New English Translation
35 Moses assembled the whole community of the Israelites and said to them, “These are the things that the Lord has commanded you to do.[a] 2 In six days[b] work may be done, but on the seventh day there must be a holy day[c] for you, a Sabbath of complete rest to the Lord.[d] Anyone who does work on it will be put to death. 3 You must not kindle a fire[e] in any of your homes[f] on the Sabbath day.”[g]
4 [h] Moses spoke to the whole community of the Israelites, “This is the word that the Lord has commanded: 5 ‘Take[i] an offering for the Lord. Let everyone who has a willing heart[j] bring[k] an offering to the Lord:[l] gold, silver, bronze; 6 blue, purple, and scarlet yarn; fine linen; goats’ hair; 7 ram skins dyed red; fine leather;[m] acacia wood; 8 olive oil for the light; spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense; 9 onyx stones, and other gems[n] for mounting[o] on the ephod and the breastpiece. 10 Every skilled person[p] among you is to come and make all that the Lord has commanded: 11 the tabernacle with[q] its tent, its covering, its clasps, its frames, its crossbars, its posts, and its bases; 12 the ark, with its poles, the atonement lid, and the special curtain that conceals it; 13 the table with its poles and all its vessels, and the Bread of the Presence; 14 the lampstand for[r] the light and its accessories, its lamps, and oil for the light; 15 and the altar of incense with its poles, the anointing oil, and the fragrant incense; the hanging for the door at the entrance of the tabernacle; 16 the altar for the burnt offering with its bronze grating that is on it, its poles, and all its utensils; the large basin and its pedestal; 17 the hangings of the courtyard, its posts and its bases, and the curtain for the gateway to the courtyard; 18 tent pegs for the tabernacle and tent pegs for the courtyard and their ropes; 19 the woven garments for serving in the Holy Place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments for his sons to minister as priests.’”
20 So the whole community of the Israelites went out from the presence of Moses. 21 Everyone[s] whose heart stirred him to action[t] and everyone whose spirit was willing[u] came and brought the offering for the Lord for the work of the tent of meeting, for all its service, and for the holy garments.[v] 22 They came, men and women alike,[w] all who had willing hearts. They brought brooches, earrings, rings and ornaments, all kinds of gold jewelry,[x] and everyone came who waved[y] a wave offering of gold to the Lord.
23 Everyone who had[z] blue, purple, or[aa] scarlet yarn, fine linen, goats’ hair, ram skins dyed red, or fine leather[ab] brought them.[ac] 24 Everyone making an offering of silver or bronze brought it as[ad] an offering to the Lord, and everyone who had acacia wood[ae] for any work of the service brought it.[af] 25 Every woman who was skilled[ag] spun with her hands and brought what she had spun, blue, purple, or scarlet yarn, or fine linen, 26 and all the women whose heart stirred them to action and who were skilled[ah] spun goats’ hair.
27 The leaders brought onyx stones and other gems to be mounted[ai] for the ephod and the breastpiece, 28 and spices and olive oil for the light, for the anointing oil, and for the fragrant incense.
29 The Israelites brought a freewill offering to the Lord, every man and woman whose heart was willing to bring materials for all the work that the Lord through[aj] Moses had commanded them[ak] to do.
30 Moses said to the Israelites, “See, the Lord has chosen[al] Bezalel son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. 31 He has filled him with the Spirit of God—with skill, with understanding, with knowledge, and in all kinds of work— 32 to design artistic designs, to work in gold, in silver, and in bronze, 33 and in cutting stones for their setting,[am] and in cutting wood, to do work in every artistic craft.[an] 34 And he has put it in his heart[ao] to teach, he and Oholiab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. 35 He has filled them with skill[ap] to do all kinds of work[aq] as craftsmen, as designers, as embroiderers in blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and in fine linen, and as weavers. They are[ar] craftsmen in all the work[as] and artistic designers.[at] 36 1 So Bezalel and Oholiab and every skilled person[au] in whom the Lord has put skill[av] and ability[aw] to know how[ax] to do all the work for the service[ay] of the sanctuary are to do the work[az] according to all that the Lord has commanded.”
2 Moses summoned[ba] Bezalel and Oholiab and every skilled person in whom[bb] the Lord had put skill—everyone whose heart stirred him[bc] to volunteer[bd] to do the work. 3 They received from Moses all the offerings the Israelites had brought to do[be] the work for the service of the sanctuary, and they still continued to bring him a freewill offering each morning.[bf] 4 So all the skilled people who were doing all the work on the sanctuary came from the work[bg] they were doing 5 and told Moses, “The people are bringing much more than[bh] is needed for the completion[bi] of the work which the Lord commanded us to do!”[bj]
6 Moses instructed them to take[bk] his message[bl] throughout the camp, saying, “Let no man or woman do anymore work for the offering for the sanctuary.” So the people were restrained from bringing any more.[bm] 7 Now the materials were more than enough[bn] for them to do all the work.[bo]
The Building of the Tabernacle
8 All the skilled among those who were doing the work made the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twisted linen and blue and purple and scarlet yarn; they were made with cherubim that were the work of an artistic designer. 9 The length of one curtain was 42 feet, and the width of one curtain was 6 feet—the same size for each of the curtains. 10 He joined[bp] five of the curtains to one another, and the other[bq] five curtains he joined to one another. 11 He made loops of blue material along the edge of the end curtain in the first set; he did the same along the edge of the end curtain in the second set. 12 He made fifty loops on the first curtain, and he made fifty loops on the end curtain that was in the second set, with the loops opposite one another. 13 He made fifty gold clasps and joined the curtains together to one another with the clasps, so that the tabernacle was a unit.[br]
14 He made curtains of goats’ hair for a tent over the tabernacle; he made eleven curtains.[bs] 15 The length of one curtain was 45 feet, and the width of one curtain was 6 feet—one size for all eleven curtains. 16 He joined five curtains by themselves and six curtains by themselves. 17 He made fifty loops along the edge of the end curtain in the first set and fifty loops along the edge of the curtain that joined the second set. 18 He made fifty bronze clasps to join the tent together so that it might be a unit.[bt] 19 He made a covering for the tent out of ram skins dyed red and over that a covering of fine leather.[bu]
20 He made the frames[bv] for the tabernacle of acacia wood[bw] as uprights.[bx] 21 The length of each[by] frame was 15 feet, the width of each[bz] frame was 2¼ feet, 22 with[ca] two projections per frame parallel one to another.[cb] He made all the frames of the tabernacle in this way. 23 So he made frames for the tabernacle: twenty frames for the south side. 24 He made forty silver bases under the twenty frames—two bases under the first frame for its two projections, and likewise[cc] two bases under the next frame for its two projections, 25 and for the second side of the tabernacle, the north side, he made twenty frames 26 and their forty silver bases, two bases under the first frame and two bases under the next[cd] frame. 27 And for the back of the tabernacle on the west he made six frames. 28 He made two frames for the corners of the tabernacle on the back. 29 At the two corners[ce] they were doubled at the lower end and[cf] finished together at the top in one ring. So he did for both. 30 So there were eight frames and their silver bases, sixteen bases, two bases under each frame.
