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as he chose us in him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and without blemish before him.(A) In love he destined us for adoption to himself through Jesus Christ, in accord with the favor of his will,(B) for the praise of the glory of his grace that he granted us in the beloved.(C)

Fulfillment Through Christ. In him we have redemption by his blood, the forgiveness of transgressions, in accord with the riches of his grace(D) that he lavished upon us. In all wisdom and insight,(E) he has made known to us the mystery[a] of his will in accord with his favor that he set forth in him(F) 10 as a plan for the fullness of times, to sum up all things in Christ, in heaven and on earth.(G)

Inheritance Through the Spirit. 11 In him we were also chosen, destined in accord with the purpose of the One who accomplishes all things according to the intention of his will,(H) 12 so that we might exist for the praise of his glory, we who first hoped[b] in Christ. 13 In him you also, who have heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and have believed in him, were sealed[c] with the promised holy Spirit,(I) 14 which is the first installment[d] of our inheritance toward redemption as God’s possession, to the praise of his glory.(J)

II. Unity of the Church in Christ

The Church as Christ’s Body.[e]

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  1. 1:9 Mystery: as in Rom 16:25; Col 1:26–27 and elsewhere, a secret of God now revealed in the plan to save and sum up all things in Christ (Eph 1:10); cf. Eph 3:3–6.
  2. 1:12 We who first hoped: probably Jewish Christians (contrast Eph 1:13, you, the Gentiles); possibly the people of Israel, “we who already enjoyed the hope of Christ,” or perhaps present hope in contrast to future redemption (cf. Eph 1:14).
  3. 1:13 Sealed: by God, in baptism; cf. Eph 4:30; 2 Cor 1:22.
  4. 1:14 First installment: down payment by God on full salvation, as at 2 Cor 1:22.
  5. 1:15–23 See note on Rom 1:8 for the thanksgiving form in a letter. Much of the content parallels thoughts in Col 1:3–20. The prayer moves from God and Christ (Eph 1:17, 20–21) to the Ephesians (Eph 1:17–19) and the church (Eph 1:22–23). Paul asks that the blessing imparted by God the Father (Eph 1:3) to the Ephesians will be strengthened in them through the message of the gospel (Eph 1:13, 17–19). Those blessings are seen in the context of God’s might in establishing the sovereignty of Christ over all other creatures (Eph 1:19–21) and in appointing him head of the church (Eph 1:22–23). For the allusion to angelic spirits in Eph 1:21, see Rom 8:38 and Col 1:16. Here, as in 1 Cor 15:24–25 and Col 2:15, every such principality and power is made subject to Christ.

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