Exodus 19-21Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)
19 (iv) In the third month after the people of Isra’el had left the land of Egypt, the same day they came to the Sinai Desert. 2 After setting out from Refidim and arriving at the Sinai Desert, they set up camp in the desert; there in front of the mountain, Isra’el set up camp.
3 Moshe went up to God, and Adonai called to him from the mountain: “Here is what you are to say to the household of Ya‘akov, to tell the people of Isra’el: 4 ‘You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. 5 Now if you will pay careful attention to what I say and keep my covenant, then you will be my own treasure from among all the peoples, for all the earth is mine; 6 and you will be a kingdom of cohanim for me, a nation set apart.’ These are the words you are to speak to the people of Isra’el.”
(v) 7 Moshe came, summoned the leaders of the people and presented them with all these words which Adonai had ordered him to say. 8 All the people answered as one, “Everything Adonai has said, we will do.” Moshe reported the words of the people to Adonai. 9 Adonai said to Moshe, “See, I am coming to you in a thick cloud, so that the people will be able to hear when I speak with you and also to trust in you forever.” Moshe had told Adonai what the people had said; 10 so Adonai said to Moshe, “Go to the people; today and tomorrow separate them for me by having them wash their clothing; 11 and prepare for the third day. For on the third day, Adonai will come down on Mount Sinai before the eyes of all the people. 12 You are to set limits for the people all around; and say, ‘Be careful not to go up on the mountain or even touch its base; whoever touches the mountain will surely be put to death. 13 No hand is to touch him; for he must be stoned or shot by arrows; neither animal nor human will be allowed to live.’ When the shofar sounds, they may go up on the mountain.”
(S: vi) 14 Moshe went down from the mountain to the people and separated the people for God, and they washed their clothing. 15 He said to the people, “Prepare for the third day; don’t approach a woman.”
16 On the morning of the third day, there was thunder, lightning and a thick cloud on the mountain. Then a shofar blast sounded so loudly that all the people in the camp trembled. 17 Moshe brought the people out of the camp to meet God; they stood near the base of the mountain. 18 Mount Sinai was enveloped in smoke, because Adonai descended onto it in fire — its smoke went up like the smoke from a furnace, and the whole mountain shook violently. 19 As the sound of the shofar grew louder and louder, Moshe spoke; and God answered him with a voice.
(A: vi, S: vii) 20 Adonai came down onto Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain; then Adonai called Moshe to the top of the mountain; and Moshe went up. 21 Adonai said to Moshe, “Go down and warn the people not to force their way through to Adonai to see him; if they do, many of them will perish. 22 Even the cohanim, who are allowed to approach Adonai, must keep themselves holy; otherwise, Adonai may break out against them.” 23 Moshe said to Adonai, “The people can’t come up to Mount Sinai, because you ordered us to set limits around the mountain and separate it.” 24 But Adonai answered him, “Go, get down! Then come back up, you and Aharon with you. But don’t let the cohanim and the people force their way through to come up to Adonai, or he will break out against them.”
25 So Moshe went down to the people and told them.
20 Then God said all these words:
א 2 “I am Adonai your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the abode of slavery.
ב 3 “You are to have no other gods before me. 4 You are not to make for yourselves a carved image or any kind of representation of anything in heaven above, on the earth beneath or in the water below the shoreline. 5 You are not to bow down to them or serve them; for I, Adonai your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sins of the parents to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 but displaying grace to the thousandth generation of those who love me and obey my mitzvot.
ג 7 “You are not to use lightly the name of Adonai your God, because Adonai will not leave unpunished someone who uses his name lightly.
ד 8 “Remember the day, Shabbat, to set it apart for God. 9 You have six days to labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Shabbat for Adonai your God. On it, you are not to do any kind of work — not you, your son or your daughter, not your male or female slave, not your livestock, and not the foreigner staying with you inside the gates to your property. 11 For in six days, Adonai made heaven and earth, the sea and everything in them; but on the seventh day he rested. This is why Adonai blessed the day, Shabbat, and separated it for himself.
ה 12 “Honor your father and mother, so that you may live long in the land which Adonai your God is giving you.