31 He made bars of acacia wood, five for the frames on one side of the tabernacle 32 and five bars for the frames on the second side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the frames of the tabernacle for the back side on the west. 33 He made the middle bar to reach from end to end in the center of the frames. 34 He overlaid the frames with gold and made their rings of gold to provide places[cg] for the bars, and he overlaid the bars with gold.
35 He made the special curtain of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen; he made[ch] it with cherubim, the work of an artistic designer. 36 He made for it four posts of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold, with gold hooks,[ci] and he cast for them four silver bases.
37 He made a hanging for the entrance of the tent of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer, 38 and its five posts and their hooks. He overlaid their tops[cj] and their bands with gold, but their five bases were bronze.[ck]
The Making of the Ark
37 Bezalel made the ark of acacia wood; its length was 45 inches, its width 27 inches, and its height 27 inches. 2 He overlaid it with pure gold, inside and out, and he made a surrounding border[cl] of gold for it. 3 He cast four gold rings for it that he put[cm] on its four feet, with[cn] two rings on one side and two rings on the other side. 4 He made poles of acacia wood, overlaid them with gold, 5 and put the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark in order to carry the ark.
6 He made[co] an atonement lid of pure gold; its length was 45 inches, and its width was 27 inches. 7 He made two cherubim of gold; he made them of hammered metal on the two ends of the atonement lid, 8 one cherub on one end[cp] and one cherub on the other end.[cq] He made the cherubim from the atonement lid on its two ends. 9 The cherubim were spreading their wings[cr] upward, overshadowing the atonement lid with their wings. The cherubim[cs] faced each other,[ct] looking toward the atonement lid.[cu]
The Making of the Table
10 Bezalel[cv] made the table of acacia wood; its length was 36 inches, its width 18 inches, and its height 27 inches. 11 He overlaid it with pure gold, and he made a surrounding border of gold for it. 12 He made a surrounding frame for it about three inches wide, and he made a surrounding border of gold for its frame. 13 He cast four gold rings for it and attached the rings at the four corners where its four legs were. 14 The rings were close to the frame to provide places for the poles to carry the table. 15 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold, to carry the table. 16 He made the vessels which were on the table out of pure gold, its[cw] plates, its ladles, its pitchers, and its bowls, to be used in pouring out offerings.
The Making of the Lampstand
17 Bezalel[cx] made the lampstand of pure gold. He made the lampstand of hammered metal; its base and its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its blossoms were from the same piece.[cy] 18 Six branches were extending from its sides, three branches of the lampstand from one side of it, and three branches of the lampstand from the other side of it. 19 Three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms were on the first branch, and three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms were on the next[cz] branch, and the same[da] for the six branches that were extending from the lampstand. 20 On the lampstand there were four cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms, 21 with a bud under the first two branches from it, and a bud under the next two branches from it, and a bud under the third two branches from it; according to the six branches that extended from it.[db] 22 Their buds and their branches were of one piece;[dc] all of it was one hammered piece of pure gold. 23 He made its seven lamps, its trimmers, and its trays of pure gold. 24 He made the lampstand[dd] and all its accessories with seventy-five pounds of pure gold.
The Making of the Altar of Incense
25 Bezalel[de] made the incense altar of acacia wood. Its length was 18 inches and its width 18 inches—a square—and its height was 36 inches. Its horns were of one piece with it.[df] 26 He overlaid it with pure gold—its top,[dg] its four walls,[dh] and its horns—and he made a surrounding border of gold for it.[di] 27 He also made[dj] two gold rings for it under its border, on its two sides, on opposite sides,[dk] as places[dl] for poles to carry it with. 28 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold.
29 He made the sacred anointing oil and the pure fragrant incense, the work of a perfumer.
The Making of the Altar for the Burnt Offering
38 Bezalel[dm] made the altar for the burnt offering of acacia wood 7½ feet long and 7½ feet wide—it was square—and its height was 4½ feet. 2 He made its horns on its four corners; its horns were part of it,[dn] and he overlaid it with bronze. 3 He made all the utensils of the altar—the pots, the shovels, the tossing bowls, the meat hooks, and the fire pans—he made all its utensils of bronze. 4 He made a grating for the altar, a network of bronze under its ledge, halfway up from the bottom. 5 He cast four rings for the four corners of the bronze grating, to provide places for the poles. 6 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with bronze. 7 He put the poles into the rings on the sides of the altar, with which to carry it. He made the altar[do] hollow, out of boards.
8 He made the large basin of bronze and its pedestal of bronze from the mirrors of the women who served[dp] at the entrance of the tent of meeting.
