Exodus 16-32 Expanded Bible (EXB)
The People Demand Food
16 The whole ·Israelite community [L congregation/assembly of the sons/T children of Israel] left Elim and came to the ·Desert [Wilderness] of Sin, which was between Elim and Sinai; they arrived there on the fifteenth day of the second month after they had left Egypt. 2 Then the whole ·Israelite community [congregation; L assembly of the sons/T children of Israel] ·grumbled [complained] to Moses and Aaron in the ·desert [wilderness]. 3 ·They [L The sons/T children of Israel] said to them, “It would have been better if the [L hand of the] Lord had killed us in the land of Egypt. There we ·had meat to eat and [L sat by the fleshpots and ate] all the ·food [bread] we wanted. But you have brought us into this ·desert [wilderness] to starve ·us [L all this assembly/crowd] to death.”
4 Then the Lord said to Moses, “I will cause ·food [bread] to fall like rain from ·the sky [heaven] for all of you. Every day the people must go out and gather what they need for that day. I want to ·see if the people will do what I teach them [L test them to see if they will walk in my law/instruction or not]. 5 On the sixth day of each week, they are to gather twice as much as they gather on other days. Then they are to prepare it.”
6 So Moses and Aaron said to all the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel]: “This evening you will know that the Lord is the one who brought you out of Egypt. 7 Tomorrow morning you will see the glory of the Lord, because he has heard you ·grumble [complain] against him. ·We are nothing, so you are not grumbling against us, but against the Lord [L For what are we that you grumble/complain against us?].” 8 And Moses said, “Each evening the Lord will give you meat to eat, and every morning he will give you all the bread you want, because he has heard you ·grumble [complain] against him. You are not grumbling against ·Aaron and me, because we are nothing; you are grumbling [L us, but] against the Lord.”
9 Then Moses said to Aaron, “Speak to the whole ·community of the Israelites [L congregation/assembly of the sons/T children of Israel], and say to them, ‘·Meet together in the presence of [L Draw near] the Lord, because he has heard your ·grumblings [complaints].’”
10 While Aaron was speaking to the whole ·community of the Israelites [L congregation/assembly of the sons/T children of Israel], they ·looked [L turned] toward the ·desert [wilderness]. There the glory of the Lord appeared in a cloud.
11 The Lord said to Moses, 12 “I have heard the ·grumblings [complaints] of the ·people [sons/T children] of Israel. So tell them, ‘At twilight you will eat meat, and every morning you will eat all the bread you want. Then you will know I am the Lord your God.’”
13 That evening quail came and covered the camp, and in the morning [L a layer of] dew lay around the camp. 14 When the [L layer of] dew ·was gone [evaporated; L went up], thin flakes like frost were on the ·desert [wilderness] ground. 15 When the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel] saw it, they asked each other, “What is it?” because they did not know what it was.
So Moses told them, “This is the bread the Lord has given you to eat. 16 The Lord has commanded, ‘Each one of you must gather what he needs, about ·two quarts [L an omer] for every person in your ·family [L own tent].’”
17 So the ·people [L sons; children] of Israel did this; some people gathered much, and some gathered little. 18 Then they measured it [L by omer]. The person who gathered more did not have too much, nor did the person who gathered less have too little. Each person gathered just as much as he needed.
19 Moses said to them, “Don’t ·keep any of it to eat [L leave any of it until] the next day.” 20 But some of the people did not listen to Moses and kept part of it to eat the next morning. It became full of worms and ·began to stink [spoiled], so Moses was angry with those people.
21 Every morning each person gathered as much food as he needed, but when the sun became hot, it melted away.
22 On the sixth day the people gathered twice as much food—·four quarts [L two omers] for every person. When all the leaders of the ·community [congregation; assembly] came and told this to Moses, 23 he said to them, “This is what the Lord ·commanded [L said], because tomorrow is the Sabbath, the Lord’s holy day of rest. Bake what you want to bake, and boil what you want to boil today. Save the rest of the food until tomorrow morning.”
24 So the people saved it until the next morning, as Moses had commanded, and none of it ·began to stink [spoiled] or have worms in it. 25 Moses told the people, “Eat ·the food you gathered yesterday [L it today]. Today is a Sabbath, ·the Lord’s day of rest [L …of the Lord]; you will not find any out in the field today. 26 You should gather ·the food [L it] for six days, but the seventh day is a Sabbath day. On that day ·there will not be any food on the ground [L it will not be on it].”
27 On the seventh day some of the people went out to gather food, but they couldn’t find any. 28 Then the Lord said to Moses, “How long will you people refuse to ·obey [keep] my commands and ·teachings [instructions; laws]? 29 Look, the Lord has ·made the Sabbath a day of rest for you [L given to you the Sabbath]. So on the sixth day he will give you enough food for two days, but on the seventh day each of you must stay where you are. Do not go anywhere.” 30 So the people rested on the seventh day.
31 The ·people [L house] of Israel called the food manna [C based on the Hebrew phrase, “What is it?”; 16:15]. It was like ·small white seeds [L coriander seeds, white] and tasted like wafers made with honey.
32 Then Moses said, “·The Lord said [L This is the word/thing the Lord has commanded], ‘·Save [Keep; L Fill] ·two quarts [L an omer] of this food ·for your descendants [L throughout your generations]. Then they can see the food I gave you to eat in the ·desert [wilderness] when I brought you out of Egypt.’”
33 Moses told Aaron, “Take a jar and fill it with ·two quarts [L an omer] of manna. Then place it before the Lord, and ·save [keep] it ·for your descendants [L throughout your generations].” 34 So Aaron did what the Lord had commanded Moses. He put ·the jar of manna [L it] in front of the ·Agreement [L Testimony; C the Ark, named for the Ten Commandments placed in it] to keep it safe. 35 The ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel] ate manna for forty years, until they came to the land where they settled—the edge of the land of Canaan [Josh. 5:12]. 36 The measure they used for the manna was ·two quarts [L an omer], or one-tenth of an ephah [C an ephah is about 20 quarts].
Water from a Rock
17 The whole ·Israelite community [congregation/assembly of the sons/T children of Israel] left the ·Desert [Wilderness] of Sin and ·traveled from place to place [journeyed by stages], as the Lord commanded. They camped at Rephidim, but there was no water there for the people to drink. 2 So the people ·quarreled with [accused; made a case against] Moses and said, “Give us water to drink.”
Moses said to them, “Why do you ·quarrel with [accuse; make a case against] me? Why are you ·testing [putting on trial] the Lord?”
3 But the people were very thirsty for water, so they ·grumbled [complained] against Moses. They said, “Why did you bring us out of Egypt? Was it to kill us, our children, and our farm animals with thirst?”
4 So Moses cried to the Lord, “What can I do with these people? They are almost ready to stone me to death.”
5 The Lord said to Moses, “Go ahead of the people, and take some of the elders of Israel with you. Carry with you the ·walking stick [staff] that you used to strike the Nile River [14:21]. Now go! 6 I will stand in front of you on a rock at ·Mount Sinai [L Horeb; C another name for Sinai; 3:1]. ·Hit [Strike] that rock with the ·stick [staff], and water will come out of it so that the people can drink.” Moses did these things as the elders of Israel watched. 7 He named that place Massah [C Hebrew for “test”], because the Israelites tested the Lord when they asked, “Is the Lord with us or not?” He also named it Meribah [C Hebrew for “quarrel”], because they ·quarreled [accused; made a case].
The Amalekites Fight Israel
8 At Rephidim the Amalekites came and fought the Israelites. 9 So Moses said to Joshua, “·Choose [Select] some men and go and fight the Amalekites. Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill, ·holding [extending; stretching out] the ·walking stick [staff] of God in my hands.”
10 Joshua ·obeyed Moses [L did as Moses said] and went to fight the Amalekites, while Moses, Aaron, and Hur went to the top of the hill. 11 As long as Moses ·held [raised] his hands up, the Israelites would ·win the fight [prevail], but when Moses put his hands down, the Amalekites ·would win [prevailed; C the staff represented the presence of God, who fought for Israel]. 12 Later, when Moses’ arms became ·tired [L heavy], the men put a large rock under him, and he sat on it. Then Aaron and Hur held up Moses’ hands—Aaron on one side and Hur on the other. They kept his hands steady until the sun went down. 13 So Joshua defeated ·the Amalekites [L Amalek and his people] ·in this battle [L with the sword].
14 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Write about this battle in a ·book [or scroll] ·so people will remember [L as a memorial]. And ·be sure to tell [L place this in the ear of] Joshua, because I will completely ·destroy [annihilate; blot out] the Amalekites from ·the earth [L under heaven; Deut. 25:17–19].”
15 Then Moses built an altar and named it ·The Lord Is My Banner [L Yahweh Nissi]. 16 Moses said, “I lifted my hands toward the Lord’s throne. The Lord will fight against the Amalekites forever.”
Jethro Visits Moses
18 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, was the priest of Midian [2:15]. He heard about everything that God had done for Moses and his people, the Israelites, and how the Lord had led the Israelites out of Egypt. 2 Now Moses had sent [L away] his wife Zipporah [2:21] to Jethro, his father-in-law [4:24–26], 3 along with his two sons. The first son was named Gershom [C sounds like Hebrew for “stranger there”], because when he was born, Moses said, “I am a ·stranger [sojourner; wanderer; resident alien] in a foreign country.” 4 The other son was named Eliezer [C sounds like Hebrew for “my God is help”], because when he was born, Moses said, “The God of my father is my help. He saved me from ·the king of Egypt [L the sword of Pharaoh].”
5 So Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took Moses’ wife and his two sons and went to Moses. He was camped in the ·desert [wilderness] near the mountain of God [C Mount Sinai]. 6 Jethro had sent a message ahead to Moses that said, “I, Jethro, your father-in-law, am coming to you with your wife and her two sons.”
