David Defeats His Enemies

18 (A)After this David defeated the Philistines and subdued them, and he took Gath and its villages out of the hand of the Philistines.

And he defeated Moab, and the Moabites became servants to David and brought tribute.

David also defeated (B)Hadadezer king of (C)Zobah-Hamath, as he went to set up his monument[a] at the river Euphrates. And David took from him 1,000 chariots, (D)7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers. And David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but left enough for 100 chariots. And when the Syrians of Damascus came to help Hadadezer king (E)of Zobah, David struck down 22,000 men of the Syrians. Then David put garrisons[b] in Syria of Damascus, and the Syrians became servants to David and brought tribute. And the Lord gave victory to David[c] wherever he went. And David took the shields of gold that were carried by the servants of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem. And from (F)Tibhath and from Cun, cities of Hadadezer, David took a large amount of bronze. (G)With it Solomon made the bronze sea and the pillars and the vessels of bronze.

When (H)Tou king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole army of Hadadezer, king (I)of Zobah, 10 he sent his son (J)Hadoram to King David, to ask about his health and to bless him because he had fought against (K)Hadadezer and defeated him; for (L)Hadadezer had often been at war with Tou. And he sent all sorts of articles of gold, of silver, and of bronze. 11 These also King David dedicated to the Lord, together with the silver and gold that he had carried off from all the nations, from (M)Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.

12 And (N)Abishai, the son of Zeruiah, killed 18,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt. 13 Then he put garrisons in Edom, and all the Edomites became David's servants. And the Lord gave victory to David wherever he went.

David's Administration

14 So David reigned over all Israel, and he administered justice and equity to all his people. 15 And (O)Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the army; and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder; 16 (P)and Zadok the son of Ahitub and (Q)Ahimelech the son of Abiathar were priests; and (R)Shavsha was secretary; 17 and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David's sons were the (S)chief officials in the service of the king.

The Ammonites Disgrace David's Men

19 (T)Now after this Nahash the king of the Ammonites died, and his son reigned in his place. And David said, “I will deal kindly with Hanun the son of Nahash, for his father dealt kindly with me.” So David sent messengers to console him concerning his father. And David's servants came to the land of the Ammonites to Hanun to console him. But the princes of the Ammonites said to Hanun, “Do you think, because David has sent comforters to you, that he is honoring your father? Have not his servants come to you to search and to overthrow and to spy out the land?” So Hanun took David's servants and shaved them and cut off their garments in the middle, at their hips, and sent them away; and they departed. When David was told concerning the men, he sent messengers to meet them, for the men were greatly ashamed. And the king said, “Remain at Jericho until your beards have grown and then return.”

When the Ammonites saw that they had become a stench to David, Hanun and the Ammonites sent 1,000 talents[d] of silver to hire chariots and horsemen (U)from Mesopotamia, from Aram-maacah, and from (V)Zobah. They hired 32,000 chariots and the king of Maacah with his army, who came and encamped before (W)Medeba. And the Ammonites were mustered from their cities and came to battle. When David heard of it, he sent Joab and all the army of the mighty men. And the Ammonites came out and drew up in battle array at the entrance of the city, and the kings who had come were by themselves in the open country.

Ammonites and Syrians Defeated

10 When Joab saw that the battle was set against him both in front and in the rear, he chose some of the best men of Israel and arrayed them against the Syrians. 11 The rest of his men he put in the charge of (X)Abishai his brother, and they were arrayed against the Ammonites. 12 And he said, “If the Syrians are too strong for me, then you shall help me, but if the Ammonites are too strong for you, then I will help you. 13 Be strong, and let us use our strength for our people and for the cities of our God, and may the Lord do what seems good to him.” 14 So Joab and the people who were with him drew near before the Syrians for battle, and they fled before him. 15 And when the Ammonites saw that the Syrians fled, they likewise fled before (Y)Abishai, Joab's brother, and entered the city. Then Joab came to Jerusalem.

