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2 Samuel 21 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Gibeonites Demand Revenge

21 During David’s reign there was a famine for three consecutive years. So David inquired of the Lord.[a] The Lord said, “It is because of Saul and his bloodstained family,[b] because he murdered the Gibeonites.”

So the king summoned the Gibeonites and spoke with them. (Now the Gibeonites were not descendants of Israel; they were a remnant of the Amorites. The Israelites had made a promise to[c] them, but Saul tried to kill them because of his zeal for the people of Israel and Judah.) David said to the Gibeonites, “What can I do for you, and how can I make amends so that you will bless[d] the Lord’s inheritance?”

The Gibeonites said to him, “We[e] have no claim to silver or gold from Saul or from his family,[f] nor would we be justified in putting to death anyone in Israel.” David asked,[g] “What then are you asking me to do for you?” They replied to the king, “As for this man who exterminated us and who schemed against us so that we were destroyed and left without status throughout all the borders of Israel— let seven of his male descendants be turned over to us, and we will execute[h] them before the Lord in Gibeah of Saul, who was the Lord’s chosen one.”[i] The king replied, “I will turn them over.”

The king had mercy on Mephibosheth son of Jonathan, the son of Saul, in light of the Lord’s oath that had been taken between David and Jonathan son of Saul. So the king took Armoni and Mephibosheth, the two sons of Aiah’s daughter Rizpah whom she had born to Saul, and the five sons of Saul’s daughter Merab[j] whom she had born to Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite. He turned them over to the Gibeonites, and they executed them on a hill before the Lord. The seven of them[k] died[l] together; they were put to death during harvest time—during the first days of the beginning[m] of the barley harvest.

10 Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it out for herself on a rock. From the beginning of the harvest until the rain fell on them,[n] she did not allow the birds of the air to feed[o] on them by day, nor the wild animals[p] by night. 11 When David was told what Rizpah daughter of Aiah, Saul’s concubine, had done, 12 he[q] went and took the bones of Saul and of his son Jonathan[r] from the leaders[s] of Jabesh Gilead. (They had secretly taken[t] them from the plaza at Beth Shan. It was there that Philistines[u] publicly exposed their corpses[v] after[w] they[x] had killed Saul at Gilboa.) 13 David[y] brought the bones of Saul and of Jonathan his son from there; they also gathered up the bones of those who had been executed.

14 They buried the bones of Saul and his son Jonathan in the land of Benjamin at Zela in the grave of his father Kish. After they had done everything[z] that the king had commanded, God responded to their prayers[aa] for the land.

Israel Engages in Various Battles with the Philistines

15 Another battle was fought between the Philistines and Israel. So David went down with his soldiers[ab] and fought the Philistines. David became exhausted. 16 Now Ishbi-Benob, one of the descendants of Rapha,[ac] had a spear[ad] that weighed 300 bronze shekels,[ae] and he was armed with a new weapon.[af] He had said that he would kill David. 17 But Abishai the son of Zeruiah came to David’s aid, striking the Philistine down and killing him. Then David’s men took an oath saying, “You will not go out to battle with us again! You must not extinguish the lamp of Israel!”

18 Later there was another battle with the Philistines, this time in Gob. On that occasion Sibbekai the Hushathite killed Saph, who was one of the descendants of Rapha. 19 Yet another battle occurred with the Philistines in Gob. On that occasion Elhanan the son of Jair[ag] the Bethlehemite killed the brother of Goliath the Gittite,[ah] the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam. 20 Yet another battle occurred in Gath. On that occasion there was a large man[ai] who had six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot, twenty-four in all! He too was a descendant of Rapha. 21 When he taunted Israel, Jonathan, the son of David’s brother Shimeah, killed him. 22 These four were the descendants of Rapha who lived in Gath; they were killed[aj] by David and his soldiers.[ak]


