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Josiah Repents

22 Josiah was eight years old when he became king, and he reigned for thirty-one years in Jerusalem. His mother[a] was Jedidah, daughter of Adaiah, from Bozkath. He did what the Lord approved[b] and followed in his ancestor David’s footsteps;[c] he did not deviate to the right or the left.

In the eighteenth year of King Josiah’s reign, the king sent the scribe Shaphan son of Azaliah, son of Meshullam, to the Lord’s temple with these orders:[d] “Go up to Hilkiah the high priest and have him melt down[e] the silver that has been brought by the people to the Lord’s temple and has been collected by the guards at the door. Have them hand it over to the construction foremen[f] assigned to the Lord’s temple. They in turn should pay the temple workers to repair it,[g] including craftsmen, builders, and masons, and should buy wood and chiseled stone for the repair work.[h] Do not audit the foremen who disburse the silver, for they are honest.”[i]

Hilkiah the high priest informed Shaphan the scribe, “I found the scroll of the law in the Lord’s temple.” Hilkiah gave the scroll to Shaphan and he read it. Shaphan the scribe went to the king and reported,[j] “Your servants melted down the silver in the temple[k] and handed it over to the construction foremen assigned to the Lord’s temple.” 10 Then Shaphan the scribe told the king, “Hilkiah the priest has given me a scroll.” Shaphan read it out loud before the king. 11 When the king heard the words of the law scroll, he tore his clothes. 12 The king ordered Hilkiah the priest, Ahikam son of Shaphan, Achbor son of Micaiah, Shaphan the scribe, and Asaiah the king’s servant, 13 “Go, seek an oracle from[l] the Lord for me and the people—for all Judah. Find out about the words of this scroll that has been discovered. For the Lord’s great fury has been ignited against us, because our ancestors have not obeyed the words of this scroll by doing all that it instructs us to do.”[m]

14 So Hilkiah the priest, Ahikam, Achbor, Shaphan, and Asaiah went to Huldah the prophetess, the wife of Shullam son of Tikvah, the son of Harhas, the supervisor of the wardrobe.[n] (She lived in Jerusalem in the Mishneh[o] district.) They stated their business,[p] 15 and she said to them: “This is what the Lord God of Israel has said: ‘Say this to the man who sent you to me: 16 “This is what the Lord has said: ‘I am about to bring disaster on this place and its residents, all the things in the scroll that the king of Judah has read. 17 This will happen because they have abandoned me and offered sacrifices[q] to other gods, angering me with all the idols they have made.[r] My anger will ignite against this place and will not be extinguished!’” 18 Say this to the king of Judah, who sent you to seek an oracle from the Lord: “This is what the Lord God of Israel has said concerning the words you have heard: 19 ‘You displayed a sensitive spirit[s] and humbled yourself before the Lord when you heard how I intended to make this place and its residents into an appalling example of an accursed people.[t] You tore your clothes and wept before me, and I have heard you,’ says the Lord. 20 ‘Therefore I will allow you to die and be buried in peace.[u] You will not have to witness[v] all the disaster I will bring on this place.’”’” Then they reported back to the king.

The King Institutes Religious Reform

23 The king summoned all the leaders of Judah and Jerusalem.[w] The king went up to the Lord’s temple, accompanied by all the people of Judah, all the residents of Jerusalem, the priests, and the prophets. All the people were there, from the youngest to the oldest. He read aloud[x] all the words of the scroll of the covenant that had been discovered in the Lord’s temple. The king stood by the pillar and renewed[y] the covenant before the Lord, agreeing to follow[z] the Lord and to obey his commandments, laws, and rules with all his heart and being,[aa] by carrying out the terms[ab] of this covenant recorded on this scroll. All the people agreed to keep the covenant.[ac]

