabad, Eliphelet, Jeremai, Manasseh, and Shimei.

34 From the descendants of Bani:[cr] Maadai, Amram, Uel, 35 Benaiah, Bedeiah, Keluhi, 36 Vaniah, Meremoth, Eliashib, 37 Mattaniah, Mattenai, and Jaasu.

38 From[cs] the descendants of Binnui: Shimei, 39 Shelemiah, Nathan, Adaiah, 40 Machnadebai, Shashai, Sharai, 41 Azarel, Shelemiah, Shemariah, 42 Shallum, Amariah, and Joseph.

43 From the descendants of Nebo: Jeiel, Mattithiah, Zabad, Zebina, Jaddai, Joel, and Benaiah.

44 All these had taken foreign wives, and some of them also had children by these women.[ct]


  1. Ezra 7:1 sn If the Artaxerxes of Ezra 7:1 is Artaxerxes I Longimanus (ca. 464-423 b.c.), Ezra must have arrived in Jerusalem ca. 458 b.c., since Ezra 7:7-8 connects the time of his arrival to the seventh year of the king. The arrival of Nehemiah is then linked to the twentieth year of the king (Neh 1:1), or ca. 445 b.c. Some scholars, however, have suggested that Ezra 7:7 should be read as “the thirty-seventh year” rather than “the seventh year.” This would have Ezra coming to Jerusalem after, rather than before, the arrival of Nehemiah. Others have taken the seventh year of Ezra 7:7-8 to refer not to Artaxerxes I but to Artaxerxes II, who ruled ca. 404-358 b.c. In this understanding Ezra would have returned to Jerusalem ca. 398 b.c., a good many years after the return of Nehemiah. Neither of these views is certain, however, and it seems better to retain the traditional understanding of the chronological sequence of returns by Ezra and Nehemiah. With this understanding there is a gap of about fifty-eight years between chapter six, which describes the dedication of the temple in 516 b.c., and chapter seven, which opens with Ezra’s coming to Jerusalem in 458 b.c.
  2. Ezra 7:1 tn The words “came up from Babylon” do not appear in the Hebrew text until v. 6. They have been supplied here for the sake of clarity.
  3. Ezra 7:7 tc The translation reads the Hiphil singular וַיַּעֲל (vayyaʿal, “he [Ezra] brought up”) rather than the Qal plural וַיַּעַלוּ (vayyaʿalu, “they came up”) of the Heb “he brought”; the referent (Ezra) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  4. Ezra 7:9 tc The translation reads יִסַּד (yissad, “he appointed” [= determined]) rather than the reading יְסֻד (yesud, “foundation”) of the MT. (The words “to make” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.)
  5. Ezra 7:9 sn Apparently it took the caravan almost four months to make the 500 mile journey.
  6. Ezra 7:10 tn Heb “established his heart.”
  7. Ezra 7:10 tn Heb “to do and to teach.” The expression may be a hendiadys, in which case it would have the sense of “effectively teaching.”
  8. Ezra 7:11 tn Heb “this.”
  9. Ezra 7:11 tn Heb “the priest, the scribe.” So also in v. 21.
  10. Ezra 7:11 tn The words “Ezra was” are not in the Hebrew text but have been added in the translation for clarity.
  11. Ezra 7:12 sn Ezra 7:12-26 is written in Aramaic rather than Hebrew.
  12. Ezra 7:12 tn The verse ends with גְּמִיר וּכְעֶנֶת (gemir ukheʿenet) meaning “completed and now” or “perfect and now.” Some take the masculine form גְּמִיר (gemir) to apply to Ezra, as an expert scribe (Youngs, Holman, Darby). Many others take it as an abbreviated greeting “perfect (peace)” (KJV, NASB, ESV). Some simply render “Greetings” (NIV). The second term “and now” is understood either as beginning the letter’s text, i.e., that it belongs in the next verse (ESV), or as a form of “et cetera” meaning that the full introduction, whether of Ezra’s titles or of a lengthier list of greetings was deliberately omitted as extraneous to Ezra’s purposes here. The LXX interprets it as an introduction, “the message and answer are completed.”
  13. Ezra 7:13 tn Heb “from me is placed a decree.” So also in v. 21.
  14. Ezra 7:14 tn Aram “sent.”
  15. Ezra 7:14 tn Aram “in your hand.”
  16. Ezra 7:16 tn Aram “find.”
  17. Ezra 7:17 tn Aram “their meal offerings and their libations.”
  18. Ezra 7:18 tn Aram “brothers.”
  19. Ezra 7:19 tn Or “before.”
  20. Ezra 7:20 tn Aram “may fall to you to give.”
  21. Ezra 7:21 tn Aram “who are in.”
  22. Ezra 7:22 tc The translation reads מְשַׁח בַּתִּין (meshakh battin) rather than מְשַׁח בַּתִּין (battin meshakh) of the MT.
  23. Ezra 7:22 tn Aram “he did not write.”