  1. 2 Samuel 21:1 tn Heb “sought the face of the Lord.”
  2. 2 Samuel 21:1 tn Heb “and the house of bloodshed.”
  3. 2 Samuel 21:2 tn Heb “swore an oath to.”
  4. 2 Samuel 21:3 tn After the preceding imperfect verbal form, the subordinated imperative indicates purpose/result. S. R. Driver comments, “…the imper. is used instead of the more normal voluntative, for the purpose of expressing with somewhat greater force the intention of the previous verb” (S. R. Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel, 350).
  5. 2 Samuel 21:4 tc The translation follows the Qere and several medieval Hebrew mss in reading לָנוּ (lanu, “to us”) rather than the MT לִי (li, “to me”). But for a contrary opinion see S. R. Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel, 53, 350.
  6. 2 Samuel 21:4 tn Heb “house.”
  7. 2 Samuel 21:4 tn Heb “and he said”; the referent (David) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  8. 2 Samuel 21:6 tn The exact nature of this execution is not altogether clear. The verb יָקַע (yaqaʿ) basically means “to dislocate” or “alienate.” In Gen 32:26 it is used of the dislocation of Jacob’s thigh. Figuratively it can refer to the removal of an individual from a group (e.g., Jer 6:8; Ezek 23:17) or to a type of punishment the specific identity of which is uncertain (e.g., here and Num 25:4); cf. NAB “dismember them”; NIV “to be killed and exposed.”
  9. 2 Samuel 21:6 tc The LXX reads “at Gibeon on the mountain of the Lord” (cf. 21:9). The present translation follows the MT, although a number of recent English translations follow the LXX reading here (e.g., NAB, NRSV, NLT).
  10. 2 Samuel 21:8 tc The MT reads “Michal” here, but two Hebrew manuscripts read “Merab,” along with some LXX manuscripts. Cf. 1 Sam 18:19.
  11. 2 Samuel 21:9 tc The translation follows the Qere and several medieval Hebrew mss in reading שְׁבַעְתָּם (shevaʿtam, “the seven of them”) rather than MT שִׁבַעְתִּים (shivaʿtim, “seventy”).
  12. 2 Samuel 21:9 tn Heb “fell.”
  13. 2 Samuel 21:9 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading בִּתְחִלַּת (bitkhillat, “in the beginning”) rather than MT תְחִלַּת (tekhillat, “beginning of”).
  14. 2 Samuel 21:10 tn Heb “until water was poured on them from the sky.”
  15. 2 Samuel 21:10 tn Heb “rest.”
  16. 2 Samuel 21:10 tn Heb “the beasts of the field.”
  17. 2 Samuel 21:12 tn Heb “David.” For stylistic reasons the name has been replaced by the pronoun (“he”) in the translation.
  18. 2 Samuel 21:12 tn Heb “the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son.” See also v. 13.
  19. 2 Samuel 21:12 tn Heb “lords.”
  20. 2 Samuel 21:12 tn Heb “stolen.”
  21. 2 Samuel 21:12 tc Against the MT, this word is better read without the definite article. The MT reading is probably here the result of wrong word division, with the letter ה (he) belonging with the preceding word שָׁם (sham) as the he directive (i.e., שָׁמָּה, samah, “to there”).
  22. 2 Samuel 21:12 tn Heb “had hung them.”
  23. 2 Samuel 21:12 tn Heb “in the day.”
  24. 2 Samuel 21:12 tn Heb “Philistines.”
  25. 2 Samuel 21:13 tn Heb “he”; the referent (David) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  26. 2 Samuel 21:14 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss have here כְּכֹל (kekhol, “according to all”).
  27. 2 Samuel 21:14 tn Heb “was entreated.” The verb is an example of the so-called niphal tolerativum, with the sense that God allowed himself to be supplicated through prayer (cf. GKC 137 §51.c).