ו 13 “Do not murder.
ז (14) “Do not commit adultery.
ח (15) “Do not steal.
ט (16) “Do not give false evidence against your neighbor.
י 14 (17) “Do not covet your neighbor’s house; do not covet your neighbor’s wife, his male or female slave, his ox, his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor.”
(A: vii) 15 (18) All the people experienced the thunder, the lightning, the sound of the shofar, and the mountain smoking. When the people saw it, they trembled. Standing at a distance, 16 (19) they said to Moshe, “You, speak with us; and we will listen. But don’t let God speak with us, or we will die.” 17 (20) Moshe answered the people, “Don’t be afraid, because God has come only to test you and make you fear him, so that you won’t commit sins.” 18 (21) So the people stood at a distance, but Moshe approached the thick darkness where God was.
(A: Maftir) 19 (22) Adonai said to Moshe, “Here is what you are to say to the people of Isra’el: ‘You yourselves have seen that I spoke with you from heaven. 20 (23) You are not to make with me gods of silver, nor are you to make gods of gold for yourselves. (S: Maftir) 21 (24) For me you need make only an altar of earth; on it you will sacrifice your burnt offerings, peace offerings, sheep, goats and cattle. In every place where I cause my name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you. 22 (25) If you do make me an altar of stone, you are not to build it of cut stones; for if you use a tool on it, you profane it. 23 (26) Likewise, you are not to use steps to go up to my altar; so that you won’t be indecently uncovered.’”
Haftarah Yitro: Yesha‘yahu (Isaiah) 6:1–7:6; 9:5(6)– 6(7) (A); 6:1–13 (S)
B’rit Hadashah suggested readings for Parashah Yitro: Mattityahu (Matthew) 5:21–30; 15:1–11; 19:16–30; Mark 7:5–15; 10:17–31; Luke 18:18–30; Acts 6:1–7; Romans 2:17–29; 7:7–12; 13:8–10; Ephesians 6:1–3; 1 Timothy 3:1–14; 2 Timothy 2:2; Titus 1:5–9; Messianic Jews (Hebrews) 12:18–29; Ya‘akov (James) 2:8–13; 1 Kefa (1 Peter) 2:9–10
Parashah 18: Mishpatim (Rulings) 21:1–24:18
21 “These are the rulings you are to present to them:
2 “If you purchase a Hebrew slave, he is to work six years; but in the seventh, he is to be given his freedom without having to pay anything. 3 If he came single, he is to leave single; if he was married when he came, his wife is to go with him when he leaves. 4 But if his master gave him a wife, and she bore him sons or daughters, then the wife and her children will belong to her master, and he will leave by himself. 5 Nevertheless, if the slave declares, ‘I love my master, my wife and my children, so I don’t want to go free,’ 6 then his master is to bring him before God; and there at the door or doorpost, his master is to pierce his ear with an awl; and the man will be his slave for life.
7 “If a man sells his daughter as a slave, she is not to go free like the men-slaves. 8 If her master married her but decides she no longer pleases him, then he is to allow her to be redeemed. He is not allowed to sell her to a foreign people, because he has treated her unfairly. 9 If he has her marry his son, then he is to treat her like a daughter. 10 If he marries another wife, he is not to reduce her food, clothing or marital rights. 11 If he fails to provide her with these three things, she is to be given her freedom without having to pay anything.
12 “Whoever attacks a person and causes his death must be put to death. 13 If it was not premeditated but an act of God, then I will designate for you a place to which he can flee. 14 But if someone willfully kills another after deliberate planning, you are to take him even from my altar and put him to death.
15 “Whoever attacks his father or mother must be put to death.
16 “Whoever kidnaps someone must be put to death, regardless of whether he has already sold him or the person is found still in his possession.
17 “Whoever curses his father or mother must be put to death.
18 “If two people fight, and one hits the other with a stone or with his fist, and the injured party doesn’t die but is confined to his bed; 19 then, if he recovers enough to be able to walk around outside, even if with a cane, the attacker will be free of liability, except to compensate him for his loss of time and take responsibility for his care until his recovery is complete.
