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In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar, I had another dream similar to the first.

This time I was at Susa,[a] the capital in the province of Elam, standing beside the Ulai River. As I was looking around, I saw a ram with two long horns standing on the riverbank; and as I watched, one of these horns began to grow, so that it was longer than the other. The ram butted everything out of its way, and no one could stand against it or help its victims. It did as it pleased and became very great.

While I was wondering what this could mean, suddenly a buck goat appeared from the west so swiftly that it didn’t even touch the ground. This goat, which had one very large horn between its eyes, rushed furiously at the two-horned ram. And the closer he came, the angrier he was. He charged into the ram and broke off both his horns. Now the ram was helpless, and the buck goat knocked him down and trampled him, for there was no one to rescue him.

The victor became both proud and powerful, but suddenly, at the height of his power, his horn was broken, and in its place grew four good-sized horns[b] pointing in four directions. One of these, growing slowly at first, soon became very strong and attacked the south and east, and warred against the land of Israel.[c] 10 He fought against the people of God and defeated some of their leaders.[d] 11 He even challenged the Commander[e] of the army of heaven by canceling the daily sacrifices offered to him and by defiling his Temple. 12 But the army of heaven was restrained from destroying him for this transgression. As a result, truth and righteousness perished, and evil triumphed and prospered.[f]

13 Then I heard two of the holy angels talking to each other. One of them said, “How long will it be until the daily sacrifice is restored again? How long until the destruction of the Temple is avenged and God’s people triumph?”

14 The other replied, “Twenty-three hundred days[g] must first go by.”

15 As I was trying to understand the meaning of this vision, suddenly a man was standing in front of me—or at least he looked like a man— 16 and I heard a man’s voice calling from across the river, “Gabriel, tell Daniel the meaning of his dream.”

17 So Gabriel started toward me. But as he approached, I was too frightened to stand and fell down with my face to the ground. “Son of man,” he said, “you must understand that the events you have seen in your vision will not take place until the end times come.”

18 Then I fainted, lying face downward on the ground. But he roused me with a touch and helped me to my feet. 19 “I am here,” he said, “to tell you what is going to happen in the last days of the coming time of terror—for what you have seen pertains to that final event in history.

20 “The two horns of the ram you saw are the kings of Media and Persia; 21 the shaggy-haired goat is the nation of Greece, and its long horn represents the first great king of that country. 22 When you saw the horn break off and four smaller horns replace it, this meant that the Grecian Empire will break into four sections with four kings, none of them as great as the first.

23 “Toward the end of their kingdoms, when they have become morally rotten, an angry king shall rise to power with great shrewdness and intelligence.[h] 24 His power shall be mighty, but it will be satanic strength and not his own.[i] Prospering wherever he turns, he will destroy all who oppose him, though their armies be mighty, and he will devastate God’s people.

25 “He will be a master of deception, defeating many by catching them off guard as they bask in false security. Without warning he will destroy them. So great will he fancy himself to be that he will even take on the Prince of Princes in battle; but in so doing he will seal his own doom, for he shall be broken by the hand of God, though no human means could overpower him.

26 “And then in your vision you heard about the twenty-three hundred days to pass before the rights of worship are restored. This number is literal, and means just that.[j] But none of these things will happen for a long time, so don’t tell anyone about them yet.”

27 Then I grew faint and was sick for several days. Afterward I was up and around again and performed my duties for the king, but I was greatly distressed by the dream and did not understand it.


  1. Daniel 8:2 Susa, one of several capitals of the empire at this time.
  2. Daniel 8:8 in its place grew four good-sized horns. The four principal successors of Alexander the Great were Ptolemy I of Egypt, Seleucus of Babylonia, Antigonus of Syria and Asia Minor, and Antipater of Macedonia and Greece.
  3. Daniel 8:9 the land of Israel, literally, “the glorious land.” Israel was attacked by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, with a further fulfillment of this prophecy indicated for the future; see vv. 17, 19, 23.
  4. Daniel 8:10 the people of God and . . . some of their leaders, literally, “host of heaven . . . the starry host”; see 8:24.
  5. Daniel 8:11 the Commander, compare Joshua 5:13-15.
  6. Daniel 8:12 truth and righteousness perished, and evil triumphed and prospered, or “and great indignities were perpetrated against the Temple ceremonies, so truth and righteousness perished.” The Hebrew text is obscure.
  7. Daniel 8:14 Twenty-three hundred days, literally, “Twenty-three hundred mornings and evenings.”
  8. Daniel 8:23 with great shrewdness and intelligence, literally, “who understands riddles”; an alternate rendering might read, “skilled in intrigues.” Probably a reference to Antiochus Epiphanes and further future fulfillment by the Antichrist at the end of human history.
  9. Daniel 8:24 but it will be satanic strength and not his own, implied; literally, “but not with his power.”
  10. Daniel 8:26 This number is literal, and means just that, literally, “The vision of the evenings and the mornings that has been told is true.” Verse 14 is the basis for the meaning expressed in the paraphrase.

