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“After these things, as I was watching in the night visions[a] a fourth beast appeared—one dreadful, terrible, and very strong.[b] It had two large rows[c] of iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and anything that was left it trampled with its feet. It was different from all the beasts that came before it, and it had ten horns.

“As I was contemplating the horns, another horn—a small one—came up between them, and three of the former horns were torn out by the roots to make room for it.[d] This horn had eyes resembling human eyes and a mouth speaking arrogant[e] things.

“While I was watching,

thrones were set up,
and the Ancient of Days[f] took his seat.
His attire was white like snow;
the hair of his head was like lamb’s[g] wool.
His throne was ablaze with fire
and its wheels were all aflame.[h]

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  1. Daniel 7:7 tn The Aramaic text has also “and behold,” as also in vv. 8, 13.
  2. Daniel 7:7 sn The fourth animal differs from the others in that it is nondescript. Apparently it was so fearsome that Daniel could find nothing with which to compare it. Attempts to identify this animal as an elephant or other known creature are conjectural.
  3. Daniel 7:7 tn The Aramaic word for “teeth” is dual rather than plural, suggesting two rows of teeth.
  4. Daniel 7:8 tn Aram “were uprooted from before it.”
  5. Daniel 7:8 tn Aram “great,” as also in vv. 11, 20.
  6. Daniel 7:9 tn Or “the Ancient One” (NAB, NRSV, NLT), although the traditional expression has been retained in the present translation because it is familiar to many readers (cf. TEV “One who had been living for ever”; CEV “the Eternal God”).
  7. Daniel 7:9 tn Traditionally the Aramaic word נְקֵא (neqeʾ) has been rendered “pure,” but here it more likely means “of a lamb.” Cf. the Syriac neqyaʾ (“a sheep, ewe”). On this word, see further, M. Sokoloff, “ʾamar neqeʾ, ‘Lamb’s Wool’ (Dan 7:9),” JBL 95 (1976): 277-79.
  8. Daniel 7:9 tn Aram “a flaming fire.”

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