  28. 2 Samuel 21:15 tn Heb “his servants.”
  29. 2 Samuel 21:16 tn This name has the definite article and may be intended to refer to a group of people rather than a single individual with this name.
  30. 2 Samuel 21:16 tn This is the only occurrence of this Hebrew word in the OT. Its precise meaning is therefore somewhat uncertain. As early as the LXX the word was understood to refer to a “spear,” and this seems to be the most likely possibility. Some scholars have proposed emending the text of 2 Sam 21:16 to כוֹבַעוֹ (khovaʿo; “his helmet”), but in spite of the fact that the word “helmet” appears in 1 Sam 17:5, there is not much evidence for reading that word here.
  31. 2 Samuel 21:16 tn Either the word “shekels” should be supplied here, or the Hebrew word מִשְׁקַל (mishqal, “weight of”) right before “bronze” is a corrupted form of the word for shekel. If the latter is the case the problem probably resulted from another occurrence of the word מִשְׁקַל just four words earlier in the verse.sn 300 bronze shekels would have weighed about 7.5 pounds (3.4 kg).
  32. 2 Samuel 21:16 tn The Hebrew text reads simply “a new [thing],” prompting one to ask “A new what?” Several possibilities have been proposed to resolve the problem: perhaps a word has dropped out of the Hebrew text here; or perhaps the word “new” is the result of misreading a different, less common, word; or perhaps a word (e.g., “sword,” so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, CEV, NLT) is simply to be inferred. The translation generally follows the last possibility, while at the same time being deliberately nonspecific (“weapon”).
  33. 2 Samuel 21:19 tn Heb “Jaare-Oregim,” but the second word, which means “weavers,” is probably accidentally included. It appears at the end of the verse. The term is omitted in the parallel account in 1 Chr 20:5, which has simply “Jair.”
  34. 2 Samuel 21:19 sn The Hebrew text as it stands reads, “Elhanan son of Jaare-Oregim the Bethlehemite killed Goliath the Gittite.” Who killed Goliath the Gittite? According to 1 Sam 17:4-58 it was David who killed Goliath, but according to the MT of 2 Sam 21:19 it was Elhanan who killed him. Many scholars believe that the two passages are hopelessly at variance with one another. Others have proposed various solutions to the difficulty, such as identifying David with Elhanan or positing the existence of two Goliaths. But in all likelihood the problem is the result of difficulties in the textual transmission of the Samuel passage. The parallel passage in 1 Chr 20:5 reads, “Elhanan son of Jair killed Lahmi the brother of Goliath.” Both versions are textually suspect. The Chronicles text appears to have misread “Bethlehemite” (בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי, bet hallakhmi) as the accusative sign followed by a proper name אֶת לַחְמִי (ʾet lakhmi). (See the note at 1 Chr 20:5.) The Samuel text appears to have misread the word for “brother” (אַח, ʾakh) as the accusative sign (אֵת, ʾet), thereby giving the impression that Elhanan, not David, killed Goliath. Thus in all probability the original text read, “Elhanan son of Jair the Bethlehemite killed the brother of Goliath.”
  35. 2 Samuel 21:20 tn Heb “a man of stature.”
  36. 2 Samuel 21:22 tn Heb “they fell.”
  37. 2 Samuel 21:22 tn Heb “his servants.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 26 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 26[a]