(ii) 20 “If a person beats his male or female slave with a stick so severely that he dies, he is to be punished; 21 except that if the slave lives for a day or two, he is not to be punished, since the slave is his property.
22 “If people are fighting with each other and happen to hurt a pregnant woman so badly that her unborn child dies, then, even if no other harm follows, he must be fined. He must pay the amount set by the woman’s husband and confirmed by judges. 23 But if any harm follows, then you are to give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound and bruise for bruise.
26 “If a person hits his male or female slave’s eye and destroys it, he must let him go free in compensation for his eye. 27 If he knocks out his male or female slave’s tooth, he must let him go free in compensation for his tooth.
28 “If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox is to be stoned and its flesh not eaten, but the owner of the ox will have no further liability. 29 However, if the ox was in the habit of goring in the past, and the owner was warned but did not confine it, so that it ended up killing a man or a woman; then the ox is to be stoned, and its owner too is to be put to death. 30 However, a ransom may be imposed on him; and the death penalty will be commuted if he pays the amount imposed. 31 If the ox gores a son or daughter, the same rule applies. 32 If the ox gores a male or female slave, its owner must give their master twelve ounces of silver; and the ox is to be stoned to death.
33 “If someone removes the cover from a cistern or digs one and fails to cover it, and an ox or donkey falls in, 34 the owner of the cistern must make good the loss by compensating the animal’s owner; but the dead animal will be his.
35 “If one person’s ox hurts another’s, so that it dies, they are to sell the live ox and divide the revenue from the sale; and they are also to divide the dead animal. 36 But if it is known that the ox was in the habit of goring in the past, and the owner did not confine it; he must pay ox for ox, but the dead animal will be his.
37 (22:1) “If someone steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters or sells it, he is to pay five oxen for an ox and four sheep for a sheep.
Shemot 19-21Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)
19 In the chodesh hashelishi (third new moon), after the Bnei Yisroel had their exodus from Eretz Mitzrayim, on that very day they came into the Midbar Sinai.
2 For they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to Midbar Sinai, and had encamped in the midbar; and there Yisroel camped before HaHar.
3 And Moshe went up to HaElohim, and Hashem called out unto him from HaHar, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the Bais Ya’akov, and declare unto the Bnei Yisroel;
4 You yourselves have seen what I did unto the Mitzrayim, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto Myself.
5 Now therefore, if ye will obey My voice very carefully, and be shomer over My brit, then ye shall be a segullah (treasured possession) unto Me above all people; for kol ha’aretz is Mine;
6 And ye shall be unto Me a mamlechet kohanim, and a goy kadosh. These are the words which thou shalt recount unto the Bnei Yisroel.
7 And Moshe came and summoned the Ziknei HaAm, and set authoritatively before their faces all these words just as Hashem commanded him.
8 And kol HaAm answered together, and said, All that Hashem hath spoken we will do. And Moshe brought back the words of HaAm unto Hashem.
9 And Hashem said unto Moshe, Hinei, I am coming unto thee in a thick cloud, that HaAm may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee l’olam. Then Moshe told the words of HaAm unto Hashem.
10 So Hashem said unto Moshe, Go unto HaAm, and set them apart as kodesh today and tomorrow, and let them wash their clothing,
11 And be ready by Yom HaShelishi; for Yom HaShelishi Hashem will come down in the sight of kol HaAm upon Mt. Sinai.
12 And thou shalt set boundaries unto HaAm all around, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into HaHar, or touch the edge of it; whosoever toucheth HaHar shall be surely put to death;
13 There shall no yad touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or surely mortally shot; whether it be behemah or ish, it shall not live; when the yovel soundeth long, they shall come up to HaHar.
14 So Moshe came down from HaHar unto HaAm, and set apart as kodesh HaAm; and they washed their clothes.
15 Then he said to HaAm, Be ready by Sheloshet Yamim; come not into your isha.
16 And it came to pass on the Yom HaShelishi when the boker was breaking, that there were thunderings and lightnings, and a heavy cloud upon HaHar, and the blast of the shofar exceeding loud; so that kol HaAm that was in the machaneh trembled with terror.