  24. Ezra 7:23 tn The Aramaic word used here for “wrath” (קְצַף, qetsaf; cf. Heb קָצַף, qatsaf) is usually used in the Hebrew Bible for God’s anger as opposed to human anger (but contra Eccl 5:17 [MT 5:16]; Esth 1:18; 2 Kgs 3:27). The fact that this word is used in v. 23 may have theological significance, pointing to the possibility of divine judgment if the responsible parties should fail to make available these provisions for the temple.
  25. Ezra 7:24 tn Aram “we are making known to you.”
  26. Ezra 7:25 tn Aram “in your hand.”
  27. Ezra 7:25 tc For the MT reading שָׁפְטִין (shoftim, “judges”) the LXX uses the noun γραμματεῖς (grammateis, “scribes”).
  28. Ezra 7:26 tn On the meaning of this word see HALOT 1820-21 s.v. אָסְפַּרְנָא; E. Vogt, Lexicon linguae aramaicae, 14.
  29. Ezra 7:27 sn At this point the language of the book reverts from Aramaic (7:12-26) back to Hebrew.
  30. Ezra 8:1 tn Heb “the heads of their families.”
  31. Ezra 8:3 tc The MT reads here “from the sons of Shecaniah” with no descendant identified in what follows, contrary to the pattern of the context elsewhere. However, it seems better to understand the first phrase of v. 3 with the end of v. 2; the phrase would then modify the name “Hattush.” This understanding requires emending the reading מִבְּנֵי (mibbene, “from the sons of”) in the MT to בֵּן (ben, “[the] son of”). Cf. NAB, TEV, CEV, NLT.
  32. Ezra 8:5 tc The MT lacks “of Zattu.” The translation adopted above follows the LXX in including the words.
  33. Ezra 8:10 tc The MT lacks “Bani.” It is restored on the basis of certain LXX mss.
  34. Ezra 8:13 tn Or “those who came later.” The exact meaning of this Hebrew phrase is uncertain. It may refer to the last remaining members of Adonikam’s family who were in Babylon. So, for example, H. G. M. Williamson, Ezra, Nehemiah (WBC), 108; cf. NASB, NIV, NCV. The phrase has also been taken to mean “the younger sons (so NAB), or the ones who “returned at a later date” (so TEV).
  35. Ezra 8:14 tc The translation reads with the Qere, the Lucianic Greek recension, the Syriac Peshitta, and the Vulgate וְזַּכּוּר (vezakkur, “and Zaccur”) rather than the Kethib of the MT, וְזַבוּד (vezavud, “and Zabbud”).
  36. Ezra 8:14 tn The MT has “with him” (so NAB). The present translation (“with them”) is based on the reading of many medieval Hebrew mss, the Lucianic Greek recension, the Syriac Peshitta, and the Vulgate (so also KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
  37. Ezra 8:15 tn Or “I gathered them.”
  38. Ezra 8:15 tn Heb “river.” So also in vv. 21, 31.
  39. Ezra 8:16 tc The name “Elnathan” occurs twice in this list. Some, assuming an accidental repetition, would include it only once (cf. NAB).
  40. Ezra 8:17 tn Heb “I placed in their mouth words.”
  41. Ezra 8:17 tc The translation reads with the LXX and Vulgate וְאֶחָיו (veʾekhayv, “and his brethren” = “relatives”; so NCV, NLT) rather than the reading אָחִיו (ʾakhiv, “his brother”) of the MT.
  42. Ezra 8:17 tn Heb “in the place called.” This phrase has not been repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  43. Ezra 8:18 tn Heb “and Sherebiah.” The words “this man was” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
  44. Ezra 8:18 tn Or “relatives” (so CEV; NRSV “kin”); also in v. 19.
  45. Ezra 8:21 tn Heb “a straight way.”
  46. Ezra 8:22 tn A number of modern translations regard this as a collective singular and translate “from enemies” (also in v. 31).
  47. Ezra 8:22 tn Heb “his strength and his anger.” The expression is a hendiadys (one concept expressed through two terms).
  48. Ezra 8:24 tc The translation reads וַחֲשַׁבְיָה וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה (veshereveyah vakhashavyah, “and Sherebiah and Hashabiah”) rather than the reading חֲשַׁבְיָה לְשֵׁרֵבְיָה (leshereveyah khashavyah, “to Sherebiah Hashabiah”) of the MT.
  49. Ezra 8:24 tn Or “relatives”; or “colleagues” (cf. NLT “ten other priests”).
  50. Ezra 8:26 tn Heb “upon their hand.”
  51. Ezra 8:26 tn Possibly “100 silver vessels worth [?] talents” or “silver vessels weighing 100 talents.”
  52. Ezra 8:30 tn Heb “received.”
  53. Ezra 8:31 tn Heb “from the hand of the enemy and the one who lies in wait.” Some modern English versions render the latter phrase as “ambushes” (cf. NASB, NRSV).
  54. Ezra 8:33 tn Heb “upon the hand of.”
  55. Ezra 8:34 tn The words “was verified” are not in the Hebrew text but have been supplied in the translation for clarity.
  56. Ezra 9:1 tn Heb “the peoples of the lands.” So also in v. 2.
  57. Ezra 9:2 tn Heb “the holy seed,” referring to the Israelites as God’s holy people.