The king ordered Hilkiah the high priest, the high-ranking priests,[ad] and the guards[ae] to bring out of the Lord’s temple all the items that were used in the worship of[af] Baal, Asherah, and all the stars of the sky.[ag] The king[ah] burned them outside of Jerusalem in the terraces[ai] of Kidron, and carried their ashes to Bethel. He eliminated[aj] the pagan priests whom the kings of Judah had appointed to offer sacrifices[ak] on the high places in the cities of Judah and in the area right around Jerusalem. (They offered sacrifices[al] to Baal, the sun god, the moon god, the constellations, and all the stars in the sky.) He removed the Asherah pole from the Lord’s temple and took it outside Jerusalem to the Kidron Valley, where he burned it.[am] He smashed it to dust and then threw the dust in the public graveyard.[an] He tore down the quarters[ao] of the male cultic prostitutes in the Lord’s temple, where women were weaving shrines[ap] for Asherah.

He brought all the priests from the cities of Judah and ruined[aq] the high places where the priests had offered sacrifices, from Geba to Beer Sheba.[ar] He tore down the high place of the goat idols[as] situated at the entrance of the gate of Joshua, the city official, on the left side of the city gate. (Now the priests of the high places did not go up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem, but they did eat unleavened cakes among their fellow priests.)[at] 10 The king[au] ruined Topheth in the Valley of Ben Hinnom so that no one could pass his son or his daughter through the fire to Molech.[av] 11 He removed from the entrance to the Lord’s temple the statues of horses[aw] that the kings of Judah had placed there in honor of the sun god. (They were kept near the room of Nathan Melech the eunuch, which was situated among the courtyards.)[ax] He burned up the chariots devoted to the sun god.[ay] 12 The king tore down the altars the kings of Judah had set up on the roof of Ahaz’s upper room, as well as the altars Manasseh had set up in the two courtyards of the Lord’s temple. He crushed them[az] and threw the dust in the Kidron Valley. 13 The king ruined the high places east of Jerusalem, south of the Mount of Destruction,[ba] that King Solomon of Israel had built for the detestable Sidonian goddess Astarte, the detestable Moabite god Chemosh, and the horrible Ammonite god Milcom. 14 He smashed the sacred pillars to bits, cut down the Asherah poles, and filled those shrines[bb] with human bones.

15 He also tore down the altar in Bethel at the high place made by Jeroboam son of Nebat, who encouraged Israel to sin.[bc] He burned all the combustible items at that high place and crushed them to dust, including the Asherah pole.[bd] 16 When Josiah turned around, he saw the tombs there on the hill. So he ordered the bones from the tombs to be brought;[be] he burned them on the altar and defiled it, just as in the Lord’s message that was announced by the prophet while Jeroboam stood by the altar during a festival. Then the king turned and saw the grave of the prophet who had foretold this.[bf] 17 He asked, “What is this grave marker I see?” The men from the city replied, “It’s the grave of the prophet[bg] who came from Judah and foretold these very things you have done to the altar of Bethel.” 18 The king[bh] said, “Leave it alone! No one must touch his bones.” So they left his bones undisturbed, as well as the bones of the Israelite prophet buried beside him.[bi]

19 Josiah also removed all the shrines on the high places in the cities of Samaria. The kings of Israel had made them and angered the Lord.[bj] He did to them what he had done to the high place in Bethel.[bk] 20 He sacrificed all the priests of the high places on the altars located there, and burned human bones on them. Then he returned to Jerusalem.

21 The king ordered all the people, “Observe the Passover of the Lord your God, as prescribed in this scroll of the covenant.” 22 He issued this edict because[bl] a Passover like this had not been observed since the days of the judges who led Israel; it was neglected for the entire period of the kings of Israel and Judah.[bm] 23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah’s reign, such a Passover of the Lord was observed in Jerusalem.