7 So Moses went out to meet his father-in-law and bowed down and kissed him. After the two men asked about each other’s ·health [well-being], they went into Moses’ tent. 8 Moses told his father-in-law everything the Lord had done to ·the king [L Pharaoh] and the Egyptians to help Israel. He told about all the ·problems [hardship] they had faced along the way and how the Lord had saved them.
9 Jethro ·was very happy to hear [rejoiced concerning] all the good things the Lord had done for Israel when he had saved them from the Egyptians. 10 He said, “·Praise [Blessed be] the Lord. He has saved you from the [L hand of the] Egyptians and [L the hand of] ·their king [L Pharaoh], and he has saved the people from the ·power [L hand] of the Egyptians. 11 Now I know the Lord is greater than all gods, because he did this to those who ·looked down on Israel [treated Israel with insolence/arrogance].” 12 Then Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, gave a whole burnt offering [Lev. 1:1–17] and other sacrifices to God. Aaron and all the elders of Israel came to Moses’ father-in-law to eat ·the holy meal [L bread/food] together before God.
13 The next day Moses ·solved disagreements [decided cases; L sat as judge] among the people, and the people stood around him from morning until night. 14 When Moses’ father-in-law saw all that Moses was doing for the people, he asked, “What is all this you are doing for the people? Why are you the only one ·to solve disagreements [L sitting]? All the people are standing ·around you [or in line] from morning until night!”
15 Then Moses said to his father-in-law, “It is because the people come to me ·for God’s help in solving their disagreements [L to seek/inquire of God]. 16 When people have a ·disagreement [L matter; case], they come to me, and I ·decide who is right [judge between a person and his neighbor]. I tell them God’s ·laws [statutes; ordinances; requirements] and ·teachings [instructions; laws].”
17 Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “·You are not doing this right [L What you are doing is not good]. 18 You and the people who ·come to you [L are with you] will ·get too tired [wear out]. ·This is too much work for you [L The matter is too heavy for you]; you can’t do it by yourself. 19 Now listen to me, and I will give you some advice. I want God to be with you. You must speak to God for the people and tell him about their ·disagreements [cases]. 20 Warn them about the ·laws [statutes; ordinances; requirements] and ·teachings [instructions; laws], and ·teach [make known to] them the ·right way to live [L way they should go] and what they should do. 21 But choose some ·capable [virtuous; noble] men from among the people—men who ·respect [fear] God [Prov. 1:7], who can be trusted, and who ·will not change their decisions for money [L hate dishonest profit]. Make these men officers over the people, to rule over groups of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. 22 Let these officers ·solve the disagreements [consider cases; judge] among the people all the time. They can bring the ·hard [L big] cases to you, but they can ·decide [judge] the ·simple [L small] cases themselves. That will make it easier for you, because they will share the work with you. 23 If you do this as God commands you, then you will be able to do your job, and all the people will go ·home [to their place] ·with their disagreements solved [L in peace].”
24 So Moses listened to [L the voice of] his father-in-law and did everything he said. 25 He ·chose [selected] ·capable [virtuous; noble] men from all the Israelites and made them ·leaders [heads] over the people; they were officers over groups of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. 26 These officers ·solved disagreements among [judged] the people all the time. They brought the hard cases to Moses, but they ·decided [judged] the ·simple [L small] cases themselves.
27 So Moses sent his father-in-law on his way, and Jethro went back to his own ·home [L land].
Israel Camps at Sinai
19 Exactly three months after the Israelites had left Egypt, ·they [L the sons/T children of Israel] ·reached [came to] the ·Desert [Wilderness] of Sinai. 2 When they left Rephidim, they came to the ·Desert [Wilderness] of Sinai and camped in the ·desert [wilderness] in front of the mountain. 3 Then Moses went up on the mountain to God. The Lord called to him from the mountain and said, “Say this to the ·family [L house] of Jacob, and tell the ·people [sons; children] of Israel: 4 ‘Every one of you has seen what I did to the people of Egypt. You saw how I carried you out of Egypt, as if on eagle’s wings [C God protected and guided them; Deut. 32:11]. And I brought you here to me. 5 So now if you ·obey me [L listen to my voice] and keep my ·agreement [covenant; treaty], you will be my own possession [special treasure], chosen from all nations. Even though the whole earth is mine, 6 you will be my kingdom of priests and a holy nation [C set apart to serve God and bring others to him; Gen. 12:1–3].’ You must tell the ·Israelites [L the sons/T children of Israel] these words.”
7 So Moses went down and called the elders of the people together. He told them all the words the Lord had commanded him to say. 8 All the people answered together, “We will do everything the Lord has said.” Then Moses took ·their answer [L the words of the people] back to the Lord.
9 And the Lord said to Moses, “I will come to you in a ·thick [dense] cloud and speak to you. The people will hear me speaking with you and will always trust you.” Then Moses told the Lord ·what the people had said [L the words of the people].
10 The Lord said to Moses, “Go to the people and have them ·spend today and tomorrow preparing themselves [consecrate/sanctify themselves today and tomorrow]. They must wash their clothes 11 and be ready by the ·day after tomorrow [L third day]. On that day I, the Lord, will come down on Mount Sinai, and all the people will see me. 12 But you must set a ·limit around the mountain that the people are not to cross [L boundary around the people]. ·Tell [Warn] them not to go up on the mountain and not to touch the ·foot [edge] of it. Anyone who touches the mountain must be put to death 13 with stones or shot with arrows. No one is allowed to touch him [C touching a dead body rendered a person ritually unclean; Num. 5:2]. Whether it is a person or an animal, he will not live. But the ·trumpet [ram’s horn] will make a long blast, and only then may the people go up on the mountain.”
14 After Moses went down from the mountain to the people, he made them ·prepare themselves for service to God [consecrate/sanctify themselves], and they washed their clothes. 15 Then Moses said to the people, “Be ready in three days. Do not ·have sexual relations during this time [L touch a woman; C an emission of semen rendered a man ritually unclean; Lev. 15:16–18].”
16 On the morning of the third day, there was thunder and lightning with a thick cloud on the mountain. There was a very loud blast from a ·trumpet [ram’s horn], ·and [or so that] all the people in the camp trembled. 17 Then Moses ·led [brought] the people out of the camp to meet God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. 18 Mount Sinai was covered with smoke, because the Lord came down on it in fire. The smoke rose from the mountain like smoke from a ·furnace [kiln], and the whole mountain ·shook wildly [trembled]. 19 The ·sound [blast] from the ·trumpet [ram’s horn] became louder. Then Moses spoke, and ·the voice of [or in thunder] God answered him.
20 When the Lord came down on top of Mount Sinai, he ·called [invited] Moses to come up to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. 21 The Lord said to Moses, “Go down and warn the people that they must not ·force their way [break] through to see me. If they do, many of them will ·die [L fall]. 22 Even the priests, who may ·come near [approach] me, must first ·prepare [consecrate; sanctify] themselves. If they don’t, I, the Lord, will ·punish [L break out against] them.”
23 Moses told the Lord, “The people cannot come up on Mount Sinai, because you yourself ·told [warned] us, ‘Set a ·limit [boundary] around the mountain, and ·set it apart as holy [consecrate/sanctify it].’”
24 The Lord said to him, “Go down and bring Aaron up with you, but don’t allow the priests or the people to ·force their way [break] through. They must not come up to the Lord, or I will ·punish [L break out against] them.”
25 So Moses went down to the people and told them these things.
The Ten Commandments
20 Then God spoke all these words:
2 “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt ·where you were slaves [L from the house of bondage].
3 “You must not have any other gods ·except [or before] me.
4 “You must not make for yourselves an idol that looks like anything in the ·sky [heavens] above or on the earth below or in the water below the ·land [earth]. 5 You must not worship or serve them, because I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God. ·If you hate me, I will punish your children, and even your grandchildren and great-grandchildren [L I will visit/punish the guilt of the fathers on the sons/T children until the third and fourth generations of those who hate me]. 6 But I show kindness to ·thousands [or thousands of generations of those] who love me and obey my commands.
7 “You must not ·use the name of the Lord your God thoughtlessly [take/lift up the name of the Lord your God in vain]; the Lord will ·punish [L not hold/treat as innocent; not acquit] anyone who ·misuses [takes in vain] his name.
8 “Remember to ·keep the Sabbath holy [consecrate/sanctify the Sabbath]. 9 Work and get everything done during six days each week, 10 but the seventh day is a ·day of rest to honor [Sabbath to] the Lord your God. On that day no one may do any work: not you, your son or daughter, your male or female slaves, your animals, or the ·foreigners [sojourners; wanderers; resident aliens] living in your ·cities [L gates]. 11 The reason is that in six days the Lord made everything—the ·sky [heavens], the earth, the sea, and everything in them. On the seventh day he rested. So the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and ·made it holy [consecrated/sanctified it].
12 “Honor your father and your mother so that you will live ·a long time [L for many days] in the land that the Lord your God is going to give you.
13 “You must not murder anyone.
14 “You must not ·be guilty of [commit] adultery.
15 “You must not steal.
16 “You must not ·tell lies about [bear false witness against] your neighbor.
17 “You must not ·want to take [covet] your neighbor’s house. You must not ·want [covet] his wife or his male or female slaves, or his ox or his donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor [C this commandment internalizes previous commandments].”
18 When the people heard the thunder and the ·trumpet [ram’s horn], and when they saw the lightning and the smoke rising from the mountain, they ·shook with fear [trembled] and stood far away from the mountain. 19 Then they said to Moses, “Speak to us yourself, and we will listen. But don’t let God speak to us, or we will die.”
20 Then Moses said to the people, “Don’t be afraid, because God has come to test you. He wants ·you to respect him [L to put the fear of him on you] so you will not sin.”
21 The people stood far away from the mountain while Moses went near the dark cloud where God was. 22 Then the Lord told Moses to say these things to the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel]: “You yourselves have seen that I talked with you from heaven. 23 You must not use gold or silver to make idols for yourselves; do not worship these gods in addition to me.