The Construction of the Courtyard
9 Bezalel[dq] made the courtyard. For the south side[dr] the hangings of the courtyard were of fine twisted linen, 150 feet long, 10 with[ds] their twenty posts and their twenty bronze bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 11 For the north side the hangings were[dt] 150 feet, with their twenty posts and their twenty bronze bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 12 For the west side there were[du] hangings 75 feet long, with[dv] their ten posts and their ten bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 13 For the east side, toward the sunrise, it was 75 feet wide,[dw] 14 with hangings on one side[dx] of the gate that were 22½ feet long, with their three posts and their three bases, 15 and for the second side of the gate of the courtyard, just like the other,[dy] the hangings were 22½ feet long, with their three posts and their three bases. 16 All the hangings around the courtyard were of fine twisted linen. 17 The bases for the posts were bronze. The hooks of the posts and their bands were silver, their tops were overlaid with silver, and all the posts of the courtyard had silver bands.[dz] 18 The curtain[ea] for the gate of the courtyard was of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer. It was 30 feet long and, like the hangings in the courtyard, it was 7½ feet high, 19 with four posts and their four bronze bases. Their hooks and their bands were silver, and their tops were overlaid with silver. 20 All the tent pegs of the tabernacle and of the courtyard all around were bronze.
The Materials of the Construction
21 This is the inventory[eb] of the tabernacle, the tabernacle of the testimony, which was counted[ec] by the order[ed] of Moses, being the work[ee] of the Levites under the direction[ef] of Ithamar, son of Aaron the priest. 22 Now Bezalel son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made everything that the Lord had commanded Moses; 23 and with him was Oholiab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an artisan, a designer, and an embroiderer in blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine linen.
24 All the gold that was used for the work, in all the work of the sanctuary[eg] (namely,[eh] the gold of the wave offering) was 29 talents and 730 shekels,[ei] according to the sanctuary shekel.
25 The silver of those who were numbered of the community was 100 talents and 1,775 shekels,[ej] according to the sanctuary shekel, 26 one beka per person, that is, a half shekel,[ek] according to the sanctuary shekel, for everyone who crossed over to those numbered, from twenty years old or older,[el] 603,550 in all.[em] 27 The 100 talents of silver were used for casting the bases of the sanctuary and the bases of the special curtain—100 bases for 100 talents, one talent per base. 28 From the remaining 1,775 shekels[en] he made hooks for the posts, overlaid their tops, and made bands for them.
29 The bronze of the wave offering was seventy talents and 2,400 shekels.[eo] 30 With it he made the bases for the door of the tent of meeting, the bronze altar, the bronze grating for it, and all the utensils of the altar, 31 the bases for the courtyard all around, the bases for the gate of the courtyard, all the tent pegs of the tabernacle, and all the tent pegs of the courtyard all around.[ep]
The Making of the Priestly Garments
39 From the blue, purple, and scarlet yarn they made woven garments for serving in the sanctuary; they made holy garments that were for Aaron, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.[eq]
2 He made the ephod of gold, blue, purple, scarlet yarn, and fine twisted linen. 3 They hammered the gold into thin sheets and cut it into narrow strips to weave[er] them into the blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and into the fine linen, the work of an artistic designer. 4 They made shoulder pieces for it, attached to two of its corners, so it could be joined together. 5 The artistically woven waistband of the ephod that was on it was like it, of one piece with it,[es] of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
6 They set the onyx stones in gold filigree settings, engraved as with the engravings of a seal[et] with the names of the sons of Israel.[eu] 7 He put[ev] them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as stones of memorial for the Israelites, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
The Breastpiece of Decision
8 He made the breastpiece, the work of an artistic designer, in the same fashion as the ephod, of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and fine twisted linen. 9 It was square—they made the breastpiece doubled, nine inches long and nine inches wide when doubled. 10 They set on it[ew] four rows of stones: a row with a ruby, a topaz, and a beryl—the first row; 11 and the second row, a turquoise, a sapphire, and an emerald; 12 and the third row, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; 13 and the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper. They were enclosed in gold filigree settings. 14 The stones were for the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, corresponding to the number of[ex] their names. Each name corresponding to one of the twelve tribes was like the engravings of a seal.
15 They made for the breastpiece braided chains like cords of pure gold, 16 and they made two gold filigree settings and two gold rings, and they attached the two rings to the upper[ey] two ends of the breastpiece. 17 They attached the two gold chains to the two rings at the ends of the breastpiece; 18 the other[ez] two ends of the two chains they attached to the two settings, and they attached them to the shoulder pieces of the ephod at the front of it. 19 They made two rings of gold and put them on the other[fa] two ends of the breastpiece on its edge, which is on the inner side of the ephod.[fb] 20 They made two more[fc] gold rings and attached them to the bottom of the two shoulder pieces on the front of the ephod, close to the juncture above the waistband of the ephod. 21 They tied the breastpiece by its rings to the rings of the ephod by blue cord, so that it was above the waistband of the ephod, so that the breastpiece would not be loose from the ephod, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
The Other Garments
22 He made the robe of the ephod completely blue, the work of a weaver. 23 There was an opening in the center of the robe, like the opening of a collar,[fd] with an edge all around the opening so that it could not be torn. 24 They made pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and twisted linen[fe] around the hem of the robe. 25 They made bells of pure gold and attached the bells between the pomegranates around the hem of the robe between the pomegranates. 26 There was[ff] a bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, all around the hem of the robe, to be used in ministering,[fg] just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
27 They made tunics of fine linen—the work of a weaver, for Aaron and for his sons— 28 and the turban of fine linen, the headbands of fine linen, and the undergarments of fine twisted linen. 29 The sash was of fine twisted linen and blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, the work of an embroiderer, just as the Lord had commanded Moses. 30 They made a plate, the holy diadem, of pure gold and wrote on it an inscription, as on the engravings of a seal, “Holiness to the Lord.” 31 They attached to it a blue cord to attach it to the turban above, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
Moses Inspects the Tabernacle
32 [fh] So all the work of the tabernacle, the tent of meeting, was completed, and the Israelites did according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses—they did it exactly so. 33 They brought the tabernacle to Moses, the tent and all its furnishings, clasps, frames, bars, posts, and bases; 34 and the coverings of ram skins dyed red, the covering of fine leather,[fi] and the protecting[fj] curtain; 35 the ark of the testimony and its poles, and the atonement lid; 36 the table, all its utensils, and the Bread of the Presence; 37 the pure[fk] lampstand, its lamps, with the lamps set in order, and all its accessories, and oil for the light; 38 and the gold altar, and the anointing oil, and the fragrant incense; and the curtain for the entrance to the tent; 39 the bronze altar and its bronze grating, its poles, and all its utensils; the large basin with its pedestal; 40 the hangings of the courtyard, its posts and its bases, and the curtain for the gateway of the courtyard, its ropes and its tent pegs, and all the furnishings[fl] for the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of meeting; 41 the woven garments for serving[fm] in the sanctuary, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments for his sons to minister as priests.