16 But when the Syrians saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they sent messengers and brought out the Syrians who were beyond the Euphrates,[e] with (Z)Shophach the commander of the army of (AA)Hadadezer at their head. 17 And when it was told to David, he gathered all Israel together and crossed the Jordan and came to them and drew up his forces against them. And when David set the battle in array against the Syrians, they fought with him. 18 And the Syrians fled before Israel, and David killed of the Syrians the men of (AB)7,000 chariots and 40,000 (AC)foot soldiers, and put to death also (AD)Shophach the commander of their army. 19 And when the servants of (AE)Hadadezer saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they made peace with David and became subject to him. So the Syrians were not willing to save the Ammonites anymore.

The Capture of Rabbah

20 (AF)In the spring of the year, the time when kings go out to battle, Joab led out the army and ravaged the country of the Ammonites and came and besieged Rabbah. But David remained at Jerusalem. And (AG)Joab struck down Rabbah and overthrew it. (AH)And David took the crown of their king from his head. He found that it weighed a talent[f] of gold, and in it was a precious stone. And it was placed on David's head. And he brought out the spoil of the city, a very great amount. And he brought out the people who were in it and set them to labor[g] (AI)with saws and iron picks and axes.[h] And thus David did to all the cities of the Ammonites. Then David and all the people returned to Jerusalem.

Philistine Giants Killed

(AJ)And after this there arose war with the Philistines at Gezer. Then Sibbecai the Hushathite struck down Sippai, who was one of the descendants of the giants, and the Philistines were subdued. And there was again war with the Philistines, and Elhanan the son of (AK)Jair struck down Lahmi (AL)the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver's beam. And there was again war at Gath, where there was a man of great stature, who had six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot, twenty-four in number, and he also was descended from the giants. And when he taunted Israel, Jonathan the son of (AM)Shimea, David's brother, struck him down. These were descended from the giants in Gath, and they fell by the hand of David and by the hand of his servants.

David's Census Brings Pestilence

21 (AN)Then (AO)Satan stood against Israel and incited David to number Israel. So David said to Joab and the commanders of the army, “Go, number Israel, from Beersheba to Dan, and bring me a report, that I may know their number.” But Joab said, “May the Lord add to his people a hundred times as many as they are! Are they not, my lord the king, all of them my lord's servants? Why then should my lord require this? Why should it be a cause of guilt for Israel?” But the king's word prevailed against Joab. So Joab departed and went throughout all Israel and came back to Jerusalem. And Joab gave the sum of the numbering of the people to David. In all Israel there were (AP)1,100,000 men who drew the sword, and in Judah (AQ)470,000 who drew the sword. (AR)But he did not include Levi and Benjamin in the numbering, for the king's command was abhorrent to Joab.

But God was displeased with this thing, and he struck Israel. And David said to God, “I have sinned greatly in that I have done this thing. But now, please (AS)take away the iniquity of your servant, for I have acted very foolishly.” And the Lord spoke to Gad, David's (AT)seer, saying, 10 “Go and say to David, ‘Thus says the Lord, Three things I offer you; choose one of them, that I may do it to you.’” 11 So Gad came to David and said to him, “Thus says the Lord, ‘Choose what you will: 12 either (AU)three years of famine, or three months of devastation by your foes while the sword of your enemies overtakes you, or else three days of the sword of the Lord, pestilence on the land, with the angel of the Lord destroying throughout all the territory of Israel.’ Now decide what answer I shall return to him who sent me.” 13 Then David said to Gad, “I am in great distress. Let me fall into the hand of the Lord, for his mercy is very great, but do not let me fall into the hand of man.”

14 So the Lord sent a pestilence on Israel, and 70,000 men of Israel fell. 15 And God sent the angel to Jerusalem to destroy it, but as he was about to destroy it, the Lord saw, and he (AV)relented from the calamity. And he said to the angel who was working destruction, “It is enough; now stay your hand.” And the angel of the Lord was standing by the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. 16 And David lifted his eyes and saw the angel of the Lord standing between earth and heaven, and in his hand a drawn sword stretched out over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders, (AW)clothed in sackcloth, fell upon their faces. 17 And David said to God, “Was it not I who gave command to number the people? It is I who have sinned and done great evil. But these sheep, what have they done? Please let your hand, O Lord my God, be against me and against my father's house. But do not let the plague be on your people.”