24 “Make an altar of dirt for me, and sacrifice on it your whole burnt offerings [Lev. 1] and ·fellowship [or peace; Lev. 3] offerings, your sheep and your cattle. Worship me in every place that I choose, and I will come and bless you. 25 If you use stones to make an altar for me, don’t use ·stones that you have shaped with tools [hewn/cut stones]. When you use any ·tools [chisel] on them, you ·make them unsuitable for use in worship [profane them]. 26 And you must not go up to my altar on steps, or ·people will be able to see under your clothes [L your nakedness will be exposed on it; C meant to avoid a Canaanite-style fertility worship].”
Laws for Living
21 Then God said to Moses, “These are the ·laws for living [regulations] that you will ·give to the Israelites [L set before them]:
2 “·If [or When] you buy a Hebrew slave, he will serve you for six years. In the seventh year you are to set him free, ·and he will have to pay nothing [with no debt]. 3 If he ·is not married when he becomes your slave [L came single/alone], he must leave ·without a wife [L single; alone]. But if he ·is married when he becomes your slave [L comes in with a wife], he may ·take [L go out with] his wife with him. 4 If the slave’s master gives him a wife, and she gives birth to sons or daughters, the woman and her children will belong to the master. ·When the slave is set free, only he may leave [L He will go out single/alone].
5 “But if the slave says, ‘I love my master, my wife and my children, and I don’t want to go free,’ 6 then the slave’s master must take him to ·God [T the judges; C Hebrew: Elohim]. The master is to take him to a door or ·doorframe [doorpost] and ·punch a hole through [pierce] the slave’s ear using ·a sharp tool [an awl]. Then the slave will serve that master all his life.
7 “·If [or When] a man sells his daughter as a slave, ·the rules for setting her free are different from the rules for setting the male slaves free [L she will not go out like male slaves go out]. 8 If ·the master wanted to marry her but then decided he was not pleased with her [L she does not please her master who designated her for himself], he must let ·one of her close relatives buy her back [L her be redeemed]. He has no right to sell her to foreigners, because he has treated her unfairly. 9 If the man ·who bought her promises to let the woman marry [L designated her for] his son, he must ·treat her as [give her the rights of] a daughter. 10 If ·the man who bought her marries another woman [he takes another wife], he must not ·keep his first wife from having [deprive her of] food or clothing or ·sexual relations [marital rights]. 11 If he does not give her these three things, she may go free, ·and she owes him no money [L with no debt; Lev. 25:39–43; Deut. 15:12–18].
Laws About Injuries
12 “Anyone who ·hits [strikes] a person and kills him must be put to death. 13 But if a person kills someone ·accidentally [without premeditation], God allowed that to happen, so ·the person must go to a place I will choose [L I will appoint for you a place to which the person may flee; Josh. 20:1–9]. 14 But if someone plans and murders another person on purpose, put him to death, even if he has run to my altar for safety.
15 “Anyone who ·hits [strikes] his father or his mother must be put to death.
16 “Anyone who kidnaps someone and either sells him as a slave or ·still has him when he is caught [L he is found in his hand] must be put to death.
17 “Anyone who ·says cruel things to [curses] his father or mother must be put to death.
18 “If two men ·argue [quarrel; contend], and one hits ·the other [L his neighbor] with a rock or with his ·fist [or tool], the one who is hurt but not killed might have to stay in bed. 19 Later if he is able to get up and walk around outside with his ·walking stick [staff], the one who hit him ·is not to be punished [has no liability]. But he must pay the injured man for the loss of his time, and he must support the injured man until he is completely healed.
20 “If a man ·beats [strikes] his male or female slave with a ·stick [rod], and the slave dies on the spot, the owner must be punished. 21 But if the slave gets well after a day or two, the owner will not be punished since the slave belongs to him.
22 “Suppose two men are fighting and ·hit [injure] a pregnant woman, causing ·the baby to come out [or a miscarriage; C the Hebrew is not clear whether dead or alive]. If there is no further ·injury [harm], the man who caused the accident must pay money—whatever amount the woman’s husband says and the court allows. 23 But if there is further ·injury [harm], then ·the punishment that must be paid is [L you shall give] life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, and bruise for bruise [C to guard against excessive punishment].
26 “If a man ·hits [strikes] his male or female slave in the eye, and ·the eye is blinded [L destroys it], the man is to free the slave to pay for the eye. 27 If a master knocks out a tooth of his male or female slave, the man is to free the slave to pay for the tooth.
28 “If a man’s ·bull [ox] kills a man or woman, you must kill that bull by ·throwing stones at [stoning] it, and you should not eat ·the bull [L its meat]. But the owner of the bull is ·not guilty [innocent]. 29 However, suppose the ·bull [ox] has ·hurt [gored] people in the past and the owner, though warned, did not ·keep it in a pen [restrain/confine it]. Then if it kills a man or woman, the ·bull [ox] must be stoned to death, and the owner must also be put to death. 30 But if ·the family of the dead person accepts money [L a ransom is imposed on him], the owner of the bull must pay whatever is demanded ·to buy back his life [for his redemption]. 31 Use this same ·law [rule] if the ·bull [ox] ·kills [gores] a person’s son or daughter. 32 If the ·bull [ox] ·kills [gores] a male or female slave, the owner must pay the master ·the price for a new slave, or twelve ounces [L thirty shekels] of silver, and the ·bull [ox] must also be stoned to death.
33 “If a man takes the cover off a pit, or digs a pit and does not cover it, and another man’s ox or donkey comes and falls into it, 34 the owner of the pit must ·pay [compensate] the owner of the animal for the loss. The dead animal will belong to the one who pays.
35 “If a man’s ·bull [ox] ·kills [gores] another man’s ·bull [ox] and it dies, they must sell the ·bull [ox] that is alive. Both men will get half of the money and half of the bull that was killed. 36 But if a person’s ·bull [ox] has ·hurt [gored] other animals in the past and the owner did not ·keep it in a pen [restrain/confine it], that owner must pay bull for bull, and the dead animal is his.
22 “If a man steals a ·bull [ox] or a sheep and ·kills [slaughters] or sells it, he must ·pay back [compensate] five ·bulls [oxen] for the one bull he stole and four sheep for the one sheep he stole.
“If a thief is killed while breaking into a house at night, the one who killed him is not guilty of ·murder [bloodshed]. But if this happens ·during the day [L after the sun is risen], he is guilty of ·murder [bloodshed].
5 “If a man lets his farm animal graze in his field or vineyard, and it wanders into another man’s field or vineyard, the owner of the animal must ·pay back the loss [make restitution] from the best of his ·crop [L field and from the best of his vineyard].
6 “Suppose a man starts a fire that ·spreads through the thornbushes to his neighbor’s field [L catches in the thorns]. If the fire burns ·his neighbor’s growing [L the standing] grain or grain that has been stacked, or if it burns his whole field, the person who started the fire must pay ·for what was burned [full restitution].
7 “Suppose a man gives his neighbor money or other things ·to keep for him [for safekeeping] and those things are stolen from the neighbor’s house. If the thief is caught, he must pay back twice as much as he stole. 8 But if the thief is never ·found [caught], the owner of the house must ·make a promise [L be brought] before ·God [or the judges] that he has not ·stolen [L sent out his hand toward] his neighbor’s things.
9 “Suppose ·two men disagree about who owns something [L there is a matter/report of transgression]—whether ox, donkey, sheep, clothing, or something else that is lost. If each says, ‘This is mine,’ each man must bring his case ·to God [or before the judges]. ·God’s judges [L God; T The judges; C Hebrew: Elohim] will decide who is guilty, and that person must pay the other man twice as much as the object is worth.
10 “Suppose a man ·asks [L gives] his neighbor to ·keep [safeguard] his donkey, ox, sheep, or some other animal for him, and that animal dies, gets ·hurt [injured; L broken], or is taken away, without anyone seeing what happened. 11 ·That neighbor must promise before the Lord [L An oath before God will decide] that he did not ·harm or kill [L send his hand against] the other man’s animal, and the owner of the animal must accept ·his promise made before God [the oath]. The neighbor does not have to ·pay the owner for the animal [make restitution]. 12 But if the animal was stolen from the neighbor, ·he must pay the owner for it [restitutiton must be made to the owner]. 13 If wild animals killed it, the neighbor must bring ·the body [L it] as proof, and ·he will not have to pay for the animal that was killed [L restitution will not be made for the torn-up remains].
14 “If a man borrows an animal from his neighbor, and it gets ·hurt [injured; L broken] or dies while the owner is not there, the one who borrowed it must pay [L restitution to] the owner for the animal. 15 But if the owner is with the animal, the one who borrowed it does not ·have to pay [make restitution]. If the animal was ·rented [hired], the ·rental [hiring] price covers the loss.
Laws and Relationships
16 “Suppose a man finds a woman who is not ·pledged [engaged] to be married and ·has never had sexual relations with a man [L is a virgin]. If he ·tricks [or seduces] her into having sexual relations with him, he must give ·her family the payment to marry [L the bride-price for] her, and she will become his wife. 17 But if her father refuses to allow his daughter to marry him, the man must still give the usual ·payment for a bride who has never had sexual relations [bride-price for a virgin].
18 “·Put to death any woman who does evil magic [L You shall not let a female sorceress live].
19 “Put to death anyone who ·has sexual relations [L lies] with an animal.
20 “·Destroy completely [Devote to destruction; Put under the ban] any person who makes a sacrifice to any god except the Lord.
21 “Do not ·cheat [wrong; maltreat] or ·hurt [oppress] a ·foreigner [sojourner; resident alien], because you were ·foreigners [sojourners; resident aliens] in the land of Egypt.
22 “Do not ·cheat [abuse; L afflict] a widow or an orphan. 23 If you ·do [cheat; abuse; L afflict], and they cry out to me for help, I certainly will ·hear [or act on] their cry. 24 And I will be very angry and kill you ·in war [L with the sword]. Then your wives will become widows, and your children will become orphans.