24 Josiah also got rid of[bn] the ritual pits used to conjure up spirits,[bo] the magicians, personal idols, disgusting images,[bp] and all the detestable idols that had appeared in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem. In this way he carried out the terms of the law[bq] recorded on the scroll that Hilkiah the priest had discovered in the Lord’s temple. 25 No king before or after repented before the Lord as he did, with his whole heart, soul, and being in accordance with the whole law of Moses.[br]

26 Yet the Lord’s great anger against Judah did not subside; he was still infuriated by all the things Manasseh had done.[bs] 27 The Lord announced, “I will also spurn Judah,[bt] just as I spurned Israel. I will reject this city that I chose—both Jerusalem and the temple, about which I said, ‘I will live there.’[bu]

28 The rest of the events of Josiah’s reign and all his accomplishments are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.[bv] 29 During Josiah’s reign[bw] Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt marched toward[bx] the Euphrates River to help the king of Assyria. King Josiah marched out to fight him, but Necho[by] killed him at Megiddo when he saw him. 30 His servants transported his dead body[bz] from Megiddo in a chariot and brought it to Jerusalem, where they buried him in his tomb. The people of the land took Josiah’s son Jehoahaz, poured olive oil on his head,[ca] and made him king in his father’s place.

Jehoahaz’s Reign over Judah

31 Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother[cb] was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah, from Libnah. 32 He did evil in the sight of[cc] the Lord as his ancestors had done.[cd] 33 Pharaoh Necho imprisoned him in Riblah in the land of Hamath and prevented him from ruling in Jerusalem.[ce] He imposed on the land a special tax[cf] of 100 talents[cg] of silver and a talent of gold. 34 Pharaoh Necho made Josiah’s son Eliakim king in Josiah’s place, and changed his name to Jehoiakim. He took Jehoahaz to Egypt, where he died.[ch] 35 Jehoiakim paid Pharaoh the required amount of silver and gold, but to meet Pharaoh’s demands Jehoiakim had to tax the land. He collected an assessed amount from each man among the people of the land in order to pay Pharaoh Necho.[ci]

Jehoiakim’s Reign over Judah

36 Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned for eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother[cj] was Zebidah the daughter of Pedaiah, from Rumah. 37 He did evil in the sight of[ck] the Lord as his ancestors had done.