By David.

26 Vindicate me, O Lord,
for I have integrity,[b]
and I trust in the Lord without wavering.
Examine me, O Lord, and test me.
Evaluate my inner thoughts and motives.[c]
For I am ever aware of your faithfulness,[d]
and your loyalty continually motivates me.[e]
I do not associate[f] with deceitful men,
or consort[g] with those who are dishonest.[h]
I hate the mob[i] of evil men,
and do not associate[j] with the wicked.
I maintain a pure lifestyle,[k]
so I can appear before your altar,[l] O Lord,
to give you thanks,[m]
and to tell about all your amazing deeds.[n]
O Lord, I love the temple where you live,[o]
the place where your splendor is revealed.[p]
Do not sweep me away[q] with sinners,
or execute me along with violent people,[r]
10 who are always ready to do wrong[s]
or offer a bribe.[t]
11 But I have integrity.[u]
Rescue me[v] and have mercy on me!
12 I am safe,[w]
and among the worshipers I will praise the Lord.


  1. Psalm 26:1 sn Psalm 26. The author invites the Lord to test his integrity, asserts his innocence and declares his loyalty to God.
  2. Psalm 26:1 tn Heb “for I in my integrity walk.”
  3. Psalm 26:2 tn Heb “evaluate my kidneys and my heart.” The kidneys and heart were viewed as the seat of one’s volition, conscience, and moral character.
  4. Psalm 26:3 tn Heb “for your faithfulness [is] before my eyes.”
  5. Psalm 26:3 tn Heb “and I walk about in your loyalty.”sn The psalmist’s awareness of the Lord’s faithfulness and…loyalty toward him motivates him to remain loyal to the Lord and to maintain his moral purity.
  6. Psalm 26:4 tn Heb “sit.”
  7. Psalm 26:4 tn Heb “go.” The psalmist uses the imperfect form of the verb to emphasize that he does not make a practice of associating with such people.
  8. Psalm 26:4 tn Heb “[those who] conceal themselves.”
  9. Psalm 26:5 tn Heb “assembly, company.”
  10. Psalm 26:5 tn Heb “sit.” The psalmist uses the imperfect form of the verb to emphasize that he does not make a practice of associating with such people.
  11. Psalm 26:6 tn Heb “I wash my hands in innocence.” The psalmist uses an image from cultic ritual to picture his moral lifestyle. The imperfect verbal emphasizes that this is his habit.
  12. Psalm 26:6 tn Heb “so I can go around your altar” (probably in ritual procession). Following the imperfect of the preceding line, the cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.
  13. Psalm 26:7 tn Heb “to cause to be heard the sound of thanksgiving.”
  14. Psalm 26:7 tn The two infinitival forms (both with prefixed preposition ל, lamed) give the purpose for his appearance at the altar.
  15. Psalm 26:8 tn Heb “the dwelling of your house.”
  16. Psalm 26:8 tn Heb “the place of the abode of your splendor.”
  17. Psalm 26:9 tn Heb “do not gather up my life with.”
  18. Psalm 26:9 tn Heb “or with men of bloodshed my life.” The verb is supplied; it is understood by ellipsis (see the preceding line).
  19. Psalm 26:10 tn Heb “who [have] in their hands evil.”
  20. Psalm 26:10 tn Heb “and their right hand is full of a bribe.”
  21. Psalm 26:11 tn Heb “and I in my integrity walk.” The psalmist uses the imperfect verbal form to emphasize this is his practice. The construction at the beginning of the verse (conjunction + pronoun) highlights the contrast between the psalmist and the sinners mentioned in vv. 9-10.
  22. Psalm 26:11 tn Or “redeem me.”
  23. Psalm 26:12 tn Heb “my foot stands in a level place.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Matthew 24 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Destruction of the Temple

24 Now[a] as Jesus was going out of the temple courts and walking away, his disciples came to show him the temple buildings.[b] And he said to them,[c] “Do you see all these things? I tell you the truth,[d] not one stone will be left on another.[e] All will be torn down!”[f]

Signs of the End of the Age

As[g] he was sitting on the Mount of Olives, his disciples came to him privately and said, “Tell us, when will these things[h] happen? And what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?” Jesus answered them,[i] “Watch out[j] that no one misleads you. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’[k] and they will mislead many. You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. Make sure that you are not alarmed, for this must happen, but the end is still to come.[l] For nation will rise up in arms[m] against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. And there will be famines and earthquakes[n] in various places.[o] All[p] these things are the beginning of birth pains.

Persecution of Disciples

“Then they will hand you over to be persecuted and will kill you. You will be hated by all the nations[q] because of my name.[r] 10 Then many will be led into sin,[s] and they will betray one another and hate one another. 11 And many false prophets will appear and deceive[t] many, 12 and because lawlessness will increase so much, the love of many will grow cold. 13 But the person who endures to the end will be saved.[u] 14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole inhabited earth as a testimony to all the nations,[v] and then the end will come.

The Abomination of Desolation

15 “So when you see the abomination of desolation[w]—spoken about by Daniel the prophet—standing in the holy place” (let the reader understand),[x] 16 “then those in Judea must flee[y] to the mountains. 17 The one on the roof[z] must not come down[aa] to take anything out of his house, 18 and the one in the field must not turn back to get his cloak. 19 Woe[ab] to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! 20 Pray[ac] that your flight may not be in winter or on a Sabbath. 21 For then there will be great suffering[ad] unlike anything that has happened[ae] from the beginning of the world until now, or ever will happen. 22 And if those days had not been cut short, no one would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short. 23 Then if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ!’[af] or ‘There he is!’ do not believe him. 24 For false messiahs[ag] and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect. 25 Remember,[ah] I have told you ahead of time. 26 So then, if someone[ai] says to you, ‘Look, he is in the wilderness,’[aj] do not go out, or ‘Look, he is in the inner rooms,’ do not believe him. 27 For just like the lightning[ak] comes from the east and flashes to the west, so the coming of the Son of Man will be. 28 Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures[al] will gather.[am]

The Arrival of the Son of Man

29 “Immediately[an] after the suffering[ao] of those days, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven will be shaken.[ap] 30 Then[aq] the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven,[ar] and[as] all the tribes of the earth will mourn. They[at] will see the Son of Man arriving on the clouds of heaven[au] with power and great glory. 31 And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet blast, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven[av] to the other.