David Builds an Altar

18 Now (AX)the angel of the Lord had commanded Gad to say to David that David should go up and raise an altar to the Lord on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. 19 So David went up at Gad's word, which he had spoken in the name of the Lord. 20 Now Ornan was threshing wheat. He turned and saw the angel, and his four sons who were with him hid themselves. 21 As David came to Ornan, Ornan looked and saw David and went out from the threshing floor and paid homage to David with his face to the ground. 22 And David said to Ornan, “Give me the site of the threshing floor that I may build on it an altar to the Lord—give it to me at its full price—that the plague may be averted from the people.” 23 Then Ornan said to David, “Take it, and let my lord the king do what seems good to him. See, I give the oxen for burnt offerings and the threshing sledges for the wood and the wheat for a grain offering; I give it all.” 24 But King David said to Ornan, “No, but I will buy them for the full price. I will not take for the Lord what is yours, nor offer burnt offerings that cost me nothing.” 25 So David paid Ornan (AY)600 shekels[i] of gold by weight for the site. 26 And David built there an altar to the Lord and presented burnt offerings and peace offerings and called on the Lord, and the Lord[j] (AZ)answered him with fire from heaven upon the altar of burnt offering. 27 Then the Lord commanded the angel, and he put his sword back into its sheath.

28 At that time, when David saw that the Lord had answered him at the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite, he sacrificed there. 29 For the tabernacle of the Lord, which Moses had made in the wilderness, and the altar of burnt offering (BA)were at that time in the high place at Gibeon, 30 but David could not go before it to inquire of God, for he was afraid of the sword of the angel of the Lord.

22 Then David said, (BB)“Here shall be the house of the Lord God and here the altar of burnt offering for Israel.”

David Prepares for Temple Building

David commanded to gather together the (BC)resident aliens who were in the land of Israel, and he (BD)set stonecutters to prepare dressed stones for building the house of God. David also provided great quantities of iron for nails for the doors of the gates and for clamps, (BE)as well as bronze in quantities beyond weighing, and cedar timbers without number, (BF)for the Sidonians and Tyrians brought great quantities of cedar to David. For David said, (BG)“Solomon my son is young and inexperienced, and the house that is to be built for the Lord must be exceedingly magnificent, of fame and glory throughout all lands. I will therefore make preparation for it.” So David provided materials in great quantity before his death.

Solomon Charged to Build the Temple

Then he called for Solomon his son and charged him to build a house for the Lord, the God of Israel. David said to Solomon, “My son, (BH)I had it in my heart to build a house to the name of the Lord my God. But the word of the Lord came to me, saying, (BI)‘You have shed much blood and have waged great wars. You shall not build a house to my name, because you have shed so much blood before me on the earth. Behold, a son shall be born to you who shall be a man of rest. (BJ)I will give him rest from all his surrounding enemies. (BK)For his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quiet to Israel in his days. 10 (BL)He shall build a house for my name. (BM)He shall be my son, and I will be his father, and I will establish his royal throne in Israel forever.’

11 “Now, my son, (BN)the Lord be with you, so that you may succeed in building the house of the Lord your God, as he has spoken concerning you. 12 (BO)Only, may the Lord grant you discretion and understanding, that when he gives you charge over Israel you may keep the law of the Lord your God. 13 (BP)Then you will prosper if you are careful to observe the statutes and the rules that the Lord commanded Moses for Israel. (BQ)Be strong and courageous. Fear not; do not be dismayed. 14 With great pains I have provided for the house of the Lord (BR)100,000 talents[k] of gold, a million talents of silver, and (BS)bronze and iron beyond weighing, for there is so much of it; timber and stone, too, I have provided. To these you must add. 15 You have an abundance of workmen: stonecutters, masons, carpenters, and all kinds of craftsmen without number, skilled in working 16 gold, silver, bronze, and iron. Arise and work! (BT)The Lord be with you!”