25 “If you lend money to one of my people who is poor, do not treat him as a ·moneylender [creditor] would. ·Charge him nothing for using your money [L Take no interest; Lev. 25:36–37; Deut. 23:19; Ps. 15:5]. 26 If your neighbor gives you his coat as ·a promise for the money he owes you [collateral], you must give it back to him by sunset, 27 because his coat is the only cover to keep his body warm. He has nothing else to sleep in. If he cries out to me for help, I will ·hear [or act], because I am ·merciful [gracious; compassionate].
28 “You must not ·speak against [revile; trifle with; disrespect] God or curse a leader of your people.
29 “Do not hold back your offering from the first of your harvest and the first wine that you make. Also, you must give me your firstborn sons. 30 You must do the same with your ·bulls [oxen] and your sheep. Let the firstborn males stay with their mothers for seven days, and on the eighth day you must give them to me.
31 “You are to be my ·holy [consecrated; sanctified; set-apart] people. You must not eat the meat of any animal that has been ·killed [torn up] by wild animals. Instead, ·give [L throw] it to the dogs.
Laws About Fairness
23 “You must not ·tell lies [L give a false report]. If you are a witness in court, ·don’t help [L you shall not set hands with] a wicked person ·by telling lies [with a false/violent/malicious witness].
2 “You must not ·do wrong just because everyone else is doing it [follow the crowd in evil]. ·If you are a witness in court, you must not ruin a fair trial. You must not tell lies just because everyone else is [L You are not to give testimony in an accusation by siding with everyone else in order to distort justice]. 3 ·If a poor person is in court, you must not take his side just because he is poor [L You must not be partial to a poor person in his dispute/lawsuit].
4 “If you ·see [L encounter] your enemy’s ox or donkey wandering away, you must return it to him. 5 If you see that ·your enemy’s donkey [L the donkey of one who hates you] has fallen because its load is too heavy, do not leave it there. You must ·help your enemy get the donkey back on its feet [set it free; or rearrange its load].
6 “You must not ·be unfair to [pervert the justice of] a poor person when he is in court. 7 ·You must not lie when you accuse someone in court [L Keep yourself far from a false charge/report]. Never allow an innocent or honest person to be put to death as punishment, because I will not ·treat guilty people as if they were innocent [acquit the guilty].
8 “You must not accept ·money from a person who wants you to lie in court [L a bribe], because ·such money will not let you see what is right [L a bribe blinds officials; Prov. 15:27; 17:8; 18:16]. Such money ·makes good people tell lies [undermines the cause of the righteous].
9 “You must not ·mistreat [oppress] a ·foreigner [sojourner; resident alien]. You know how it feels to be a ·foreigner [sojourner; resident alien], because you were ·foreigners [sojourners; resident aliens] in Egypt [22:21].
Laws for the Sabbath
10 “For six years you are to ·plant [sow] and harvest crops on your land. 11 Then during the seventh year, ·do not plow or plant your land [L you will let it lie fallow and untilled]. If any food grows there, allow the poor people to have it, and let the wild animals eat what is left. You should do the same with your vineyards and your orchards of olive trees [Lev. 25:1–7].
12 “You should work six days a week, but on the seventh day you must ·rest [stop]. This lets your ox and your donkey rest, and it also lets the slave born in your house and the ·foreigner [sojourner; resident alien] be refreshed.
13 “Be sure to do all that I have said to you. You must not ·even say [invoke; bring to mind] the names of other gods; those names must not ·come out of [L be heard from] your mouth.
Three Yearly Feasts
14 “Three times each year you must ·hold a feast to honor me [hold a festival; or make a pilgrimage for me]. 15 You must celebrate the ·Feast [Festival] of Unleavened Bread [34:18] in the way I commanded you. For seven days you must eat ·bread that is made without yeast [unleavened bread] at the set time during the month of Abib [13:4], the month when you came out of Egypt. No one is to ·come to worship [appear before] me ·without bringing an offering [empty-handed].
16 “You must celebrate the ·Feast [Festival] of Harvest [C called Feast of Weeks in 34:22; later called Pentecost]. Offer to God the first things you harvest from the crops you planted in your fields.
“You must celebrate the ·Feast [Festival] of Ingathering [C later called Feast of Shelters or Booths; Lev. 23:33–36] in the fall, when you gather all the crops from your fields.
17 “So three times during every year all your males must come ·to worship [L before] the Lord God.
18 “You must not offer ·animal blood [L blood of a sacrifice] along with anything ·that has yeast in it [leavened].
“You must not save any of the fat from the sacrifice for the next day.
19 “You must bring the best of the firstfruits of your land to the ·Holy Tent [L House; 25:9] of the Lord your God.
“You must not cook a young goat in its mother’s milk [C probably a pagan ritual; Deut. 14:21].
God Will Help Israel
20 “I am sending an angel ahead of you, who will ·protect [guard] you ·as you travel [L on the way/path]. He will ·lead [bring] you to the place I have prepared. 21 Pay attention to him and ·obey him [L listen to his voice]. Do not ·turn [rebel] against him; he will not forgive ·such turning against him [L it] because my ·power [L name] is in him. 22 If you listen carefully to ·all he says [L his voice] and do everything that I tell you, I will be an enemy to your enemies. I will fight all who fight against you. 23 My angel will go ahead of you and take you into the land of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites, and Jebusites, and I will ·destroy them [wipe/blot them out].
24 “You must not bow down to their gods or ·worship [serve] them. You must not live the way those people live. You must ·destroy their idols [demolish them], breaking into pieces ·the stone pillars they use in worship [L their pillars]. 25 If you worship the Lord your God, ·I [L he] will bless your bread and your water. I will take away sickness from you. 26 None of your women will miscarry or be ·unable to have children [barren]. I will ·allow you to live long lives [L fill the number of your days].
27 “I will ·make your enemies afraid of me [L send the dread of me before you]. I will confuse any people ·you fight against [L against whom you come], and I will make all your enemies ·run away from [L turn their backs to] you. 28 I will send ·terror [or pestilence; or the hornet] ahead of you that will force the Hivites, Canaanites, and Hittites out of your way. 29 But I will not ·force all those people out [drive them out] in only one year. If I did, the land would become ·a desert [desolate] and the wild animals would become too many for you. 30 Instead, I will ·force those people [drive them] out ·slowly [little by little], until there are enough of you to ·take over [possess] the land.
31 “I will give you the land from the ·Red [or Reed; 10:19] Sea to the ·Mediterranean [L Philistine] Sea, and from the ·desert [wilderness] to the ·Euphrates River [L River]. I will give ·you power over [L into your hand] the people who now live in the land, and you will ·force [drive] them out ahead of you. 32 You must not ·make an agreement [L cut a covenant] with those people or with their gods. 33 You must not let them live in your land, or they will make you sin against me. If you ·worship [serve] their gods, ·you will be caught in a trap [L they will be a trap/snare to you].”
God Makes a Covenant with Israel
24 The Lord told Moses, “You, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel must come up to me and ·worship [bow down to] me from a distance. 2 Then Moses alone must come near me; the others must not come near. The rest of the people must not come up the mountain with Moses.”
3 Moses ·told [L went and recounted to] the people all the Lord’s words and ·laws for living [regulations; judgments]. Then all of the people answered out loud together, “We will do all the things the Lord has said.” 4 So Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord. And he got up early the next morning and built an altar near the bottom of the mountain. He set up twelve ·stones [L pillars], one ·stone [pillar] for each of the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 Then Moses sent ·young Israelite men [L youth of the sons/T children of Israel] to offer whole burnt offerings and to sacrifice young bulls as ·fellowship [or peace; Lev. 3] offerings to the Lord. 6 Moses put half of the blood of these animals in ·bowls [basins], and he ·sprinkled [or dashed] the other half of the blood on the altar. 7 Then he took the Book of the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty C referring to the laws found in 20:2–23:19] and read it so the people could hear him. And they said, “We will do everything that the Lord has said; we will obey.”
8 Then Moses took ·the blood from the bowls [L the blood] and ·sprinkled [dashed] it on the people, saying, “This is the blood ·that begins [L of] the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty], the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty] which the Lord ·has made [L cut] with you ·about [or in accord with] all these words.”
9 Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel went up the mountain 10 and saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was a ·surface [pavement] that looked as if it were paved with blue sapphire stones, and it was as clear as the ·sky [heavens]! 11 These ·leaders of the Israelites [L eminent men of the sons/T children of Israel] saw God, but ·God did not destroy them [L he did not send out his hand]. Then they ate and drank together [C meals often sealed covenant/treaty agreements].
God Promises Moses the Stone Tablets
12 The Lord said to Moses, “Come up the mountain to me. Wait there, and I will give you two stone tablets [C perhaps two copies of the Ten Commandments]. On these are the ·teachings [laws; instructions] and the commands I have written to instruct the people.”
13 So Moses and his ·helper [assistant] Joshua ·set out [L got up], and Moses went up to ·Sinai, the mountain of God [L the mountain of God]. 14 Moses said to the elders, “Wait here for us until we come back to you. Aaron and Hur are with you, and anyone who ·has a disagreement with others [has many words/a dispute; L is a master of words] can take it to them.”
Moses Meets with God
15 When Moses went up on the mountain, the cloud [C representing God’s presence] covered it. 16 The glory of the Lord [C representing his manifest presence] ·came down [L settled] on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days. On the seventh day the Lord called to Moses from inside the cloud. 17 To the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel] the glory of the Lord looked like a fire burning on top of the mountain. 18 Then Moses went into the cloud and went higher up the mountain. He was on the mountain for forty days and forty nights.
Gifts for the Lord
25 The Lord said to Moses, 2 “Tell the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel] to bring me ·gifts [tribute]. Receive for me the ·gifts [tribute] ·each person wants [L from each one whose heart moves them] to give. 3 ·These are the gifts [This is the tribute] that you should receive from them: gold, silver, bronze; 4 blue, purple, and ·red [scarlet] thread; fine linen, goat hair, 5 ·sheepskins [or ramskins] that are dyed red; ·fine leather [or sea cow/porpoise hide]; acacia wood; 6 olive oil to burn in the lamps; spices for sweet-smelling incense, and the special olive oil ·poured on a person’s head to make him a priest [L for anointing; Ps. 133]; 7 onyx stones, and other jewels to be put on the ·holy vest [ephod; 28:6–14] and the ·chest covering [breastpiece; 28:15–30].