17 And Moshe led HaAm forth out of the machaneh to encounter HaElohim; and they stood at the foot of HaHar.
18 And Mt. Sinai was altogether smoking, because Hashem descended upon it in eish; and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of the furnace, and kol HaHar shook violently.
19 And when the sound of the shofar was moving [closer], and grew louder and louder, Moshe spoke, and HaElohim answered him in thunder.
20 And Hashem came down upon Mt. Sinai, onto the top of HaHar; and Hashem summoned Moshe up to the top of HaHar; and Moshe went up.
21 And Hashem said unto Moshe, Go down, warn HaAm, lest they push through toward Hashem to gaze, and many of them fall perishing.
22 And let the kohanim also, which come near to Hashem, set themselves apart as kodesh, lest Hashem break forth upon them.
23 And Moshe said unto Hashem, HaAm cannot come up to Mt. Sinai; for You Yourself charged us, saying, Establish boundaries for HaHar, and set it apart as kodesh.
24 And Hashem said unto him, Away, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aharon with thee; but let not the kohanim and HaAm push through to come up unto Hashem, lest He break forth upon them.
25 So Moshe went down unto HaAm and told them.
20 Then Elohim spoke all these words, saying,
2 I am Hashem Eloheicha, Who brought thee out of Eretz Mitzrayim, out of the bais avadim (house of slaves).
3 Thou shalt have no elohim acherim in My presence.
4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any pesel, or any temunah of any thing that is in Shomayim above, or that is in ha’aretz beneath, or that is in the mayim under ha’aretz.
5 Thou shalt not tishtacheveh to them, nor serve them; for I Hashem Eloheicha am an El kanna, visiting the avon Avot upon the Banim unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;
6 But showing chesed unto thousands of them that love Me, and are shomer over My mitzvot.
7 Thou shalt not take the Shem Hashem Eloheicha in vain; for Hashem will not hold him guiltless that taketh Shmo in vain.
8 Remember Yom HaShabbos, to keep it kodesh.
9 Sheshet yamim shalt thou labor, and do all thy work:
10 But the Yom HaShevi’i is the Shabbos of Hashem Eloheicha; in it thou shalt not do any melachah, thou, nor thy ben, nor thy bat, thy eved, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy ger that is within thy gates;
11 For in sheshet yamim Hashem made Shomayim and Ha’Aretz, the yam, and all that in them is, and rested Yom HaShevi’i; for this reason Hashem blessed Yom HaShabbos, and set it apart as kodesh.
12 Honor thy av and thy em; that thy yamim may be long upon ha’adamah which Hashem Eloheicha giveth thee.
13 Thou shalt not murder.
14 Thou shalt not commit adultery.
15 Thou shalt not steal.
16 Thou shalt not bear ed sheker against thy neighbor.
17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s bais, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s isha, nor his eved, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is thy neighbor’s.
18 And kol HaAm saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the sound of the shofar, and HaHar smoking; and when HaAm saw it, they drew back, and stood afar off.
19 And they said unto Moshe, Thou speak with us, and we will hear; but let not Elohim speak with us, lest we die (see Bereshis 42:23).
20 And Moshe said unto HaAm, Fear not: for HaElohim is come to test you, and that His fear may be upon your faces, that ye sin not.
21 And HaAm stood afar off, while Moshe drew near unto the thick cloud where HaElohim was.
22 And Hashem said unto Moshe, Thus thou shalt say unto the Bnei Yisroel, You yourselves have seen that from Shomayim I have spoken with you.
23 Ye shall not make beside Me elohei kesef, neither shall ye make for yourselves elohei zahav.
24 Mizbe’ach adamah thou shalt make unto Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy olot, and thy shelamim, thy tzon, and thine oxen; in all places where I cause My Shem to be remembered, I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.
25 And if thou wilt make Me a Mizbe’ach avanim, thou shalt not build it of cut stone; for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast rendered it polluted.
26 Neither shalt thou go up by stairs unto Mine Mizbe’ach, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon.
21 Now these are the mishpatim which thou shalt set before them.
2 If thou acquire an eved Ivri, shesh shanim he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out lachafeshi (to the freedom) for no charge.