42 The Israelites did all the work according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses. 43 Moses inspected[fn] all the work, and[fo] they had done it just as the Lord had commanded—they had done it exactly—and Moses blessed them.[fp]
Setting Up the Sanctuary
40 [fq] Then the Lord spoke to Moses:[fr] 2 “On the first day of the first month you are to set up[fs] the tabernacle, the tent of meeting. 3 You are to place the ark of the testimony in it and shield the ark with the special curtain. 4 You are to bring in the table and set out the things that belong on it;[ft] then you are to bring in the lampstand and set up its lamps. 5 You are to put[fu] the gold altar for incense in front of the ark of the testimony and put the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. 6 You are to put the altar for the burnt offering in front of the entrance to the tabernacle, the tent of meeting. 7 You are to put the large basin between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it.[fv] 8 You are to set up the courtyard around it and put the curtain at the gate of the courtyard. 9 And take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle and all that is in it, and sanctify it and all its furnishings, and it will be holy. 10 Then you are to anoint the altar for the burnt offering with[fw] all its utensils; you are to sanctify the altar, and it will be the most holy altar. 11 You must also anoint the large basin and its pedestal, and you are to sanctify it.[fx]
12 “You are to bring[fy] Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the tent of meeting and wash them with water. 13 Then you are to clothe Aaron with the holy garments and anoint him and sanctify him so that he may minister as my priest. 14 You are to bring[fz] his sons and clothe them with tunics 15 and anoint them just as you anointed their father, so that they may minister as my priests; their anointing will make them a priesthood that will continue throughout their generations.” 16 This is what Moses did, according to all the Lord had commanded him—so he did.
17 So the tabernacle was set up on the first day of the first month, in the second year. 18 When Moses set up the tabernacle and put its bases in place, he set up its frames, attached its bars, and set up its posts. 19 Then he spread the tent over the tabernacle and put the covering of the tent over it, as the Lord had commanded him.[ga] 20 He took the testimony and put it in the ark, attached the poles to the ark, and then put the atonement lid on the ark. 21 And he brought the ark into the tabernacle, hung[gb] the protecting curtain,[gc] and shielded the ark of the testimony from view, just as the Lord had commanded him.[gd]
22 And Moses[ge] put the table in the tent of meeting, on the north side of the tabernacle, outside the curtain. 23 And he set the bread in order on it[gf] before the Lord, just as the Lord had commanded him.[gg]
24 And he put the lampstand in the tent of meeting opposite the table, on the south side of the tabernacle. 25 Then he set up the lamps before the Lord, just as the Lord had commanded him.[gh]
26 And he put the gold altar in the tent of meeting in front of the curtain, 27 and he burned fragrant incense on it, just as the Lord had commanded him.[gi]
28 Then Moses[gj] put the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. 29 He also put the altar for the burnt offering by the entrance to the tabernacle, the tent of meeting, and offered on it the burnt offering and the meal offering, just as the Lord had commanded him.[gk]
30 Then he put the large basin between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it[gl] for washing. 31 Moses and Aaron and his sons would wash their hands and their feet from it. 32 Whenever they entered[gm] the tent of meeting, and whenever they approached[gn] the altar, they would wash,[go] just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
33 And he set up the courtyard around the tabernacle and the altar, and put the curtain at the gate of the courtyard. So Moses finished the work.
34 Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 35 Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud settled on it and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 36 But when the cloud was lifted up[gp] from the tabernacle, the Israelites would set out[gq] on all their journeys; 37 but if the cloud was not lifted up, then they would not journey farther until the day it was lifted up.[gr] 38 For the cloud of the Lord was on the tabernacle by day, but fire would be[gs] on it at night, in plain view[gt] of all the house of Israel throughout all their journeys.
- Exodus 35:1 tn Heb “to do them”; this is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
- Exodus 35:2 tn This is an adverbial accusative of time.
- Exodus 35:2 tn The word is קֹדֶשׁ (qodesh, “holiness”). S. R. Driver suggests that the word was transposed, and the line should read: “a sabbath of entire rest, holy to Jehovah” (Exodus, 379). But the word may simply be taken as a substitution for “holy day.”
- Exodus 35:2 sn See on this H. Routtenberg, “The Laws of the Sabbath: Biblical Sources,” Dor le Dor 6 (1977): 41-43, 99-101, 153-55, 204-6; G. Robinson, “The Idea of Rest in the Old Testament and the Search for the Basic Character of Sabbath,” ZAW 92 (1980): 32-43.
- Exodus 35:3 sn Kindling a fire receives special attention here because the people thought that kindling a fire was not work, but only a preparation for some kind of work. The Law makes sure that this too was not done. But see also G. Robinson, “The Prohibition of Strange Fire in Ancient Israel: A Look at the Case of Gathering Wood and Kindling Fire on the Sabbath,” VT 28 (1978): 301-17.
- Exodus 35:3 tn Heb “dwelling places”; KJV, ASV “habitations.”