8 “The people must build a ·holy place [sanctuary] for me so that I can live among them. 9 Build this ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] and ·everything in it [all its furniture] by the ·plan [pattern] I will show you [C every detail reflects a heavenly reality].
The Ark of the Covenant
10 “·Use acacia wood and build an Ark [L They will make an Ark of acacia wood; C the Ark, considered the footstool of God’s throne, was a powerful symbol of God’s presence; 1 Sam. 4] ·forty-five inches [L two and a half cubits] long, ·twenty-seven inches [L a cubit and a half] wide, and ·twenty-seven inches [L a cubit and a half] high. 11 ·Cover the Ark [L Overlay it] inside and out with pure gold, and put a gold ·strip [molding] all around it. 12 ·Make [Cast] four gold rings for the Ark and attach them to its four feet, two rings on ·each [one side and two rings on the other] side. 13 Then make poles from acacia wood and ·cover [cast; overlay] them with gold. 14 Put the poles through the rings on the sides of the Ark, and use these poles to carry it. 15 These poles must always stay in the rings of the Ark. Do not take them out. 16 Then put in the Ark the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty; L Testimony] which I will make with you [C a reference to the tablets of the Ten Commandments].
17 “Then make the ·lid of the Ark [mercy seat; atonement cover] of pure gold. Make it ·forty-five inches [L two and a half cubits] long and ·twenty-seven inches [L one and a half cubits] wide. 18 ·Then hammer gold to make two creatures with wings [Make two cherubim of hammered gold], and put one on each end of the ·lid [mercy seat; atonement cover]. 19 Attach one ·creature [cherub] on one end of the ·lid [mercy seat; atonement cover] and the other ·creature [cherub] on the other end. Make them to be one piece with the ·lid [mercy seat; atonement cover] at the ends. 20 The ·creatures’ [cherubim’s] wings should be spread upward, covering the ·lid [mercy seat; atonement cover], and the ·creatures [cherubim] are to face each other across the ·lid [mercy seat; atonement cover]. 21 Put this ·lid [mercy seat; atonement cover] on top of the Ark, and put in the Ark the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty; L Testimony] which I will make with you. 22 I will meet with you there, above the ·lid [mercy seat; atonement cover] between the two ·winged creatures [cherubim] on the Ark of the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty; L Testimony]. There I will give you all my commands for the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel].
23 “Make a table out of acacia wood, ·thirty-six inches [L two cubits] long, ·eighteen inches [L one cubit] wide, and ·twenty-seven inches [L one and a half cubits] high. 24 ·Cover [Overlay] it with pure gold, and put a gold ·strip [molding] around it. 25 Make a ·frame [rim] ·three inches [L a handbreadth] high ·that stands up all around the edge, and put a gold ·strip [molding] around it. 26 Then make four gold rings. Attach them to the four corners of the table where the four legs are. 27 Put the rings close to the ·frame [rim] around the top of the table, because they will hold the poles for carrying it. 28 Make the poles out of acacia wood, ·cover [overlay] them with gold, and carry the table with these poles. 29 Make the plates and bowls for the table, as well as the jars and cups, out of pure gold. They will be used for pouring out the drink offerings [Ezra 1:9–11; Dan. 1:2; 5:1–4]. 30 On this table put the ·bread that shows you are in my presence [Bread of Presence] so that it is always there in front of me.
31 “Hammer pure gold to make a ·lampstand [L menorah]. Its base, ·stand [shaft], flower-like cups, buds, and petals must all be joined together in one piece [C its tree shape suggests that the Tabernacle represented Eden where God and humans lived in harmony]. 32 The lampstand must have six branches going out from its sides—three on one side and three on the other. 33 Each branch must have three cups shaped like almond flowers on it. Each cup must have a bud and a petal. Each of the six branches going out from the lampstand must be the same. 34 And there must be four more cups made like almond flowers on the lampstand itself. These cups must also have buds and petals. 35 Put a bud under each pair of branches that goes out from the lampstand. Each of the six branches going out from the lampstand must be the same. 36 The branches, buds, and lampstand must be made of one piece, hammered out of pure gold.
37 “Then make seven ·small oil lamps [L lamps for it] and put them on the lampstand so that they give light to the area in front of it. 38 The ·wick trimmers [snuffers] and trays must be made of pure gold. 39 Use ·seventy-five pounds [L one talent] of pure gold to make the lampstand and everything with it. 40 Be very careful to make them by the ·plan [pattern] I showed you on the mountain [25:9].
The Holy Tent
26 “Make for the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] ten curtains of fine linen and blue, purple, and ·red [scarlet] thread. Have a skilled craftsman sew designs of ·creatures with wings [cherubim; 37:7] on the pieces of cloth [C these deep blue curtains with cherubim represent heaven on earth]. 2 Make each curtain the same size—·forty-two feet [L twenty-eight cubits] long and ·six feet [L four cubits] wide. 3 ·Sew [L Join; Bind] five curtains together for one set, and ·sew [join; bind] the other curtains together for the second set. 4 Make loops of blue cloth on the edge of the end curtain of one set, and do the same for the end curtain of the other set. 5 Make fifty loops on the end curtain of the first set and fifty loops on the end curtain of the second set. These loops must be opposite each other. 6 And make fifty gold ·hooks [clasps] to join the two sets of curtains so that the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] is one piece.
7 “Then make another tent that will cover the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle], using eleven curtains made from goat hair. 8 All these curtains must be the same size—·forty-five feet [L thirty cubits] long and ·six [L four cubits] feet wide. 9 ·Sew [Join; Bind] five of the curtains together into one set. Then ·sew [join; bind] the other six curtains together into the second set. Fold the sixth curtain double over the front of the Tent. 10 Make fifty loops down the edge of the end curtain of one set, and do the same for the end curtain of the other set. 11 Then make fifty bronze ·hooks [clasps] and put them in the loops to ·join [bind] the tent together so that the covering is one piece. 12 Let the extra half piece of cloth hang over the back of the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle]. 13 There will be ·eighteen inches [L one cubit] hanging over the sides of the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle], to ·protect [cover] it [C this is the innermost of the weatherproofing protecting the innermost curtain]. 14 Make a covering for the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] from ·sheepskins colored red [or tanned rams’ skins; C the second weatherproof covering], and over that make a covering from ·fine leather [or sea cow hide; C the outermost covering used for weatherproofing].
15 “Use acacia wood to make upright frames for the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle]. 16 Each frame must be ·fifteen feet [L ten cubits] long and ·twenty-seven inches [L a cubit and a half] wide, 17 with two pegs side by side. Every frame [L of the Holy Tent/Tabernacle] must be made the same way. 18 Make twenty frames for the south side of the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle]. 19 Each frame must have two silver bases to go under it, a peg fitting into each base. You must make forty silver bases for the [L twenty] frames. 20 Make twenty more frames for the [L second side on the] north side of the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] 21 and forty silver bases for them—two bases for each frame. 22 You must make six frames for the rear or west end of the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] 23 and two frames for each corner at the rear [L of the Holy Tent/Tabernacle]. 24 The two frames are to be doubled at the bottom and joined at the top with a metal ring. Both corner frames must be made this way. 25 So there will be a total of eight frames at the rear of the Tent, and there will be sixteen silver bases—two bases under each frame.
26 “Make crossbars of acacia wood to connect the upright frames of the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle]. Make five crossbars to hold the frames together on one side 27 and five to hold the frames together on the ·other [L second] side. Also make five crossbars to hold the frames together on the west end, at the rear. 28 The middle crossbar is to be set halfway up the frames, and it is to run along the entire length of each side and rear. 29 Make gold rings on the sides of the frames to hold the crossbars, and ·cover [overlay] the frames and the crossbars with gold. 30 Set up the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] by the ·plan [pattern] shown to you on the mountain [25:9].
31 “Make a curtain of fine linen and blue, purple, and ·red [scarlet] thread, and have a skilled craftsman sew ·designs of creatures with wings [cherubim; 37:7] on it. 32 ·Hang [Place] the curtain by gold ·hooks [clasps] on four posts of acacia wood that are ·covered [overlaid] with gold, and set them in four silver bases. 33 ·Hang [Place] the curtain from the ·hooks [clasps] in the roof, and put the Ark of the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty; L Testimony; 25:10] containing the two stone tablets [24:12] behind it. This curtain will separate the ·Holy Place [Tabernacle] from the ·Most Holy Place [T Holy of Holies; C the back third, the throne room of God]. 34 Put the ·lid [mercy seat; atonement cover; 25:13–22] on the Ark of the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty; L Testimony; 25:10] in the Most Holy Place.
35 “Outside the curtain, put the table [25:23–30] on the north side of the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle]. Put the lampstand [25:31–40] on the south side of the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] across from the table.
The Entrance of the Holy Tent
36 “Then, for the entrance of the Tent, make a ·curtain [L screen] with fine linen and blue, purple, and ·red [scarlet] thread. ·Someone who can sew well is to sew designs on it [L …embroidered with needlework]. 37 Make five posts of acacia wood ·covered [overlaid] with gold. Make gold ·hooks [clasps] for them on which to hang the ·curtain [L screen], and make five bronze bases for them.
The Altar for the Burnt Offerings
27 “Make an altar of acacia wood, ·four and one-half feet [L three cubits] high. It should be square—·seven and one-half feet [L five cubits] long and ·seven and one-half feet [L five cubits] wide. 2 Make each of the four corners of the altar stick out like a horn [C significance uncertain, but refers to rounded projections on each corner of top; 29:10–12; Lev. 4:18–21; 1 Kin. 2:28–34], in such a way that the corners with their horns are all one piece. Then ·cover [overlay] the whole altar with bronze.