  1. 2 Kings 22:1 tn Heb “the name of his mother.”
  2. 2 Kings 22:2 tn Heb “he did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord.”
  3. 2 Kings 22:2 tn Heb “and walked in all the way of David his father.”
  4. 2 Kings 22:3 tn Heb “temple, saying.”
  5. 2 Kings 22:4 tc The MT has וְיַתֵּם (veyattem), “and let them add up” (Hiphil of תָּמָם [tammam], “be complete”), but the appearance of הִתִּיכוּ (hittikhu), “they melted down” (Hiphil of נָתַךְ [natakh], “pour out”) in v. 9 suggests that the verb form should be emended to וְיַתֵּךְ (veyattekh), “and let him melt down” (a Hiphil of נָתַךְ [natakh]). For a discussion of this and other options see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 281.
  6. 2 Kings 22:5 tn Heb “doers of the work.”
  7. 2 Kings 22:5 tn Heb “and let them give it to the doers of the work who are in the house of the Lord to repair the damages to the house.”
  8. 2 Kings 22:6 tn Heb “and to buy wood and chiseled stone to repair the house.”
  9. 2 Kings 22:7 tn Heb “only the silver that is given into their hand should not be reckoned with them, for in faithfulness they are acting.”
  10. 2 Kings 22:9 tn Heb “returned the king a word and said.”
  11. 2 Kings 22:9 tn Heb “that was found in the house.”
  12. 2 Kings 22:13 tn Or “inquire of.”
  13. 2 Kings 22:13 tn Heb “by doing all that is written concerning us.” Perhaps עָלֵינוּ (ʿalenu), “concerning us,” should be altered to עָלָיו (ʿalayv), “upon it,” in which case one could translate, “by doing all that is written in it.”
  14. 2 Kings 22:14 tn Heb “the keeper of the clothes.”
  15. 2 Kings 22:14 tn Or “second.” For a discussion of the possible location of this district, see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 283.
  16. 2 Kings 22:14 tn Heb “and they spoke to her.”
  17. 2 Kings 22:17 tn Or “burned incense.”
  18. 2 Kings 22:17 tn Heb “so as to anger me with all the work of their hands.” The translation assumes that this refers to idols they have manufactured (note the preceding reference to “other gods,” as well as 19:18). However, it is possible that this is a general reference to their sinful practices, in which case one might translate, “angering me by all the things they do.”
  19. 2 Kings 22:19 tn Heb “Because your heart was tender.”
  20. 2 Kings 22:19 tn Heb “how I said concerning this place and its residents to become [an object of] horror and [an example of] a curse.” The final phrase (“horror and a curse”) refers to Judah becoming a prime example of an accursed people. In curse formulations they would be held up as a prime example of divine judgment. For an example of such a curse, see Jer 29:22.
  21. 2 Kings 22:20 tn Heb “Therefore, look, I am gathering you to your fathers, and you will be gathered to your tomb in peace.”
  22. 2 Kings 22:20 tn Heb “your eyes will not see.”
  23. 2 Kings 23:1 tn Heb “and the king sent and all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem gathered to him.”
  24. 2 Kings 23:2 tn Heb “read in their ears.”
  25. 2 Kings 23:3 tn Heb “cut,” that is, “made, agreed to.”
  26. 2 Kings 23:3 tn Heb “walk after.”
  27. 2 Kings 23:3 tn Or “soul.”
  28. 2 Kings 23:3 tn Heb “words.”
  29. 2 Kings 23:3 tn Heb “stood in the covenant.”
  30. 2 Kings 23:4 tn Heb “the priests of the second [rank],” that is, those ranked just beneath Hilkiah.
  31. 2 Kings 23:4 tn Or “doorkeepers.”
  32. 2 Kings 23:4 tn Heb “for.”
  33. 2 Kings 23:4 tn Heb “all the host of heaven” (also in v. 5).
  34. 2 Kings 23:4 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  35. 2 Kings 23:4 tn Or “fields.” For a defense of the translation “terraces,” see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 285.
  36. 2 Kings 23:5 tn Perhaps, “destroyed.”
  37. 2 Kings 23:5 tn Or “burn incense.”
  38. 2 Kings 23:5 tn Or “burned incense.”
  39. 2 Kings 23:6 tn Heb “and he burned it in the Kidron Valley.”
  40. 2 Kings 23:6 tc Heb “on the grave of the sons of the people.” Some Hebrew, Greek, Syriac, Aramaic, and Latin witnesses read the plural “graves.” tn The phrase “sons of the people” refers here to the common people (see BDB 766 s.v. עַם), as opposed to the upper classes who would have private tombs.
  41. 2 Kings 23:7 tn Or “cubicles.” Heb “houses.”
  42. 2 Kings 23:7 tn Heb “houses.” Perhaps tent-shrines made from cloth are in view (see BDB 109 s.v. בַּיִת). M. Cogan and H. Tadmor (II Kings [AB], 286) understand this as referring to clothes made for images of the goddess.