- Exodus 35:3 sn The presence of these three verses in this place has raised all kinds of questions. It may be that after the renewal of the covenant the people needed a reminder to obey God, and obeying the sign of the covenant was the starting point. But there is more to it than this; it is part of the narrative design of the book. It is the artistic design that puts the filling of the Spirit section (31:1-11) prior to the Sabbath laws (31:12-18) before the idolatry section, and then after the renewal there is the Sabbath reminder (35:1-3) before the filling of the Spirit material (35:4-36:7).
- Exodus 35:4 sn The book now turns to record how all the work of the sanctuary was done. This next unit picks up on the ideas in Exod 31:1-11. But it adds several features. The first part is the instruction of God for all people to give willingly (35:4-19); the next section tells how the faithful brought an offering for the service of the tabernacle (35:20-29); the next section tells how God set some apart with special gifts (35:30-35), and finally, the narrative reports how the faithful people of God enthusiastically began the work (36:1-7).
- Exodus 35:5 tn Heb “from with you.”
- Exodus 35:5 tn “Heart” is a genitive of specification, clarifying in what way they might be “willing.” The heart refers to their will, their choices.
- Exodus 35:5 tn The verb has a suffix that is the direct object, but the suffixed object is qualified by the second accusative: “let him bring it, an offering.”
- Exodus 35:5 tn The phrase is literally “the offering of Yahweh”; it could be a simple possessive, “Yahweh’s offering,” but a genitive that indicates the indirect object is more appropriate.
- Exodus 35:7 tn See the note on this phrase in Exod 25:5.
- Exodus 35:9 tn Heb “and stones.”
- Exodus 35:9 tn Heb “filling.”
- Exodus 35:10 tn Heb “wise of heart”; here also “heart” would be a genitive of specification, showing that there were those who could make skillful decisions.
- Exodus 35:11 tn In Hebrew style all these items are typically connected with a vav (ו) conjunction, but English typically uses commas except between the last two items in a series or between items in a series that are somehow related to one another. The present translation follows contemporary English style in lists such as this.
- Exodus 35:14 tn “for” has been supplied.
- Exodus 35:21 tn Heb “man.”
- Exodus 35:21 tn The verb means “lift up, bear, carry.” Here the subject is “heart” or will, and so the expression describes one moved within to act.
- Exodus 35:21 tn Heb “his spirit made him willing.” The verb is used in Scripture for the freewill offering that people brought (Lev 7).
- Exodus 35:21 tn Literally “the garments of holiness,” the genitive is the attributive genitive, marking out what type of garments these were.
- Exodus 35:22 tn The expression in Hebrew is “men on/after the women,” meaning men with women, to ensure that it was clear that the preceding verse did not mean only men. B. Jacob takes it further, saying that the men came after the women because the latter had taken the initiative (Exodus, 1017).
- Exodus 35:22 tn Heb “all gold utensils.”
- Exodus 35:22 tn The verb could be translated “offered,” but it is cognate with the following noun that is the wave offering. This sentence underscores the freewill nature of the offerings people made. The word “came” is supplied from v. 21 and v. 22.
- Exodus 35:23 tn The text uses a relative clause with a resumptive pronoun for this: “who was found with him,” meaning “with whom was found.”
- Exodus 35:23 tn The conjunction in this verse is translated “or” because the sentence does not intend to say that each person had all these things. They brought what they had.
- Exodus 35:23 tn See the note on this phrase in Exod 25:5.
- Exodus 35:23 tn Here “them” has been supplied.
- Exodus 35:24 tn This translation takes “offering” as an adverbial accusative explaining the form or purpose of their bringing things. It could also be treated as the direct object, but that would seem unnecessarily repetitive.
- Exodus 35:24 sn U. Cassuto notes that the expression “with whom was found” does not rule out the idea that these folks went out and cut down acacia trees (Exodus, 458). It is unlikely that they had much wood in their tents.
- Exodus 35:24 tn Here “it” has been supplied.
- Exodus 35:25 tn Heb “wisdom of heart,” which means that they were skilled and could make all the right choices about the work.
- Exodus 35:26 tn The text simply uses a prepositional phrase, “with/in wisdom.” It seems to be qualifying “the women” as the relative clause is.
- Exodus 35:27 tn Heb “and stones of the filling.”
- Exodus 35:29 tn Heb “by the hand of.”
- Exodus 35:29 tn Here “them” has been supplied.
- Exodus 35:30 tn Heb “called by name” (so KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV). This expression means that the person was specifically chosen for some important task (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 342). See the expression with Cyrus in Isa 45:3-4.
- Exodus 35:33 tn Heb “to set.”
- Exodus 35:33 tn Heb “in every work of thought,” meaning, every work that required the implementation of design or plan.
- Exodus 35:34 sn The expression means that God has given them the ability and the desire to teach others how to do the work. The infinitive construct “to teach” is related to the word Torah, “instruction, guide, law.” They will be able to direct others in the work.
- Exodus 35:35 tn The expression “wisdom of heart,” or “wisdom in heart,” means artistic skill. The decisions and plans they make are skilled. The expression forms a second accusative after the verb of filling.
- Exodus 35:35 tn The expression “all the work” means “all kinds of work.”
- Exodus 35:35 tn Here “They are” has been supplied.
- Exodus 35:35 tn Heb “doers of all work.”
- Exodus 35:35 tn Heb “designers of designs.”
- Exodus 36:1 tn Heb “wise of [in] heart.”
- Exodus 36:1 tn Heb “wisdom.”
- Exodus 36:1 tn Heb “understanding, discernment.”
- Exodus 36:1 tn The relative clause includes this infinitive clause that expresses either the purpose or the result of God’s giving wisdom and understanding to these folk.
- Exodus 36:1 tn This noun is usually given an interpretive translation. B. Jacob renders the bound relationship as “the holy task” or “the sacred task” (Exodus, 1019). The NIV makes it “constructing,” so read “the work of constructing the sanctuary.”
- Exodus 36:1 tn The first word of the verse is a perfect tense with vav (ו) consecutive; it is singular because it agrees with the first of the compound subject. The sentence is a little cumbersome because of the extended relative clause in the middle.