3 “Use bronze to make all ·the tools and dishes that will be used on the altar [L its utensils]: the pots to remove the ashes, the shovels, the ·bowls for sprinkling blood [L basins], the meat forks, and the ·pans for carrying the burning wood [firepans].
4 “Make a large bronze screen to hold the burning wood, and put a bronze ring at each of the four corners of it. 5 Put the screen inside the altar, under its ·rim [ledge], halfway up from the bottom [L of the altar].
6 “Make poles of acacia wood for the altar, and ·cover [overlay] them with bronze. 7 Put the poles through the rings on both sides of the altar to carry it. 8 Make the altar out of boards and leave the inside hollow. Make it as you were shown on the mountain [25:9].
The Courtyard of the Holy Tent
9 “Make ·a wall of curtains to form a courtyard around the Holy Tent [L the court of the Tabernacle]. The south side should have a wall of fine linen curtains ·one hundred fifty feet [L one hundred cubits] long. 10 Hang the curtains with silver hooks and bands on twenty bronze ·posts [pillars] with twenty bronze bases. 11 The north side must also be ·one hundred fifty feet [L one hundred cubits] long. Hang its curtains on silver hooks and bands on twenty bronze ·posts [pillars] with twenty bronze bases.
12 “The west end of the courtyard must have a wall of curtains ·seventy-five feet [L fifty cubits] long, with ten ·posts [pillars] and ten bases on that wall. 13 The [L front on the] east end of the courtyard must also be ·seventy-five feet [L fifty cubits] long. 14 On one side of the entry, there is to be a wall of curtains ·twenty-two and one-half feet [L fifteen cubits] long, held up by three ·posts [pillars] on three bases. 15 On the other side of the entry, there is also to be a wall of curtains ·twenty-two and one-half feet [L fifteen cubits] long, held up by three ·posts [pillars] on three bases.
16 “The ·entry [L gate] to the courtyard is to be a ·curtain [screen] ·thirty feet [L twenty cubits] wide, made of fine linen with blue, purple, and ·red [scarlet] thread. ·Someone who can sew well is to sew designs on it [L …embroidered with needlework]. It is to be held up by four ·posts [pillars] on four bases. 17 All the ·posts [pillars] around the courtyard must have silver bands and hooks and bronze bases. 18 The courtyard must be ·one hundred fifty feet [L one hundred cubits] long and ·seventy-five feet [L fifty cubits] wide, with a wall of curtains around it ·seven and one-half feet [L five cubits] high, made of fine linen. The bases in which the ·posts [pillars] are set must be bronze. 19 All the ·things used in the Holy Tent [utensils of the Tabernacle] and all the tent pegs for the ·Holy Tent [Tabernacle] and the wall around the courtyard must be made of bronze.
Oil for the Lamp
20 “Command the ·people [L sons/T children] of Israel to bring you pure olive oil, made from ·pressed [or pounded] olives, to keep the lamps on the lampstand burning [L regularly; or continually]. 21 Aaron and his sons must keep the lamps burning before the Lord from evening till morning. This will be in the Meeting Tent, outside the curtain which is in front of the ·Ark [Covenant; Testimony; Treaty]. The Israelites and their descendants must obey this ·rule [statute; ordinance; requirement] ·from now on [L throughout their generations].
Clothes for the Priests
28 “·Tell your brother Aaron to come [L Bring near your brother Aaron] to you, along with his sons Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. ·Separate them from the other Israelites to [L …to] serve me as priests. 2 Make holy ·clothes [garments; vestments] for your brother Aaron to give him ·honor [glory] and ·beauty [splendor]. 3 Tell all the ·skilled craftsmen to whom I have given wisdom [L the wise of heart whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom; C wisdom here is a practical knowledge, a skill] to make ·special clothes [garments; vestments] for Aaron—clothes to show that he ·belongs to me [is consecrated/set apart/ holy] so that he may serve me as a priest. 4 These are the clothes they must make: a ·chest covering [breastpiece], a ·holy vest [ephod], an outer robe, a ·woven inner [or checkered] robe, a turban, and a ·cloth belt [sash]. They must make these ·holy [sacred] clothes for your brother Aaron and his sons. Then they may serve me as priests. 5 They must use gold and blue, purple and ·red [scarlet] thread, and fine linen.
The Holy Vest
6 “Use gold and blue, purple and ·red [scarlet] thread, and fine linen to make the ·holy vest [ephod]; ·skilled craftsmen are to make it [skillfully worked]. 7 At each top corner of it there will be a pair of shoulder straps tied together over each shoulder.
8 “·The craftsmen will very carefully weave a belt [L The embroidered waistband] on the ·holy vest that is [L ephod will be] made with the same materials—gold and blue, purple and ·red [scarlet] thread, and fine linen.
9 “Take two onyx stones and write the names of the twelve sons of Israel on them, 10 six on one stone and six on the other. Write the names in order, ·from the oldest son to the youngest [according to the order of their birth]. 11 ·Carve [Engrave] the names of the sons of Israel on these stones in the same way a person ·carves words and designs on a seal [engraves a seal/signet]. Put gold [L filigree] around the stones to hold them on the ·holy vest [ephod]. 12 Then put the two stones on the two straps of the ·holy vest [ephod] as reminders of the twelve sons of Israel. Aaron is to ·wear [bear] their names on his shoulders in the presence of the Lord as reminders of the sons of Israel. 13 Make ·two gold pieces to hold the stones [settings of gold filigree] 14 and two chains of pure gold, twisted together like a rope. Attach the chains to the ·two gold pieces that hold the stones [L settings].
The Chest Covering
15 “Make a ·chest covering to help in making decisions [L breastpiece of judgment; C so called because it contained the Urim and Thummim used to discern God’s will; 28:30]. ·The craftsmen should make it as they made the holy vest [L …of skilled work like the ephod], using gold and blue, purple and ·red [scarlet] thread, and fine linen. 16 It must be square—·nine inches [L a span] long and ·nine inches [L a span] wide—and ·folded double to make a pocket [L doubled]. 17 Put four rows of ·beautiful gems [L stones] on it: The first row must have a ·ruby [or carnelian], ·topaz [or chrysolite], and ·yellow quartz [or emerald]; 18 the second must have turquoise, a ·sapphire [or lapis], and an ·emerald [or moonstone]; 19 the third must have a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; 20 the fourth must have a chrysolite [or beryl], an onyx, and a jasper [C the exact identity of some of these stones is unclear]. Put gold [L filigree] around these ·jewels [stones] to attach them to it. 21 There must be twelve ·jewels on the chest covering [L stones]—one ·jewel [stone] for each of the names of the sons of Israel. ·Carve [Engrave] the name of one of the twelve tribes on each of the stones as you would ·carve [engrave] a ·seal [signet].
22 “Make chains of pure gold, twisted together like rope, for the ·chest covering [breastpiece]. 23 Make two gold rings and put them on the two upper corners of the chest covering. 24 Attach the two gold chains to the two rings at the upper corners of the ·chest covering [breastpiece]. 25 Attach the other ends of the two chains to the two ·gold pieces [or settings] on the shoulder straps in the front of the ·holy vest [ephod].
26 “Make two gold rings and put them at the two lower corners of the ·chest covering [breastpiece], on the inside edge next to the ·holy vest [ephod]. 27 Make two more gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the shoulder straps in the front of the ·holy vest [ephod]. Put them close to the seam above the ·woven belt [L embroidered waistband] of the ·holy vest [ephod]. 28 Join the rings of the ·chest covering [breastpiece] to the rings of the ·holy vest [ephod] with blue ·ribbon [cord], connecting it to the ·woven belt [embroidered waistband] so the ·chest covering [breastpiece] will not ·swing out [get loose] from the ·holy vest [ephod].
29 “When Aaron enters the Holy Place, he will wear the names of the sons of Israel over his heart, on the ·chest covering that helps in making decisions [breastpiece of judgment; 28:15]. This will be a continual reminder before the Lord. 30 And put the Urim and Thummim [C devices, probably lots, that were used to discern God’s will; the name means “light and truth”] inside the ·chest covering [breastpiece] so that they will be on Aaron’s heart when he goes before the Lord. They will help in making decisions for the Israelites. So Aaron will always carry them with him when he is before the Lord.
31 “Make the outer robe ·to be worn under the holy vest [L of the ephod], ·using only blue cloth [L all of blue]. 32 Make ·a hole [an opening] in the center for ·Aaron’s [L the] head, with a woven collar ·with an oversewn edge [L like a coat of mail; C the Hebrew is obscure] around the ·hole [opening] so it will not tear. 33 Make balls like pomegranates of blue, purple, and ·red [scarlet] thread, and hang them around the bottom of the outer robe with gold bells between them. 34 All around the bottom of the outer robe there should be a gold bell and a pomegranate ball, a gold bell and a pomegranate ball. 35 Aaron must wear this robe when he ·serves as priest [ministers]. ·The ringing of the bells [L Their sound] will be heard when he enters and leaves the Holy Place before the Lord so that he will not die.
36 “Make a ·strip [rosette; medallion; plate; L flower] of pure gold and ·carve [engrave] these words on it as you would ·carve [engrave] a ·seal [signet]: ‘Holy to the Lord.’ 37 Use blue ·ribbon [cord] to tie it to the turban; put it on the front of the turban. 38 Aaron must wear this on his forehead. In this way, he will ·be blamed [L carry/bear the guilt] if anything is wrong with the ·gifts [holy offerings] of the Israelites. ·Aaron must always wear this on his head [L It will always be on his forehead] so the Lord will ·accept the gifts of the people [L be favorable toward them].