17 David also commanded (BU)all the leaders of Israel to help Solomon his son, saying, 18 “Is not the Lord your God with you? And (BV)has he not given you peace[l] on every side? For he has delivered the inhabitants of the land into my hand, and the land is subdued before the Lord and his people. 19 Now (BW)set your mind and heart to seek the Lord your God. Arise and build the sanctuary of the Lord God, (BX)so that the ark of the covenant of the Lord and the holy vessels of God may be brought into a house built (BY)for the name of the Lord.”

David Organizes the Levites

23 (BZ)When David was old and full of days, (CA)he made Solomon his son king over Israel.

David[m] assembled all the leaders of Israel and the priests and the Levites. The Levites, (CB)thirty years old and upward, were numbered, and (CC)the total was (CD)38,000 men. “Twenty-four thousand of these,” David said,[n] (CE)“shall have charge of the work in the house of the Lord, 6,000 shall be (CF)officers and judges, 4,000 gatekeepers, and 4,000 shall offer praises to the Lord with the instruments (CG)that I have made for praise.” (CH)And David organized them in divisions (CI)corresponding to the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

(CJ)The sons of Gershon[o] were Ladan and Shimei. The sons of Ladan: (CK)Jehiel the chief, and Zetham, and Joel, three. The sons of Shimei: Shelomoth, Haziel, and Haran, three. These were the heads of the fathers' houses of Ladan. 10 And the sons of Shimei: Jahath, Zina, and Jeush and Beriah. These four were the sons of Shimei. 11 Jahath was the chief, and Zizah the second; but Jeush and Beriah did not have many sons, therefore they became counted as a single father's house.

12 (CL)The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, four. 13 (CM)The sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses. (CN)Aaron was set apart to dedicate the most holy things, that he and his sons forever should (CO)make offerings before the Lord and (CP)minister to him and (CQ)pronounce blessings in his name forever. 14 But the sons of Moses the (CR)man of God were named among the (CS)tribe of Levi. 15 The (CT)sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer. 16 The sons of Gershom: (CU)Shebuel the chief. 17 The sons of Eliezer: Rehabiah the chief. Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very many. 18 The sons of Izhar: Shelomith the chief. 19 The (CV)sons of Hebron: Jeriah the chief, Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, and Jekameam the fourth. 20 (CW)The sons of Uzziel: Micah the chief and Isshiah the second.

21 (CX)The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Mahli: Eleazar and (CY)Kish. 22 Eleazar died (CZ)having no sons, but only daughters; their (DA)kinsmen, the sons of Kish, married them. 23 (DB)The sons of Mushi: Mahli, Eder, and Jeremoth, three.

24 (DC)These were the sons of Levi by their fathers' houses, the heads of fathers' houses (DD)as they were listed according to the number of the names of the individuals from (DE)twenty years old and upward who were to do the work for the service of the house of the Lord. 25 For David said, “The Lord, the God of Israel, (DF)has given rest to his people, and he dwells in Jerusalem forever. 26 And so the Levites no longer need (DG)to carry the tabernacle or any of the things for its service.” 27 For by the last words of David the sons of Levi were numbered from (DH)twenty years old and upward. 28 For their duty was to assist the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of the Lord, having the care of the courts and the chambers, the cleansing of all that is holy, and any work for the service of the house of God. 29 Their duty was also to assist with the (DI)showbread, the (DJ)flour for the grain offering, the wafers of unleavened bread, the (DK)baked offering, the (DL)offering mixed with oil, and all (DM)measures of quantity or size. 30 And they were to stand every morning, thanking and praising the Lord, and likewise at evening, 31 and whenever burnt offerings were offered to the Lord (DN)on Sabbaths, (DO)new moons, and feast days, (DP)according to the number required of them, regularly before the Lord. 32 Thus (DQ)they were to keep charge of the tent of meeting and the sanctuary, and to attend the sons of Aaron, their brothers, for the (DR)service of the house of the Lord.