- Exodus 36:2 tn The verb קָרָא (qaraʾ) plus the preposition “to”—“to call to” someone means “to summon” that person.
- Exodus 36:2 tn Here there is a slight change: “in whose heart Yahweh had put skill.”
- Exodus 36:2 tn Or “whose heart was willing.”
- Exodus 36:2 sn The verb means more than “approach” or “draw near”; קָרַב (qarav) is the word used for drawing near the altar as in bringing an offering. Here they offer themselves, their talents and their time.
- Exodus 36:3 tn In the Hebrew text the infinitive “to do it” comes after “sanctuary”; it makes a smoother rendering in English to move it forward, rather than reading “brought for the work.”
- Exodus 36:3 tn Heb “in the morning, in the morning.”
- Exodus 36:4 tn Heb “a man, a man from his work”; or “each one from his work.”
- Exodus 36:5 tn The construction uses the verbal hendiadys: מַרְבִּים לְהָבִיא (marbim lehaviʾ) is the Hiphil participle followed (after the subject) by the Hiphil infinitive construct. It would read, “they multiply…to bring,” meaning, “they bring more” than is needed.
- Exodus 36:5 tn Heb “for the service” (so KJV, ASV).
- Exodus 36:5 tn The last clause is merely the infinitive with an object—“to do it.” It clearly means the skilled workers are to do it.
- Exodus 36:6 tn The verse simply reads, “and Moses commanded and they caused [a voice] to cross over in the camp.” The second preterite with the vav may be subordinated to the first clause, giving the intent (purpose or result).
- Exodus 36:6 tn Heb “voice.”
- Exodus 36:6 tn The verse ends with the infinitive serving as the object of the preposition: “from bringing.”
- Exodus 36:7 tn This part of the sentence comes from the final verb, the Hiphil infinitive—leave over, meaning, have more than enough (see BDB 451 s.v. יָתַר).
- Exodus 36:7 tn Heb “for all the work, to do it.”sn This lengthy section (35:1-36:7) forms one of the most remarkable sections in the book. Here there is a mixture of God’s preparation of people to do the work and their willingness to give and to serve. It not only provides insight into this renewed community of believers, but it also provides a timeless message for the church. The point is clear enough: In response to God’s commission, and inspired by God’s Spirit, the faithful and willing people rally to support and participate in the Lord’s work.
- Exodus 36:10 tn The verb is singular since it probably is referring to Bezalel, but since he would not do all the work himself, it may be that the verbs could be given a plural subject: “they joined.”
- Exodus 36:10 tn The words “the other” have been supplied.
- Exodus 36:13 tn Heb “one.”
- Exodus 36:14 tn Heb “eleven curtains he made them.”
- Exodus 36:18 tn The construction uses the infinitive construct from the verb “to be” to express this purpose clause: “to be one,” or, “so that it might be a unit.”
- Exodus 36:19 tn See the note on this phrase in Exod 25:5.
- Exodus 36:20 tn There is debate whether the word הַקְּרָשִׁים (haqqerashim) means “boards” or “frames” or “planks” (see Ezek 27:6) or “beams,” given the size of them. The literature on this includes M. Haran, “The Priestly Image of the Tabernacle,” HUCA 36 (1965): 192; B. A. Levine, “The Description of the Tabernacle Texts of the Pentateuch,” JAOS 85 (1965): 307-18; J. Morgenstern, “The Ark, the Ephod, and the Tent,” HUCA 17 (1942/43): 153-265; 18 (1943/44): 1-52.
- Exodus 36:20 tn “Wood” is an adverbial accusative.
- Exodus 36:20 tn The plural participle “standing” refers to how these items will be situated; they will be vertical rather than horizontal (U. Cassuto, Exodus, 354).
- Exodus 36:21 tn Heb “the frame.”
- Exodus 36:21 tn Heb “the one.”
- Exodus 36:22 tn Heb “two hands to the one frame.”
- Exodus 36:22 tn Heb “joined one to one.”
- Exodus 36:24 tn The clause is repeated to show the distributive sense; it literally says, “and two bases under the one frame for its two projections.”
- Exodus 36:26 tn Heb “under the one frame” again.
- Exodus 36:29 tn This is the last phrase of the verse, moved forward for clarity.
- Exodus 36:29 tn This difficult verse uses the perfect tense at the beginning, and the second clause parallels it with יִהְיוּ (yihyu), which has to be taken here as a preterite without the consecutive vav (ו). The predicate “finished” or “completed” is the word תָּמִּים (tammim); it normally means “complete, sound, whole,” and related words describe the sacrifices as without blemish.
- Exodus 36:34 tn Literally “houses”; i.e., places to hold the bars.
- Exodus 36:35 tn The verb is simply “he made” but as in Exod 26:31 it probably means that the cherubim were worked into the curtain with the yarn, and so embroidered on the curtain.
- Exodus 36:36 tn Heb “and their hooks gold.”
- Exodus 36:38 tn The word is “their heads”; technically it would be “their capitals” (so ASV, NAB, NRSV). The bands were bands of metal surrounding these capitals just beneath them. These are not mentioned in Exod 26:37, and it sounds like the posts are to be covered with gold. But the gradation of metals is what is intended: the posts at the entrance to the Most Holy Place are all of gold; the posts at the entrance to the tent are overlaid with gold at the top; and the posts at the entrance to the courtyard are overlaid with silver at the top (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 387, citing Dillmann without reference).
- Exodus 36:38 sn For a good summary of the differences between the instruction section and the completion section, and the reasons for the changes and the omissions, see B. Jacob, Exodus, 1022-23.
- Exodus 37:2 tn Or “molding.”
- Exodus 37:3 tn “that he put” has been supplied.
- Exodus 37:3 tn This is taken as a circumstantial clause; the clause begins with the conjunction vav.
- Exodus 37:6 tn Heb “and he made.”
- Exodus 37:8 tn Heb “from/at [the] end, from this.”
- Exodus 37:8 tn The repetition of the expression indicates it has the distributive sense.