39 “·Make [or Weave] the ·woven [or checkered] inner robe of fine linen, and make the turban of fine linen also. Make the ·cloth belt [sash] ·with designs sewn on it [embroidered with needlework]. 40 Also make ·woven [or checkered] inner robes, ·cloth belts [sashes], and ·headbands [headdresses] for Aaron’s sons, to give them honor [glory] and beauty [splendor]. 41 Put these clothes on your brother Aaron and his sons, and ·pour olive oil on their heads to appoint them as priests [L anoint them]. ·Make them belong to me [Ordain them; L Fill their hand] so they may be ·set apart [consecrated] and serve me as priests.
42 “Make for them linen underclothes to cover ·them [L their naked flesh] from the ·waist [hip] to the ·upper parts of the legs [thigh]. 43 Aaron and his sons must wear these underclothes when they enter the Meeting Tent and anytime they come near the altar to ·serve as priests [L minister] in the Holy Place. ·If they do not wear these clothes, they will be guilty of wrong, and they will [L …so they do not bear guilt and] die. This will be a ·law [statute; ordinance; requirement] that will last from now on for Aaron and all his ·descendants [L seed].
Appointing the Priests
29 “This is what you must do to ·appoint Aaron and his sons [L them to consecrate them] to serve me as priests. Take one young bull and two ·male sheep [rams] ·that have nothing wrong with them [L without blemish]. 2 Use ·fine [choice] wheat flour ·without yeast to make bread [to make unleavened bread], cakes ·without yeast [unleavened] mixed with olive oil, and wafers ·without yeast [unleavened] brushed with olive oil. 3 Put these in one basket, and bring them along with the bull and two ·male sheep [rams]. 4 Bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Meeting Tent and wash them with water. 5 Take the clothes and dress Aaron in the inner robe [28:39–41] and the outer robe [28:31–35] of the ·holy vest [ephod; 28:6–14]. Then put on him the ·holy vest [ephod] and the ·chest covering [breastpiece; 28:15–28], and tie the ·holy vest [ephod] on him with its ·skillfully woven belt [embroidered waistband of the ephod]. 6 Put the turban on his head, and put the holy ·crown [diadem] on the turban. 7 Take the special olive oil and pour it on his head to ·make him a priest [L anoint him].
8 “Then bring his sons and put the inner robes on them. 9 ·Put [L Gird them with] the ·headbands [headdresses] on their heads, and tie ·cloth belts around their waists [L sashes on Aaron and his sons]. ·Aaron and his descendants [L They] will be priests in Israel, according to a ·rule that will continue from now on [perpetual statute/ordinance/requirement]. This is how you will ·appoint Aaron and his sons as priests [ordain Aaron and his sons; L fill the hand of Aaron and his sons].
10 “Bring the bull to the front of the Meeting Tent, and Aaron and his sons must ·put [lay] their hands on the bull’s head [C a ritual of identification; the animal stood in the place of the offerer]. 11 Then ·kill [slaughter] the bull before the Lord at the entrance to the Meeting Tent. 12 Use your finger to put some of the bull’s blood on the ·corners [L horns; 27:2] of the altar, and then pour the blood that is left at the ·bottom [base; foundation] of the altar. 13 Take all the fat that covers the inner organs, as well as the ·best part [appendage] of the liver, both kidneys, and the fat around them, and ·burn them [L turn them into smoke] on the altar. 14 Take the bull’s meat, skin, and ·intestines [or dung], and burn them outside the camp. This is an ·offering to take away sin [sin offering; Lev. 4:1–5:13].
15 “Take one of the ·male sheep [rams], and have Aaron and his sons ·put [lay] their hands on its head. 16 ·Kill [Slaughter] it, and take its blood and ·sprinkle [dash] it on all four sides of the altar. 17 Then cut the ram into pieces and wash its inner organs and its legs, putting them with its head and its other pieces. 18 ·Burn [L Turn into smoke] the whole sheep on the altar; it is a burnt offering made by fire [Lev. 1] to the Lord. Its smell is pleasing to the Lord.
19 “Take the ·other male sheep [second ram], and have Aaron and his sons ·put [lay] their hands on its head [29:10]. 20 ·Kill [Slaughter] it and take some of its blood. Put the blood on the ·bottom [lobe] of the right ears of Aaron and his sons and on the thumbs of their right hands and on the big toes of their right feet [Lev. 14:14; C the significance is unclear]. Then sprinkle the rest of the blood ·against all four sides of [L all around] the altar. 21 Take some of the blood from the altar, and mix it with the ·special oil used in appointing priests [L anointing oil]. Sprinkle this on Aaron and his clothes and on his sons and their clothes. ·This will show that Aaron [L Then he] and his sons and their clothes ·are given to my service [L will be holy/consecrated].
22 “Then take the fat from the ·male sheep [ram], the fat tail, and the fat that covers the inner organs. In addition, take the best part of the liver, both kidneys, and the fat around them, and the right thigh. (This is the ·male sheep to be used in appointing priests [ordination ram].)
23 “Then take the basket of ·bread that you made without yeast [unleavened bread], which you put before the Lord. From it take a loaf of bread, a cake made with olive oil, and a wafer. 24 Put all of these in the hands of Aaron and his sons, and tell them to ·present them as an [L wave them as a wave] offering to the Lord [C a ritual whereby the offerer symbolically waves the offering before God but then uses it]. 25 Then take them from their hands and ·burn them [L turn them into smoke] on the altar with the whole burnt offering. This is an offering made by fire to the Lord; its smell is pleasing to the Lord. 26 Then take the breast of the ·male sheep used to appoint Aaron as priest [ordination ram], and ·present it before the Lord as an offering [L wave it as a wave offering before the Lord]. This part of the animal will be your ·share [portion]. 27 ·Set aside [Consecrate] the breast [L that was waved as a wave offering] and the thigh of the ·sheep that were used to appoint [L ordination ram that was elevated as an elevation offering for] Aaron and his sons as priests. These parts belong to them. 28 They are to be the ·regular share [perpetual statute/ordinance/requirement] which the Israelites will always give to Aaron and his sons. It is the gift the Israelites must give to the Lord from their ·fellowship [or peace] offerings [Lev. 3].
29 “The ·holy [sacred; consecrated] clothes made for Aaron will belong to his ·descendants [sons] so that they can wear these clothes when they are ·appointed as priests [L anointed and ordained]. 30 Aaron’s son, who will become high priest after him, will come to the Meeting Tent to ·serve [minister] in the Holy Place. He is to wear these clothes for seven days.
31 “Take the ·male sheep used to appoint priests [ordination ram] and boil its meat in a place that is holy. 32 Then at the entrance of the Meeting Tent, Aaron and his sons must eat the meat of the ·sheep [ram] and the bread that is in the basket. 33 They should eat these offerings that were used to ·remove their sins [atone] and to ·make them holy when they were made priests [ordain and consecrate]. But no ·stranger [outsider] is to eat them, because they are holy things. 34 If any of the ·meat from that sheep [L ordination meat] or any of the bread is left the next morning, it must be burned. It must not be eaten, because it is holy.
35 “Do all these things that I commanded you to do to Aaron and his sons, and spend seven days ·appointing [ordaining] them. 36 Each day you are to offer a bull ·to remove the sins of [L as a sin offering of atonement for] Aaron and his sons so they will be given for service to the Lord. ·Make the altar ready for service to the Lord [L Offer a sin offering for the altar to make atonement for it], and also ·pour oil on it to make it holy [anoint it to consecrate it]. 37 Spend seven days making ·the altar ready for service to God [L atonement for the altar] and ·making it holy [consecrate it]. Then the altar will become very holy, and anything that touches it must be holy.
The Daily Sacrifices
38 “Every day ·from now on [regularly; continually], offer on the altar two lambs that are one year old. 39 Offer one lamb in the morning and the ·other [second] in the evening ·before dark [at twilight]. 40 ·In the morning, when you offer the [L For the] first lamb, offer also ·two quarts [L a tenth of an ephah] of fine flour mixed with ·one quart [L one fourth of a hin] of oil from ·pressed [or pounded] olives. Pour out a ·quart [L fourth of a hin] of wine as a drink offering. 41 Offer the second lamb ·in the evening [at twilight] with the same ·grain [or gift; tribute] offering [Lev. 3] and drink offering as you did in the morning. This is an offering made by fire to the Lord, and its smell is pleasing to him.
42 “·You must burn these things as an offering [L It is a burnt offering; Lev. 1] to the Lord ·every day [regularly; continuously], ·from now on [L throughout your generations], at the entrance of the Meeting Tent before the Lord. ·When you make the offering, [L …where] I, the Lord, will meet you there and speak to you. 43 I will meet with the ·people [L sons; children] of Israel there, and that place will be holy because of my glory.
44 “So I will make the Meeting Tent and the altar ·holy [consecrated]; I will also make Aaron and his sons ·holy [consecrated] so they may serve me as priests. 45 I will ·live [dwell] with the ·people [L sons; children] of Israel and be their God. 46 And they will know that I am the Lord their God who ·led [brought] them out of Egypt so that I could ·live [dwell] with them. I am the Lord their God.
The Altar for Burning Incense
30 “Make an altar out of acacia wood for burning incense. 2 Make it square—·eighteen inches [L a cubit] long and ·eighteen inches [L a cubit] wide—and make it ·thirty-six inches [L two cubits] high. The ·corners that stick out like horns [L horns; 27:2] must be one piece with the altar. 3 ·Cover [L Overlay] its top, its sides, and its ·corners [L horns] with pure gold, and put a gold ·strip [molding] all around the altar. 4 Make two gold rings beneath the gold ·strip [molding] on opposite sides of the altar, and slide poles through them to carry the altar. 5 Make the poles from acacia wood and ·cover [overlay] them with gold. 6 Put the altar of incense in front of the curtain that is ·near [or above] the Ark of the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty; L Testimony; 25:10], in front of the ·lid that covers that Ark [mercy seat; atonement cover; 25:17–22]. There I will meet with you.