The Parable of the Fig Tree

32 “Learn[aw] this parable from the fig tree: Whenever its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near. 33 So also you, when you see all these things, know[ax] that he is near, right at the door. 34 I tell you the truth,[ay] this generation[az] will not pass away until all these things take place. 35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.[ba]

Be Ready!

36 “But as for that day and hour no one knows it—not even the angels in heaven[bb]—except the Father alone. 37 For just like the days of Noah[bc] were, so the coming of the Son of Man will be. 38 For in those days before the flood, people[bd] were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day Noah entered the ark. 39 And they knew nothing until the flood came and took them all away.[be] It will be the same at the coming of the Son of Man.[bf] 40 Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one left.[bg] 41 There will be two women grinding grain with a mill;[bh] one will be taken and one left.

42 “Therefore stay alert, because you do not know on what day[bi] your Lord will come. 43 But understand this: If the owner of the house had known at what time of night the thief[bj] was coming, he would have been alert and would not have let his house be broken into. 44 Therefore you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him.[bk]

The Faithful and Wise Slave

45 “Who then is the faithful and wise slave,[bl] whom the master has put in charge of his household, to give the other slaves[bm] their food at the proper time? 46 Blessed is that slave whom the master finds at work[bn] when he comes. 47 I tell you the truth,[bo] the master[bp] will put him in charge of all his possessions. 48 But if[bq] that evil slave should say to himself,[br] ‘My master is staying away a long time,’ 49 and he begins to beat his fellow slaves and to eat and drink with drunkards, 50 then the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not foresee, 51 and will cut him in two,[bs] and assign him a place with the hypocrites, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.