- Exodus 37:9 tn The construction is a participle in construct followed by the genitive “wings”—“spreaders of wings.”
- Exodus 37:9 tn The subject, “the cherubim,” has been added again in the translation for smoothness.
- Exodus 37:9 tn Heb “and their faces a man to his brother.”
- Exodus 37:9 tn Heb “to the atonement lid were the faces of the cherubim.”
- Exodus 37:10 tn Heb “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 37:16 tn The suffixes on these could also indicate the indirect object (see Exod 25:29).
- Exodus 37:17 tn Heb “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 37:17 tn Heb “from it”; the referent (“the same piece” of wrought metal) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 37:19 tn Heb “the one branch.” But the repetition of “one…one” means here one after another, or the “first” and then the “next.”
- Exodus 37:19 tn Heb “thus for six branches….”
- Exodus 37:21 tn As in Exod 26:35, the translation of “first” and “next” and “third” is interpretive, because the text simply says “under two branches” in each of three places.
- Exodus 37:22 tn Heb “were from it.”
- Exodus 37:24 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the lampstand) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 37:25 tn Heb “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 37:25 tn Heb “from it were its horns,” meaning that they were made from the same piece.
- Exodus 37:26 tn Heb “roof.”
- Exodus 37:26 tn Heb “its walls around.”
- Exodus 37:26 tn Heb “and he made for it border gold around.”
- Exodus 37:27 tn Heb “and he made.”
- Exodus 37:27 sn Since it was a small altar, it needed only two rings, one on either side, in order to be carried. The second mention of their location clarifies that they should be on the sides, the right and the left, as one approached the altar.
- Exodus 37:27 tn Heb “for houses.”
- Exodus 38:1 tn Heb “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 38:2 tn Heb “its horns were from it,” meaning from the same piece.
- Exodus 38:7 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the altar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 38:8 sn The word for “serve” is not the ordinary one. It means “to serve in a host,” especially in a war. It appears that women were organized into bands and served at the tent of meeting. S. R. Driver thinks that this meant “no doubt” washing, cleaning, or repairing (Exodus, 391). But there is no hint of that (see 1 Sam 2:22; and see Ps 68:11 [12 HT]). They seem to have had more to do than what Driver said.
- Exodus 38:9 tn Heb “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 38:9 tn Heb “south side southward.”
- Exodus 38:10 tn While this verse could be translated as an independent sentence, it is probably to be subordinated as a circumstantial clause in line with Exod 27:10-12, as well as v. 12 of this passage.
- Exodus 38:11 tn Here the phrase “the hangings were” has been supplied.
- Exodus 38:12 tn The phrase “there were” has been supplied.
- Exodus 38:12 tn The text simply has “their posts ten and their bases ten”; this may be added here as a circumstantial clause with the main sentence in order to make sense out of the construction.
- Exodus 38:13 tn The text simply says “75 feet.”
- Exodus 38:14 tn The word literally means “shoulder.” The next words, “of the gate,” have been supplied here. The east end contained the courtyard’s entry with a wall of curtains on each side of the entry (see v. 15).
- Exodus 38:15 tn Heb “from this and from this” (cf, 17:12; 25:19; 26:13; 32:15; Josh 8:22, 33; 1 Kgs 10:19-20; Ezek 45:7).
- Exodus 38:17 tn Heb “they were banded with silver.”
- Exodus 38:18 tn This word is different from the word for hangings; it has more of the idea of a screen, shielding or securing the area.
- Exodus 38:21 tn The Hebrew word is פּקוּדֵי (pequde), which in a slavishly literal way would be “visitations of” the tabernacle. But the word often has the idea of “numbering” or “appointing” as well. Here it is an accounting or enumeration of the materials that people brought, so the contemporary term “inventory” is a close approximation. By using this Hebrew word there is also the indication that whatever was given, i.e., appointed for the tabernacle, was changed forever in its use. This is consistent with this Hebrew root, which does have a sense of changing the destiny of someone (“God will surely visit you”). The list in this section will also be tied to the numbering of the people.
- Exodus 38:21 tn The same verb is used here, but now in the Pual perfect tense, third masculine singular. A translation “was numbered” or “was counted” works. The verb is singular because it refers to the tabernacle as a unit. This section will list what made up the tabernacle.
- Exodus 38:21 tn Heb “at/by the mouth of.”
- Exodus 38:21 tn The noun is “work” or “service.” S. R. Driver explains that the reckonings were not made for the Levites, but that they were the work of the Levites, done by them under the direction of Ithamar (Exodus, 393).
- Exodus 38:21 tn Heb “by the hand of.”
- Exodus 38:24 tn These words form the casus pendens, or independent nominative absolute, followed by the apodosis beginning with the vav (ו; see U. Cassuto, Exodus, 469).
- Exodus 38:24 tn Heb “and it was.”
- Exodus 38:24 sn There were 3000 shekels in a talent, and so the total weight here in shekels would be 87,730 shekels of gold. If the sanctuary shekel was 224 grs., then this was about 40,940 oz. troy. This is estimated to be a little over a ton (cf. NCV “over 2,000 pounds”; TEV “a thousand kilogrammes”; CEV “two thousand two hundred nine pounds”; NLT “about 2,200 pounds”), although other widely diverging estimates are also given.
- Exodus 38:25 sn This would be a total of 301,775 shekels (about 140,828 oz), being a half shekel exacted per person from 603,550 male Israelites 20 years old or more (Num 1:46). The amount is estimated to be around 3.75 tons.
- Exodus 38:26 sn The weight would be about half an ounce.
- Exodus 38:26 tn Heb “upward.”
- Exodus 38:26 tn The phrase “in all” has been supplied.
- Exodus 38:28 tn Here the word “shekels” is understood; about 45 pounds.
- Exodus 38:29 sn The total shekels would have been 212,400 shekels, which would be about 108,749 oz. This would make about 2.5 to 3 tons.