  58. Ezra 9:4 tn Heb “who trembled at the words of the God of Israel.”
  59. Ezra 9:4 tn Heb “the exile”; the words “the people” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for clarity.
  60. Ezra 9:5 tn The Hebrew word used here is a hapax legomenon. It refers to the self-abasement that accompanies religious sorrow and fasting.
  61. Ezra 9:6 tn Heb “I said.”
  62. Ezra 9:7 tc The MT lacks “and” here, but see the LXX and Vulgate.
  63. Ezra 9:7 tn Heb “the kings of the lands.”
  64. Ezra 9:8 tn Heb “according to a little moment.”
  65. Ezra 9:8 tn Heb “a peg” or “tent peg.” The imagery behind this word is drawn from the experience of nomads who put down pegs as they pitched their tents and made camp after times of travel.
  66. Ezra 9:8 tn Heb “to cause our eyes to shine.” The expression is a figure of speech for “to revive.” See DCH 1:160 s.v. אור Hi.7.
  67. Ezra 9:9 tn Heb “has granted us reviving.”
  68. Ezra 9:9 tn Heb “to cause to stand.”
  69. Ezra 9:11 tn Heb “through your servants the prophets, saying.”
  70. Ezra 9:11 tn Heb “the peoples of the lands.”
  71. Ezra 9:12 tn Heb “sons”; cf. KJV, NAB, NIV, NLT “children”; NCV, TEV “descendants.”
  72. Ezra 9:13 tn Heb “held back downwards from”; KJV “hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve” (NIV, NRSV, NLT all similar).
  73. Ezra 9:15 tn Heb “this”; the referent (the guilt mentioned previously) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  74. Ezra 10:1 tn Heb “with much weeping.”
  75. Ezra 10:2 tc The translation reads with the Qere, many medieval Hebrew mss, the LXX, the Syriac Peshitta, and Vulgate עֵילָם (ʿelam, “Elam”) rather than the reading עוֹלָם (ʿolam, “eternity”) found in the MT.
  76. Ezra 10:2 tn Heb “in that we have given a dwelling to.” So also in vv. 14, 17, 18.
  77. Ezra 10:2 tn Heb “the peoples of the lands.”
  78. Ezra 10:2 tn Heb “upon this.”
  79. Ezra 10:3 tn Heb “cut.”
  80. Ezra 10:3 tn The MT vocalizes this word as a plural, which could be understood as a reference to God, but the context seems to suggest that a human lord is intended. The apparatus of BHS suggests repointing the word as a singular (“my lord”), but this is unnecessary. The plural (“my lords”) can be understood in an honorific sense even when a human being is in view. Most English versions regard this as a reference to Ezra, so the present translation supplies “your” before “counsel” to make this clear.
  81. Ezra 10:3 tn Heb “who tremble at”; NAB, NIV “who fear.”
  82. Ezra 10:5 tn Heb “to do according to this plan.”
  83. Ezra 10:6 tc The translation reads וַיָּלֶן (vayyalen, “and he stayed”) rather than the reading וַיֵּלֶךְ (vayyelekh, “and he went”) of the MT. Cf. the LXX.
  84. Ezra 10:7 tn Heb “voice.”
  85. Ezra 10:7 tn Heb “they sent.”
  86. Ezra 10:11 tn Heb “the peoples of the land.”
  87. Ezra 10:12 tn Heb “thus according to your word [singular = Qere] concerning us, to do.”
  88. Ezra 10:13 tn Heb “the time [is] rain showers.”
  89. Ezra 10:14 tn Heb “stand.”
  90. Ezra 10:15 tn Heb “stood.”
  91. Ezra 10:16 tc The translation reads the Hiphil singular וַיַּבְדֵּל לוֹ (vayyavdel lo, “separated for himself”) rather than the Niphal plural וַיִּבָּדְלוּ (vayyibbadelu, “were separated”) of the MT.
  92. Ezra 10:16 tn Heb “the heads of the fathers, to the house of their fathers, and all of them by name.”
  93. Ezra 10:18 tn Heb “found.”
  94. Ezra 10:19 tn Heb “hand.”
  95. Ezra 10:31 tc The translation reads with many medieval Hebrew mss and ancient versions וּמִבְּנֵי (umibbene, “and from the sons of”) rather than the reading וּבְנֵי (uvene, “and the sons of”) found in the MT.
  96. Ezra 10:34 tn The name “Bani” appears in both v. 29 and v. 34. One of these names has probably undergone alteration in the transmission process, but it is not clear exactly where the problem lies or how it should be corrected.
  97. Ezra 10:38 tc The translation reads וּמִבְּנֵי בִנּוּי (umibbene vinnuy, “and from the sons of Binnui”) rather than the reading וּבָנִי וּבִנּוּי (uvani uvinnuy, “and Bani and Binnui”) of the MT.
  98. Ezra 10:44 tc The final statement in v. 44 is difficult in terms of both its syntax and its meaning. The present translation attempts to make sense of the MT. But the passage may have undergone textual variation in the transmission process. One proposal is that the text should be emended to read “and they sent these wives and children away” (cf. NAB, NRSV, TEV, CEV).