7 “Aaron must burn sweet-smelling incense on the altar every morning when he comes to ·take care of [trim; dress; put in good order] the oil lamps. 8 He must burn incense again ·in the evening [at twilight] when he lights the lamps, so incense will burn before the Lord ·every day [regularly; continually] ·from now on [L throughout your generations]. 9 Do not use this altar for offering ·any other [L strange; profane] incense [Lev. 10:1–7], or burnt offering [Lev. 1], or any kind of ·grain [or gift; tribute] offering [Lev. 3], or drink offering. 10 Once a year Aaron must make ·the altar ready for service to God by putting blood on its corners [atonement on its corners/horns]—the blood of the animal ·offered to remove sins [as an atoning sin offering]. He is to do this once a year ·from now on [L throughout your generations]. ·This altar belongs completely to the Lord’s service [L It is most holy/T the holy of holies to the Lord].”
The Tax for the Meeting Tent
11 The Lord said to Moses, 12 “When you ·count [register] the ·people [L sons; children] of Israel, every person must ·buy back [ransom; atone for] his life from the Lord so that no ·terrible things [disaster; plague] will happen to the people when you ·number [register] them. 13 Every person who is ·counted [registered] must pay ·one-fifth of an ounce of silver [L half a shekel]. (·This is set by using one-half of the Holy Place measure, which weighs two-fifths of an ounce [L …according to the shekel of the Holy Place which is twenty gerahs].) This amount is a ·gift [contribution] to the Lord. 14 Every person who is ·counted [registered] and is twenty years old or older must give this ·amount [gift; contribution] to the Lord. 15 A rich person must not give more than ·one-fifth of an ounce [L a half shekel], and a poor person must not give less. You are ·paying this to the Lord to buy back your lives [giving a gift/contribution to the Lord as a ransom/atonement for your life]. 16 ·Gather [Take] from the ·people [L sons; children] of Israel this ·money [silver] paid to ·buy back their lives [L atone; ransom], and ·spend [give] it on things for the ·service [work] in the Meeting Tent. This payment will remind the Lord that the ·Israelites’ [L sons/T children of Israel’s] lives have been ·bought back [ransomed; atoned].”
The Bronze Bowl
17 The Lord said to Moses, 18 “Make a bronze bowl, on a bronze stand, for washing. Put the bowl and stand between the Meeting Tent and the altar, and put water ·in the bowl [L there]. 19 Aaron and his sons must wash their hands and feet with the water from this bowl. 20 Each time they enter the Meeting Tent they must wash with water so they will not die. Whenever they approach the altar to ·serve as priests [minister] and offer a sacrifice to the Lord by fire, 21 they must wash their hands and their feet so they will not die. This is a ·rule [statute; ordinance; requirement] for Aaron and his ·descendants [L seed] ·from now on [L throughout their generations].”
Oil for Appointing
22 Then the Lord said to Moses, 23 “Take the finest spices: ·twelve pounds [L five hundred (shekels)] of liquid myrrh, half that amount (that is, ·six pounds [L two hundred and fifty]) of sweet-smelling cinnamon, ·six pounds [L two hundred and fifty] of sweet-smelling cane, 24 and ·twelve pounds [L five hundred] of cassia. Weigh all these by the Holy Place ·measure [L shekel]. Also take ·four quarts [L a hin] of olive oil, 25 and ·mix [blend; L make] all these things like a perfume to make a holy olive oil. ·This special oil must be put on people and things to make them ready for service to God [L It is a holy anointing oil]. 26 ·Put this oil on [L Anoint] the Meeting Tent and the Ark of the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty; L Testimony], 27 on the table and all its dishes, on the lampstand [25:31–40] and all its tools, and on the incense altar [30:1–6]. 28 Also, ·put the oil on [anoint] the altar for burnt offerings [27:1–8] and on all its tools, as well as on the bowl [30:17–21] and the stand under the bowl. 29 You will ·prepare all these things for service to God [consecrate/sanctify them], and they will be very holy. Anything that touches these things must be holy.
30 “·Put the oil on [Anoint] Aaron and his sons to ·give them for service to me [consecrate; sanctify them], that they may serve me as priests. 31 Tell the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel], ‘This is to be my holy olive oil ·from now on [L throughout your generations]. It is ·to be put on people and things to make them ready for service to God [L for anointing]. 32 Do not pour it on the bodies of ordinary people, and do not make perfume the same way you make this oil. It is holy, and you must treat it as holy. 33 If anyone makes perfume like it or puts it on someone who is ·not a priest [not qualified; L strange], that person must be cut off from his people.’”
34 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Take these sweet-smelling spices: resin, onycha, galbanum [C some identifications are uncertain], and pure frankincense. Be sure that you have equal amounts of each. 35 Make incense as a person who makes perfume would do. Add salt to it to keep it pure and holy. 36 Beat some of the incense into a fine powder, and put it in front of the ·Ark of the Agreement [Covenant; Testimony; Treaty] in the Meeting Tent, where I will meet with you. ·You must use this incense powder only for its very special purpose [L It will be most holy to you]. 37 Do not make incense for yourselves the same way you make this incense. Treat it as holy to the Lord. 38 Whoever makes incense like this to use as perfume must be cut off from his people.”
Bezalel and Oholiab Help
31 Then the Lord said to Moses, 2 “See, I have ·chosen [L called by name] Bezalel son of Uri from the tribe of Judah. (Uri was the son of Hur.) 3 I have filled Bezalel with the ·Spirit [or spirit] of God and have given him the ·skill [wisdom], ability, and knowledge to do all kinds of work. 4 He is able to ·design [plan] pieces to be made from gold, silver, and bronze, 5 to cut jewels and put them in metal, to ·carve [engrave] wood, and to do all kinds of work. 6 I have also ·chosen [L given him] Oholiab son of Ahisamach from the tribe of Dan to work with Bezalel. I have given ·skills [wisdom] to all the craftsmen, and they will be able to make all these things I have commanded you: 7 the Meeting Tent, the Ark of the ·Agreement [Covenant; Treaty; L Testimony], the ·lid that covers [mercy seat; atonement cover] the Ark, and ·everything in [all the utensils of] the Tent. 8 This includes the table and ·everything on it [all its utensils], the pure gold lampstand and ·everything with it [all its utensils], the altar of incense, 9 the altar for burnt offerings and ·everything used with it [all its utensils], and the bowl and the stand under it. 10 They will make the woven clothes and the ·holy [sacred] clothes for Aaron and the clothes for his sons to wear when they serve as priests. 11 They will also make the special olive oil used ·in appointing people and things to the service of the Lord [L for anointing], and the sweet-smelling incense for the Holy Place.
“These workers will make all these things just as I have commanded you.”
The Day of Rest
12 Then the Lord said to Moses, 13 “Tell the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel], ‘You must ·keep the rules about [L guard; keep] my Sabbaths, because they will be a sign [C reminders of the covenant; 9:13; 17:11] between you and me from now on. In this way you will know that I, the Lord, make you holy.
14 “‘·Make the Sabbath a holy day [L Keep/Guard the Sabbath for it is holy]. If anyone ·treats the Sabbath like any other day [profanes/desecrates the Sabbath] that person must be put to death; anyone who works on the Sabbath day must be cut off from his people [20:8–11]. 15 There are six days for working, but the seventh day is a day of rest, a day holy for the Lord. Anyone who works during the Sabbath day must be put to death. 16 The ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel] must ·remember [keep; guard] the Sabbath day as an ·agreement [covenant; treaty] between them and me ·that will continue from now on [L throughout their generations]. 17 The Sabbath day will be a sign between me and the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel] forever, because in six days I, the Lord, made the ·sky [heavens] and the earth. On the seventh day I did not work; I rested [Gen. 2:1–3].’”
18 When the Lord finished speaking to Moses on Mount Sinai, he gave him the two stone tablets with the ·Agreement [Covenant; Testimony; Treaty] written on them, written by the finger of God.
The People Make a Gold Calf
32 The people saw that ·a long time had passed and Moses had not [L Moses delayed to] come down from the mountain. So they ·gathered [assembled] ·around [or against] Aaron and said, “[L This man] Moses ·led [brought] us out of Egypt, but we don’t know what has happened to him. Make us ·gods [or a god; or an image of God] who will ·lead [L go before] us.”
2 Aaron said to ·the people [L them], “·Take [Pull] off the gold earrings that your wives, sons, and daughters are wearing, and bring them to me.” 3 So all the people ·took [pulled off] their gold earrings and brought them to Aaron. 4 He took ·the gold [L it] from ·the people [L their hands] and formed it ·with a tool [or in a mold] and made a ·statue [image] of a calf. Then the people said, “Israel, ·these are your gods [or this is your God; C either an idol to a false god or an inappropriate image for a false worship of the true God] who brought you out of the land of Egypt [1 Kin. 12:28]!”
5 When Aaron saw all this, he built an altar before the calf and announced, “Tomorrow there will be a ·special feast to honor [festival for] the Lord.” 6 The people got up early the next morning and offered whole burnt offerings [Lev. 1] and ·fellowship [or peace] offerings [Lev. 3]. They sat down to eat and drink, and then they ·got up and sinned sexually [got up and amused themselves; T rose up to play; C a euphemism].
7 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go down from this mountain, because your people, the people you brought out of the land of Egypt, have ·ruined themselves [acted in a debauched/perverse manner]. 8 They have quickly turned away from the ·things [path; way] I commanded them to do. They have made for themselves a calf ·covered with gold [L image], and they have worshiped it and offered sacrifices to it. They have said, ‘Israel, ·these are your gods [or this is the God; 32:4] who brought you out of Egypt.’”
9 The Lord said to Moses, “I have seen these people, and I know that they are ·very stubborn [L a stiff-necked people]. 10 So now do not stop me. I am so angry with them that I am going to ·destroy [L consume] them. Then I will make ·you and your descendants [L you] a great nation [C echoing the promise to Abraham; Gen. 12:1–3].”
11 But Moses ·begged [tried to appease] the Lord his God and said, “Lord, ·don’t let your anger destroy [L why does your anger burn against…?] your people, whom you brought out of Egypt with your great power and ·strength [L a mighty hand].
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