  1. Matthew 24:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  2. Matthew 24:1 sn The Jerusalem temple was widely admired around the world. See Josephus, Ant. 15.11 [15.380-425]; J. W. 5.5 [5.184-227] and Tacitus, History 5.8, who called it “immensely opulent.” Josephus compared it to a beautiful snowcapped mountain.
  3. Matthew 24:2 tn Grk “answering, he said to them.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  4. Matthew 24:2 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  5. Matthew 24:2 sn With the statement not one stone will be left on another Jesus predicted the total destruction of the temple, something that did occur in a.d. 70.
  6. Matthew 24:2 tn Grk “not one stone will be left here on a stone which will not be thrown down.”
  7. Matthew 24:3 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  8. Matthew 24:3 sn Because the phrase these things is plural, more than the temple’s destruction is in view. The question may presuppose that such a catastrophe signals the end.
  9. Matthew 24:4 tn Grk “answering, Jesus said to them.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.
  10. Matthew 24:4 tn Or “Be on guard.”
  11. Matthew 24:5 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  12. Matthew 24:6 tn Grk “it is not yet the end.”
  13. Matthew 24:7 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.
  14. Matthew 24:7 tc Most witnesses (C Γ Δ Θ 0102 ƒ1,13 700 1241 1424 M) have “and plagues” (καὶ λοιμοί, kai loimoi) between “famines” (λιμοί, limoi) and “earthquakes” (σεισμοί, seismoi), while others have “plagues and famines and earthquakes” (L W 33 lat). The similarities between λιμοί and λοιμοί could explain how καὶ λοιμοί might have accidentally dropped out, but since the Lukan parallel (Luke 21:11) has both terms (and W lat have the order λοιμοὶ καὶ λιμοί there too, as they do in Matthew), it seems more likely that scribes added the phrase here. The shorter reading does not enjoy overwhelming support ([א] B D 892 sa, and other Greek and versional witnesses), but it is nevertheless significant; coupled with the internal evidence it should be given preference.
  15. Matthew 24:7 sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4.
  16. Matthew 24:8 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  17. Matthew 24:9 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “nations” or “Gentiles”).
  18. Matthew 24:9 sn See Matt 5:10-12; 1 Cor 1:25-31.
  19. Matthew 24:10 tn Or “many will fall away.” This could also refer to apostasy.
  20. Matthew 24:11 tn Or “and lead many astray.”
  21. Matthew 24:13 sn But the person who endures to the end will be saved. Jesus was not claiming here that salvation is by works. He was simply arguing that genuine faith evidences itself in persistence through even the worst of trials.
  22. Matthew 24:14 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “nations” or “Gentiles”).
  23. Matthew 24:15 sn The reference to the abomination of desolation is an allusion to Dan 9:27. Though some have seen the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy in the actions of Antiochus IV (or a representative of his) in 167 b.c., the words of Jesus seem to indicate that Antiochus was not the final fulfillment, but that there was (from Jesus’ perspective) still another fulfillment yet to come. Some argue that this was realized in a.d. 70, while others claim that it refers specifically to Antichrist and will not be fully realized until the period of the great tribulation at the end of the age (cf. Mark 13:14, 19, 24; Rev 3:10).
  24. Matthew 24:15 sn This parenthetical comment is generally regarded as a command by the author made directly to the readers, not as part of Jesus’ original speech. For this reason the statement is not placed within quotation marks.
  25. Matthew 24:16 sn Fleeing to the mountains is a key OT image: Gen 19:17; Judg 6:2; Isa 15:5; Jer 16:16; Zech 14:5.
  26. Matthew 24:17 sn On the roof. Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.
  27. Matthew 24:17 sn The swiftness and devastation of the judgment will require a swift escape. There will be no time to come down from the roof and pick up anything from inside one’s home.
  28. Matthew 24:19 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  29. Matthew 24:20 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  30. Matthew 24:21 tn Traditionally, “great tribulation.”
  31. Matthew 24:21 sn Suffering unlike anything that has happened. Some refer this event to the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. While the events of a.d. 70 may reflect somewhat the comments Jesus makes here, the reference to the scope and severity of this judgment strongly suggest that much more is in view. Most likely Jesus is referring to the great end-time judgment on Jerusalem in the great tribulation.
  32. Matthew 24:23 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  33. Matthew 24:24 tn Or “false christs”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
  34. Matthew 24:25 tn Or “Pay attention!” Grk “Behold.”
  35. Matthew 24:26 tn Grk “they say.” The third person plural is used here as an indefinite and translated “someone” (ExSyn 402).
  36. Matthew 24:26 tn Or “in the desert.”
  37. Matthew 24:27 sn The Son of Man’s coming in power will be sudden and obvious like lightning. No one will need to point it out.
  38. Matthew 24:28 tn The same Greek term can refer to “eagles” or “vultures” (L&N 4.42; BDAG 22 s.v. ἀετός), but in this context it must mean vultures because the gruesome image is one of dead bodies being consumed by scavengers.sn Jesus’ answer is that when the judgment comes, the scenes of death will be obvious and so will the location of the judgment. See also Luke 17:37.
  39. Matthew 24:28 tn Grk “will be gathered.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in English.
  40. Matthew 24:29 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  41. Matthew 24:29 tn Traditionally, “tribulation.”
  42. Matthew 24:29 sn An allusion to Isa 13:10; 34:4 (LXX); Joel 2:10. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.
  43. Matthew 24:30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  44. Matthew 24:30 tn Or “in the sky”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.
  45. Matthew 24:30 tn Here τότε (tote, “then”) has not been translated to avoid redundancy in English.