- Exodus 38:31 sn The bronze altar is the altar for the burnt offering; the large bronze basin is not included here in the list.
- Exodus 39:1 sn This chapter also will be almost identical to the instructions given earlier, with a few changes along the way.
- Exodus 39:3 tn The verb is the infinitive that means “to do, to work.” It could be given a literal rendering: “to work [them into] the blue….” Weaving or embroidering is probably what is intended.
- Exodus 39:5 tn Heb “from it” or the same.
- Exodus 39:6 tn Or “as seals are engraved.”
- Exodus 39:6 sn The twelve names were those of Israel’s sons. The idea was not the remembrance of the twelve sons as such, but the twelve tribes that bore their names.
- Exodus 39:7 tn Or “attached.”
- Exodus 39:10 tn That is, they set in mountings.
- Exodus 39:14 tn The phrase “the number of” has been supplied.
- Exodus 39:16 tn Here “upper” has been supplied.
- Exodus 39:18 tn Here “other” has been supplied.
- Exodus 39:19 tn Here “other” has been supplied.
- Exodus 39:19 tn Heb “homeward side.”
- Exodus 39:20 tn Here “more” has been supplied.
- Exodus 39:23 tn See the note on this word in Exod 28:32 for discussion of its meaning.
- Exodus 39:24 tn The word is simply “twined” or “twisted.” It may refer to the twisted linen that so frequently is found in these lists; or, it may refer to the yarn twisted. The LXX reads “fine twined linen.” This is not found in the text of Exod 28:33, except in Smr and LXX.
- Exodus 39:26 tn The words “there was” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Exodus 39:26 tn The infinitive “to minister” is present; “to be used” is supplied from the context.
- Exodus 39:32 sn The last sections of the book bring several themes together to a full conclusion. Not only is it the completion of the tabernacle, it is the fulfillment of God’s plan revealed at the beginning of the book, i.e., to reside with his people.
- Exodus 39:34 tn See the note on this phrase in Exod 25:5.
- Exodus 39:34 tn Or “shielding” (NIV); NASB “the screening veil.”
- Exodus 39:37 tn Possibly meaning “pure gold lampstand.”
- Exodus 39:40 tn Heb “utensils, vessels.”
- Exodus 39:41 tn The form is the infinitive construct; it means the clothes to be used “to minister” in the Holy Place.
- Exodus 39:43 tn Or “examined” (NASB, TEV); NCV “looked closely at.”
- Exodus 39:43 tn The deictic particle draws attention to what he saw in such a way as to give the reader Moses’ point of view and a sense of his pleasure: “and behold, they….”
- Exodus 39:43 sn The situation and wording in Exod 39:43 are reminiscent of Gen 1:28 and 31, with the motifs of blessing people and inspecting what has been made.
- Exodus 40:1 sn All of Exod 39:32-40:38 could be taken as a unit. The first section (39:32-43) shows that the Israelites had carefully and accurately completed the preparation and brought everything they had made to Moses: The work of the Lord builds on the faithful obedience of the people. In the second section are the instruction and the implementation (40:1-33): The work of the Lord progresses through the unifying of the work. The last part (40:34-38) may take the most attention: When the work was completed, the glory filled the tabernacle: By his glorious presence, the Lord blesses and directs his people in their worship.
- Exodus 40:1 tn Heb “and Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying.”
- Exodus 40:2 tn Heb “you will raise,” an imperfect of instruction.
- Exodus 40:4 tn Heb “and you will set in order its setting” or “arrange its arrangement.” See 25:29-30 for items that belonged on the table.
- Exodus 40:5 tn Heb “give” (also four additional times in vv. 6-8).
- Exodus 40:7 tn Heb “there.”
- Exodus 40:10 tn Heb “and.”
- Exodus 40:11 sn U. Cassuto (Exodus, 480) notes that the items inside the tent did not need to be enumerated since they were already holy, but items in the courtyard needed special attention. People needed to know that items outside the tent were just as holy.
- Exodus 40:12 tn The verb is “bring near,” or “present,” to Yahweh.
- Exodus 40:14 tn The verb is also “bring near” or “present.”
- Exodus 40:19 tn Heb “Moses”; the name has been replaced with the pronoun for stylistic reasons.
- Exodus 40:21 tn Heb “set up,” if it includes more than the curtain.
- Exodus 40:21 tn Or “shielding” (NIV); Heb “the veil of the covering” (cf. KJV).
- Exodus 40:21 tn Heb “Moses”; the name has been replaced with the pronoun for stylistic reasons.
- Exodus 40:22 tn Heb “him”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 40:23 tn Heb uses a cognate accusative construction, “he arranged the arrangement.”
- Exodus 40:23 tn Heb “Moses”; the name has been replaced with the pronoun for stylistic reasons.
- Exodus 40:25 tn Heb “Moses”; the name has been replaced with the pronoun for stylistic reasons.
- Exodus 40:27 tn Heb “Moses”; the name has been replaced with the pronoun for stylistic reasons.
- Exodus 40:28 tn Heb “him”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Exodus 40:29 tn Heb “Moses”; the name has been replaced with the pronoun for stylistic reasons.
- Exodus 40:30 tn Heb “there.”
- Exodus 40:32 tn The construction is the infinitive construct with the temporal preposition and the suffixed subjective genitive. This temporal clause indicates that the verb in the preceding verse was frequentative.
- Exodus 40:32 tn This is another infinitive construct in a temporal clause.
- Exodus 40:32 tn In this explanatory verse the verb is a customary imperfect.
- Exodus 40:36 tn The construction uses the Niphal infinitive construct to form the temporal clause.
- Exodus 40:36 tn The imperfect tense in this context describes a customary action.
- Exodus 40:37 tn The clause uses the Niphal infinitive construct in the temporal clause: “until the day of its being taken up.”
- Exodus 40:38 tn Here is another imperfect tense of the customary nuance.
- Exodus 40:38 tn Heb “to the eyes of all”; KJV, ASV, NASB “in the sight of all”; NRSV “before the eyes of all.”
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