  43. 2 Kings 23:8 tn Heb “defiled; desecrated,” that is, “made ritually unclean and unusable.”
  44. 2 Kings 23:8 sn These towns marked Judah’s northern and southern borders, respectively, at the time of Josiah.
  45. 2 Kings 23:8 tc The Hebrew text reads “the high places of the gates,” which is problematic in that the rest of the verse speaks of a specific gate. The translation assumes an emendation to בָּמוֹת הַשְּׁעָרִים (bamot hasheʿarim), “the high place of the goats” (that is, goat idols). Worship of such images is referred to in Lev 17:7 and 2 Chr 11:15. For a discussion of the textual issue, see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 286-87.
  46. 2 Kings 23:9 tn Heb “their brothers.”
  47. 2 Kings 23:10 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  48. 2 Kings 23:10 sn Attempts to identify this deity with a god known from the ancient Near East have not yet yielded a consensus. For brief discussions see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor II Kings (AB), 288 and HALOT 592 s.v. מֹלֶךְ. For more extensive studies see George C. Heider, The Cult of Molek, and John Day, Molech: A God of Human Sacrifice in the Old Testament.
  49. 2 Kings 23:11 tn The MT simply reads “the horses.” The words “statues of” have been supplied in the translation for clarity.
  50. 2 Kings 23:11 tn Heb “who/which was in the […?].” The meaning of the Hebrew term פַּרְוָרִים (parvarim), translated here “courtyards,” is uncertain. The relative clause may indicate where the room was located or explain who Nathan Melech was, “the eunuch who was in the courtyards.” See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 288-89, who translate “the officer of the precincts.”
  51. 2 Kings 23:11 tn Heb “and the chariots of the sun he burned with fire.”
  52. 2 Kings 23:12 tc The MT reads, “he ran from there,” which makes little if any sense in this context. Some prefer to emend the verbal form (Qal of רוּץ [ruts], “run”) to a Hiphil of רוּץ with third plural suffix and translate, “he quickly removed them” (see BDB 930 s.v. רוּץ, and M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings [AB], 289). The suffix could have been lost in MT by haplography (note the mem [מ] that immediately follows the verb on the form מִשָּׁם, misham, “from there”). Another option, the one reflected in the translation, is to emend the verb to a Piel of רָצַץ (ratsats), “crush,” with third plural suffix.
  53. 2 Kings 23:13 sn This is a derogatory name for the Mount of Olives, involving a wordplay between מִשְׁחָה (mishkhah), “anointing,” and מַשְׁחִית (mashkhit), “destruction.” See HALOT 644 s.v. מַשְׁחִית and M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 289.
  54. 2 Kings 23:14 tn Heb “their place.”
  55. 2 Kings 23:15 tn Heb “And also the altar that is in Bethel, the high place that Jeroboam son of Nebat who encouraged Israel to sin, also that altar and the high place he tore down.” The more repetitive Hebrew text is emphatic.
  56. 2 Kings 23:15 tn Heb “he burned the high place, crushing to dust, and he burned the Asherah pole.” High places per se are never referred to as being burned elsewhere. בָּמָה (bamah) here stands by metonymy for the combustible items located on the high place. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 289.
  57. 2 Kings 23:16 tn Heb “and he sent and took the bones from the tombs.”
  58. 2 Kings 23:16 tc The MT is much shorter than this. It reads, “according to the word of the Lord which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words.” The LXX has a much longer text at this point. It reads: “[which was proclaimed by the man of God] while Jeroboam stood by the altar at a celebration. Then he turned and saw the grave of the man of God [who proclaimed these words].” The extra material attested in the LXX was probably accidentally omitted in the Hebrew tradition when a scribe’s eye jumped from the first occurrence of the phrase “man of God” (which appears right before the extra material) and the second occurrence of the phrase (which appears at the end of the extra material).sn This recalls the prophecy recorded in 1 Kgs 13:2.
  59. 2 Kings 23:17 tn Heb “man of God.”