  46. Matthew 24:30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  47. Matthew 24:30 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full authority to judge.
  48. Matthew 24:31 tn Or “of the sky”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.
  49. Matthew 24:32 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  50. Matthew 24:33 tn The verb γινώσκετε (ginōskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event.
  51. Matthew 24:34 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  52. Matthew 24:34 sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generation might mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (v. 30), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession.
  53. Matthew 24:35 sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself. For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.
  54. Matthew 24:36 tc ‡ Some significant witnesses, including early Alexandrian and Western mss (א*,2b B D Θ ƒ13 it vgmss Irlat Hiermss), have the additional words οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός (oude ho huios, “nor the Son”) here (so NA28). Although the shorter reading (which lacks this phrase) is suspect in that it seems to soften the prophetic ignorance of Jesus, the final phrase (“except the Father alone”) already implies this. Further, the parallel in Mark 13:32 has οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός, with almost no witnesses lacking the expression; significantly, Mark does not add “alone” to the Father. It is thus doubtful that the absence of “nor the Son” is due to pious scribal motives. In keeping with Matthew’s general softening of Mark’s harsh statements throughout his Gospel, it is more likely that the absence of “nor the Son” is part of the autographic text of Matthew, being an intentional change on the part of the author. Further, this shorter reading is supported by א2a as well as L W Γ Δ ƒ1 33 565 579 700 1241 1424 M al vg sy co Hiermss. Although the external evidence is not as impressive for the shorter reading, it best explains the rise of the other reading (in particular, how does one account for virtually no mss excising οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός at Mark 13:32 if such an absence here is due to scribal alteration? Although copyists were hardly consistent, for such a theologically significant issue at least some consistency would be expected on the part of a few scribes). Further, although some have claimed that the doubled οὐδέ is “necessary on internal grounds” (Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: The Effect of Early Christological Controversies on the Text of the New Testament [New York: OUP, 1993], 92; see also Daniel J. Harrington, The Gospel of Matthew, SP 1 [Collegeville, MN: Liturgical, 1991], 342: “…the syntax of the sentence (‘neither the angels … but the Father alone’) demands it.”), this is hardly the case. Indeed, apart from one quotation from the LXX, Matthew never elsewhere uses the correlative οὐδέ construction. Thus, on a redactional, intrinsic, and source-critical basis, the shorter reading is to be strongly preferred. See D. B. Wallace, “The Son’s Ignorance in Matthew 24:36: An Exercise in Textual and Redaction Criticism,” Studies on the Text of the New Testament and Early Christianity: Essays in Honour of Michael W. Holmes, ed. Daniel Gurtner, Paul Foster, and Juan Hernández (Leiden: Brill) 182–209.
  55. Matthew 24:37 sn Like the days of Noah, the time of the flood in Gen 6:5-8:22, the judgment will come as a surprise as people live their day to day lives.
  56. Matthew 24:38 tn Grk “they,” but in an indefinite sense, “people.”
  57. Matthew 24:39 sn Like the flood that came and took them all away, the coming judgment associated with the Son of Man will condemn many.
  58. Matthew 24:39 tn Grk “So also will be the coming of the Son of Man.”
  59. Matthew 24:40 sn There is debate among commentators and scholars over the phrase one will be taken and one left about whether one is taken for judgment or for salvation. If the imagery is patterned after the rescue of Noah from the flood, as some suggest, the ones taken are the saved (as Noah was) and those left behind are judged. The imagery, however, is not directly tied to the identification of the two groups. Its primary purpose in context is to picture the sudden, surprising separation of the righteous and the judged (i.e., condemned) at the return of the Son of Man.
  60. Matthew 24:41 tn According to L&N 46.16, this refers to a hand mill normally operated by two women.
  61. Matthew 24:42 tc Most later mss (L 0281 565 579 700 1241 M lat) have here ὥρᾳ (hōra, “hour”) instead of ἡμέρα (hēmera, “day”). Although the merits of this reading could be argued either way, in light of the overwhelming and diverse early support for ἡμέρᾳ (א B C D W Δ Θ ƒ13 33 892 1424, as well as several versions and fathers), the more general term is surely correct.
  62. Matthew 24:43 sn On Jesus’ return pictured as a thief, see 1 Thess 5:2, 4; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 3:3; 16:15.
  63. Matthew 24:44 sn Jesus made clear that his coming could not be timed, and suggested it would take some time—so long, in fact, that some will not be looking for him any longer (at an hour when you do not expect him).
  64. Matthew 24:45 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.
  65. Matthew 24:45 tn Grk “give them.”
  66. Matthew 24:46 tn That is, doing his job, doing what he is supposed to be doing.
  67. Matthew 24:47 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  68. Matthew 24:47 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the master) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  69. Matthew 24:48 tn In the Greek text this is a third class condition that for all practical purposes is a hypothetical condition (note the translation of the following verb “should say”).
  70. Matthew 24:48 tn Grk “should say in his heart.”
  71. Matthew 24:51 tn The verb διχοτομέω (dichotomeō) means to cut an object into two parts (L&N 19.19). This is an extremely severe punishment compared to the other two later punishments. To translate it simply as “punish” is too mild. If taken literally this servant is dismembered, although it is possible to view the stated punishment as hyperbole (L&N 38.12).
New English Translation (NET)

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