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These are the words of Amos, one of the shepherds from the town of Tekoa [C a small town in the highlands of Judah, ten miles south of Jerusalem]. ·He saw this vision about [L …which he saw concerning] Israel two years before the earthquake [Zech. 14:5]. ·It was at the time […L in the days when] Uzziah was king of Judah [C ruled 769–733 bc] and Jeroboam son of Jehoash was king of Israel [C ruled 800–784 bc].

Amos said,
“The Lord will roar [Joel 3:16] from ·Jerusalem [L Zion; C the location of the Temple];
    he ·will send his voice [or thunders; bellows; L gives his voice] from Jerusalem.
The pastures of the shepherds will ·become dry [or mourn],
    and even the top of Mount Carmel [9:3] will ·dry up [wither].”

Israel’s Neighbors Are Punished

The People of Aram

This is what the Lord says:

“For ·the many [L three, even four] ·crimes [sins; transgressions] of Damascus,
    I will ·punish them [L not turn back/grant a reprieve].
They ·drove over [beat down; L threshed] the people of Gilead
    with threshing boards ·that had iron teeth [L of iron].
So I will send fire upon the house of Hazael [C the royal dynasty of Syria (Aram), founded by Hazael (842–796 bc); 2 Kin. 8:7–15]
    that will destroy the strong towers of Ben-Hadad [C either Hazael’s predecessor (whom he assassinated), or Hazael’s son, who took the same name].
I will break down the bar of the gate to Damascus [C the huge beam used to lock the gate]
    and destroy the ·king who is in [or the inhabitants of; L the one who sits/dwells in] the Valley of ·Aven [or Wickedness; Hos. 4:15],
as well as the ·leader [L one who holds the scepter] of Beth Eden [C either Bit Adini, a city-state near the Euphrates, or a mocking name for Damascus, meaning “city of delight”].
    The people of ·Aram [Syria] will be taken captive to the country of Kir [C where the Syrians originated (9:7); ironically, they would return there as captives; 2 Kin. 16:9],” says the Lord.

The People of Philistia

This is what the Lord says:

“For ·the many [L three, even four; v. 3] ·crimes [sins; transgressions] of Gaza,
    I will ·punish them [L not turn back/grant a reprieve].
They sold ·all the people of one area [whole communities]
    ·as slaves [into captivity] to Edom.
So I will send a fire on the walls of Gaza
    that will ·destroy [devour; consume] the city’s ·strong buildings [fortresses; palaces].
I will destroy the ·king [or inhabitants; L the one who sits; v. 5] of the city of Ashdod,
    as well as the ·leader [L one who holds the scepter] of Ashkelon.
Then I will turn [L my hand] against ·the people of the city of Ekron [L Ekron],
    and the ·last [rest; remnant] of the Philistines will ·die [perish],” says the Lord God.

The People of Phoenicia

This is what the Lord says:

“For ·the many [L three, even four; vv. 3, 6] ·crimes [sins; transgressions] of Tyre,
    I will ·punish them [L not turn back/grant a reprieve].
They sold ·all the people of one area [whole communities]
    ·as slaves to Edom [into captivity],
    and they forgot the ·agreement among relatives they had made with Israel [L covenant/treaty of brotherhood].
10 So I will send fire on the walls of Tyre
    that will ·destroy [devour; consume] the city’s ·strong buildings [fortresses; palaces].”

The People of Edom

11 This is what the Lord says:

“For ·the many [L three, even four; vv. 3, 6, 9] ·crimes [sins; transgressions] of Edom,
    I will ·punish them [L not turn back/grant a reprieve].
·They hunted down their relatives, the Israelites, [L He pursued his brother; C Esau (Edom) was the brother of Jacob/Israel and so the Israelites were related to the Edomites] with the sword,
    ·showing them no mercy [or wiping out their allies; or destroying their women].
·They were angry all the time [His anger raged unceasingly]
    and ·kept on being very angry [L he preserved his wrath forever].
12 So I will send fire on the city of Teman
    that will even ·destroy [consume; devour] the ·strong buildings [fortresses; palaces] of Bozrah [C the whole country; Teman was in northern Edom and Bozrah in the south].”

The People of Ammon

13 This is what the Lord says:

“For ·the many [L three, even four; vv. 3, 6, 9, 11] ·crimes [sins; transgressions] of Ammon,
    I will ·punish them [L not turn back/grant a reprieve].
They ripped open the pregnant women in Gilead
    ·so they could take over that land
    and make their own country larger [L to enlarge their borders].
14 So I will send fire on the city wall of Rabbah
    that will ·destroy [consume; devour] its ·strong buildings [fortresses; palaces].
·It will come during [L Amid shouting/war cries on] a day of battle,
    during a stormy day with ·strong winds [a whirlwind].
15 Then their king will be taken ·captive [into exile];
    he and his ·leaders [officials; princes] will all be taken away together,” says the Lord.