3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he were a ba’al isha, then his isha shall go out with him.
4 If his adon have given him an isha, and to him she gives birth to banim or banot; the isha and her yeledim shall be her adon’s, and he shall go out [free] by himself.
5 And if the eved shall plainly say, I love adoni, my isha, and my banim; I will not go out lachafeshi (to the freedom);
6 Then his adon shall bring him unto HaElohim; he shall also bring him to the delet (door), or unto the mezuzah; and his adon shall pierce through his ozen (ear) with a piercing-tool; then he shall serve him l’olam.
7 And if an ish sell his bat to be an amah (maidservant), she shall not go out as the avadim [go free].
8 If she please not her adon, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed [i.e., let her freedom be purchased]; to sell her unto an am nochri (foreign people) he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her.
9 And if he have betrothed her unto his ben, he shall deal with her according to the mishpat habanot (rights of [free] daughters; i.e., those rights of verse 10).
10 If he take him another, her food, her covering of clothing, and her onah (conjugal rights) shall he not deprive.
11 And if he does not perform these three unto her, then shall she go out free without kesef.
12 He that strikes down an ish, so that the ish die, shall be surely put to death.
13 And if he lie not in ambush, but HaElohim deliver him into his yad, then I will appoint thee a makom (i.e., city of refuge) where he shall flee there.
14 But if an ish come premeditatedly upon his re’a, to murder him by guile; thou shalt take him from Mine Mizbe’ach for capital punishment.
15 And he that striketh down his av, or his em, shall be surely put to death.
16 And he that kidnaps an ish, and selleth him, or if he be found in his power, the kidnapper shall surely be put to death.
17 And he that curseth his av, or his em, shall surely be put to death.
18 And if anashim quarrel, and one strike another with an even (stone), or with his egrof (fist), and he die not, but is bedfast;
19 If he rise again, and walk around outside upon his staff, then shall he that struck down him be absolved; only shivto yiten (he shall give for his lost time), and shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed.
20 And if an ish strikes his eved, or his amah, with a shevet (rod), and he die under his yad; he shall be surely avenged.
21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a yom or two, he shall not be avenged; for he is his kesef.
22 If men fight, and hurt an isha harah (pregnant woman), so that she gives birth prematurely but not with any injury; he shall be surely punished, according as the ba’al haisha will assess a fine upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine.
23 And if any ason (harm, fatality) follow, then thou shalt take nefesh for nefesh,
24 Ayin for ayin, shen for shen, yad for yad, regel for regel,
25 Burn for burn, wound for wound, chaburah (stripe laceration) for chaburah.
26 And if an ish strike the ayin of his eved, or the ayin of his amah, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his ayin’s sake.
27 And if he strike his eved’s shen (tooth), or his amah’s shen; he shall let him go free for his shen’s sake.
28 If an ox gore an ish or an isha, that they die; then the ox shall be surely stoned, and his basar shall not be eaten; but the ba’al hashor (owner of the ox) shall be exempt from punishment.
29 But if the shor habitually from mitmol (yesterday) gored, and its ba’al has been warned, and he hath not kept it in the bull pen, and it hath killed an ish or an isha; the shor shall be stoned, and his ba’al also shall be put to death.
30 If there be laid on him a kofer (atonement payment, ransom), then he shall give for the redemption of his nefesh whatsoever is assessed upon him.
31 Whether he have gored a ben, or have gored a bat, according to this mishpat shall it be done unto him.
32 If the ox shall gore an eved or an amah; he shall give unto their adon sheloshim shekalim kesef, and the ox shall be stoned.
33 And if an ish shall open a bor (pit), or if an ish shall dig a bor and not cover it, and an ox or a donkey fall therein;
34 The ba’al habor shall make restitution, and give kesef unto their ba’alim; and the carcass shall be his.
35 And if the shor ish (ox of a man) hurt the ox of a neighbor, that it die; then they shall sell the shor hachai (live ox), and divide the kesef of it; and the carcass also they shall divide.
36 Or if it be known that the shor hath habitually from mitmol (yesterday) gored, and his ba’al hath not kept it in the bull pen; he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the carcass shall belong to him.