  60. 2 Kings 23:18 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  61. 2 Kings 23:18 tn Heb “and they left undisturbed his bones, the bones of the prophet who came from Samaria.” If the phrase “the bones of the prophet” were appositional to “his bones,” one would expect the sentence to end “from Judah” (see v. 17). Apparently the “prophet” referred to in the second half of the verse is the old prophet from Bethel who buried the man of God from Judah in his own tomb and instructed his sons to bury his bones there as well (1 Kgs 13:30-31). One expects the text to read “from Bethel,” but “Samaria” (which was not even built at the time of the incident recorded in 1 Kgs 13) is probably an anachronistic reference to the northern kingdom in general. See the note at 1 Kgs 13:32 and the discussion in M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 290.
  62. 2 Kings 23:19 tc Heb “which the kings of Israel had made, angering.” The object has been accidentally omitted in the MT. It appears in the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate versions.
  63. 2 Kings 23:19 tn Heb “and he did to them according to all the deeds he had done in Bethel.”
  64. 2 Kings 23:22 tn The Hebrew text has simply “because.” The translation attempts to reflect more clearly the logical connection between the king’s order and the narrator’s observation. Another option is to interpret כִּי (ki) as asseverative and translate, “indeed.”
  65. 2 Kings 23:22 tn Heb “because there had not been observed [one] like this Passover from the days of the judges who judged Israel and all the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah.”
  66. 2 Kings 23:24 tn Here בִּעֵר (biʿer) is not the well attested verb “burn,” but the less common homonym meaning “devastate, sweep away, remove.” See HALOT 146 s.v. בער.
  67. 2 Kings 23:24 sn See the note at 2 Kgs 21:6.
  68. 2 Kings 23:24 sn See the note at 1 Kgs 15:12.
  69. 2 Kings 23:24 tn Heb “carrying out the words of the law.”
  70. 2 Kings 23:25 tn Heb “and like him there was not a king before him who returned to the Lord with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his being according to all the law of Moses, and after him none arose like him.”sn The description of Josiah’s devotion as involving his whole “heart, soul, and being” echoes the language of Deut 6:5.
  71. 2 Kings 23:26 tn Heb “Yet the Lord did not turn away from the fury of his great anger, because his anger raged against Judah on account of all the infuriating things by which Manasseh had made him angry.”
  72. 2 Kings 23:27 tn Heb “Also Judah I will turn away from my face.”
  73. 2 Kings 23:27 tn Heb “My name will be there.”
  74. 2 Kings 23:28 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Josiah, and all which he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Judah?”
  75. 2 Kings 23:29 tn Heb “In his days.”
  76. 2 Kings 23:29 tn Heb “went up to.” The idiom עַלעָלָה (ʿalahʿal) can sometimes mean “go up against,” but here it refers to Necho’s attempt to aid the Assyrians in their struggle with the Babylonians.
  77. 2 Kings 23:29 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Necho) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  78. 2 Kings 23:30 tn Heb “him, dead.”
  79. 2 Kings 23:30 tn Or “anointed him.”
  80. 2 Kings 23:31 tn Heb “the name of his mother.”
  81. 2 Kings 23:32 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  82. 2 Kings 23:32 tn Heb “according to all that his fathers had done.”
  83. 2 Kings 23:33 tc The consonantal text (Kethib) has “when [he was] ruling in Jerusalem,” but the marginal reading (Qere), which has support from Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic, and Latin witnesses, has “[preventing him] from ruling in Jerusalem.”
  84. 2 Kings 23:33 tn Or “fine.”
  85. 2 Kings 23:33 tn The Hebrew term כִּכָּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or to a standard unit of weight, generally regarded as a talent. Since the accepted weight for a talent of metal is about 75 pounds, this would have amounted to about 7,500 pounds of silver and 75 pounds of gold (cf. NCV, NLT); CEV “almost four tons of silver and about seventy-five pounds of gold.”
  86. 2 Kings 23:34 tn Heb “and he took Jehoahaz, and he came to Egypt and he died there.”
  87. 2 Kings 23:35 tn Heb “And the silver and the gold Jehoiakim gave to Pharaoh, but he taxed the land to give the silver at the command of Pharaoh, [from] each according to his tax he collected the silver and the gold, from the people of the land, to give to Pharaoh Necho.”
  88. 2 Kings 23:36 tn Heb “the name of his mother.”
  89. 2 Kings 23:37 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”