Daniel’s Vision of a Ram and a Goat

In the third year of King Belshazzar’s(A) reign, I, Daniel, had a vision,(B) after the one that had already appeared to me. In my vision I saw myself in the citadel of Susa(C) in the province of Elam;(D) in the vision I was beside the Ulai Canal. I looked up,(E) and there before me was a ram(F) with two horns, standing beside the canal, and the horns were long. One of the horns was longer than the other but grew up later. I watched the ram as it charged toward the west and the north and the south. No animal could stand against it, and none could rescue from its power.(G) It did as it pleased(H) and became great.

As I was thinking about this, suddenly a goat with a prominent horn between its eyes came from the west, crossing the whole earth without touching the ground. It came toward the two-horned ram I had seen standing beside the canal and charged at it in great rage. I saw it attack the ram furiously, striking the ram and shattering its two horns. The ram was powerless to stand against it; the goat knocked it to the ground and trampled on it,(I) and none could rescue the ram from its power.(J) The goat became very great, but at the height of its power the large horn was broken off,(K) and in its place four prominent horns grew up toward the four winds of heaven.(L)

Out of one of them came another horn, which started small(M) but grew in power to the south and to the east and toward the Beautiful Land.(N) 10 It grew until it reached(O) the host of the heavens, and it threw some of the starry host down to the earth(P) and trampled(Q) on them. 11 It set itself up to be as great as the commander(R) of the army of the Lord;(S) it took away the daily sacrifice(T) from the Lord, and his sanctuary was thrown down.(U) 12 Because of rebellion, the Lord’s people[a] and the daily sacrifice were given over to it. It prospered in everything it did, and truth was thrown to the ground.(V)

13 Then I heard a holy one(W) speaking, and another holy one said to him, “How long will it take for the vision to be fulfilled(X)—the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, the rebellion that causes desolation, the surrender of the sanctuary and the trampling underfoot(Y) of the Lord’s people?”

14 He said to me, “It will take 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the sanctuary will be reconsecrated.”(Z)

The Interpretation of the Vision

15 While I, Daniel, was watching the vision(AA) and trying to understand it, there before me stood one who looked like a man.(AB) 16 And I heard a man’s voice from the Ulai(AC) calling, “Gabriel,(AD) tell this man the meaning of the vision.”(AE)

17 As he came near the place where I was standing, I was terrified and fell prostrate.(AF) “Son of man,”[b] he said to me, “understand that the vision concerns the time of the end.”(AG)

18 While he was speaking to me, I was in a deep sleep, with my face to the ground.(AH) Then he touched me and raised me to my feet.(AI)

19 He said: “I am going to tell you what will happen later in the time of wrath,(AJ) because the vision concerns the appointed time(AK) of the end.[c](AL) 20 The two-horned ram that you saw represents the kings of Media and Persia.(AM) 21 The shaggy goat is the king of Greece,(AN) and the large horn between its eyes is the first king.(AO) 22 The four horns that replaced the one that was broken off represent four kingdoms that will emerge from his nation but will not have the same power.

23 “In the latter part of their reign, when rebels have become completely wicked, a fierce-looking king, a master of intrigue, will arise. 24 He will become very strong, but not by his own power. He will cause astounding devastation and will succeed in whatever he does. He will destroy those who are mighty, the holy people.(AP) 25 He will cause deceit(AQ) to prosper, and he will consider himself superior. When they feel secure, he will destroy many and take his stand against the Prince of princes.(AR) Yet he will be destroyed, but not by human power.(AS)

26 “The vision of the evenings and mornings that has been given you is true,(AT) but seal(AU) up the vision, for it concerns the distant future.”(AV)

27 I, Daniel, was worn out. I lay exhausted(AW) for several days. Then I got up and went about the king’s business.(AX) I was appalled(AY) by the vision; it was beyond understanding.


  1. Daniel 8:12 Or rebellion, the armies
  2. Daniel 8:17 The Hebrew phrase ben adam means human being. The phrase son of man is retained as a form of address here because of its possible association with “Son of Man” in the New Testament.
  3. Daniel 8:19 Or because the end will be at the appointed time

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