David Organizes the Priests

24 The divisions of the sons of Aaron were these. The sons of (DS)Aaron: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. (DT)But Nadab and Abihu died before their father and had no children, so Eleazar and Ithamar became the priests. With the help of (DU)Zadok of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar, David organized them according to the appointed duties in their service. Since more chief men were found among the sons of Eleazar than among the sons of Ithamar, they organized them under sixteen heads of fathers' houses of the sons of Eleazar, and eight of the sons of Ithamar. They divided them (DV)by lot, all alike, for there were sacred officers and officers of God among both the sons of Eleazar and the sons of Ithamar. And the scribe Shemaiah, the son of Nethanel, a Levite, recorded them in the presence of the king and the princes and Zadok the priest and (DW)Ahimelech the son of Abiathar and the heads of the fathers' houses of the priests and of the Levites, one father's house being chosen for Eleazar and one chosen for Ithamar.

The first lot fell to Jehoiarib, the second to Jedaiah, the third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim, the fifth to Malchijah, the sixth to Mijamin, 10 the seventh to Hakkoz, the eighth to (DX)Abijah, 11 the ninth to Jeshua, the tenth to Shecaniah, 12 the eleventh to Eliashib, the twelfth to Jakim, 13 the thirteenth to Huppah, the fourteenth to Jeshebeab, 14 the fifteenth to Bilgah, the sixteenth to Immer, 15 the seventeenth to Hezir, the eighteenth to Happizzez, 16 the nineteenth to Pethahiah, the twentieth to Jehezkel, 17 the twenty-first to Jachin, the twenty-second to Gamul, 18 the twenty-third to Delaiah, the twenty-fourth to Maaziah. 19 These had as their appointed duty in their service (DY)to come into the house of the Lord according to the procedure established for them by Aaron their father, as the Lord God of Israel had commanded him.

20 And of the rest of the sons of Levi: (DZ)of the sons of Amram, Shubael; of the sons of Shubael, Jehdeiah. 21 (EA)Of Rehabiah: of the sons of Rehabiah, Isshiah the chief. 22 Of the Izharites, Shelomoth; of the sons of Shelomoth, Jahath. 23 (EB)The sons of Hebron:[p] Jeriah the chief,[q] Amariah the second, Jahaziel the third, Jekameam the fourth. 24 (EC)The sons of Uzziel, Micah; of the sons of Micah, Shamir. 25 The brother of Micah, Isshiah; of the sons of Isshiah, Zechariah. 26 (ED)The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Jaaziah: Beno.[r] 27 The sons of Merari: of Jaaziah, Beno, Shoham, Zaccur, and Ibri. 28 Of Mahli: Eleazar, (EE)who had no sons. 29 Of Kish, the sons of Kish: Jerahmeel. 30 (EF)The sons of Mushi: Mahli, Eder, and Jerimoth. These were the sons of the Levites according to their fathers' houses. 31 These also, the head of each father's house and his younger brother alike, (EG)cast lots, just as their brothers the sons of Aaron, in the presence of King David, (EH)Zadok, Ahimelech, and the heads of fathers' houses of the priests and of the Levites.

Footnotes

  1. 1 Chronicles 18:3 Hebrew hand
  2. 1 Chronicles 18:6 Septuagint, Vulgate, 2 Samuel 8:6 (compare Syriac); Hebrew lacks garrisons
  3. 1 Chronicles 18:6 Hebrew the Lord saved David; also verse 13
  4. 1 Chronicles 19:6 A talent was about 75 pounds or 34 kilograms
  5. 1 Chronicles 19:16 Hebrew the River
  6. 1 Chronicles 20:2 A talent was about 75 pounds or 34 kilograms
  7. 1 Chronicles 20:3 Compare 2 Samuel 12:31; Hebrew he sawed
  8. 1 Chronicles 20:3 Compare 2 Samuel 12:31; Hebrew saws
  9. 1 Chronicles 21:25 A shekel was about 2/5 ounce or 11 grams
  10. 1 Chronicles 21:26 Hebrew he
  11. 1 Chronicles 22:14 A talent was about 75 pounds or 34 kilograms
  12. 1 Chronicles 22:18 Or rest (see 22:9)
  13. 1 Chronicles 23:2 Hebrew He
  14. 1 Chronicles 23:4 Hebrew lacks David said
  15. 1 Chronicles 23:7 Vulgate (compare Septuagint, Syriac); Hebrew to the Gershonite
  16. 1 Chronicles 24:23 Compare 23:19; Hebrew lacks Hebron
  17. 1 Chronicles 24:23 Compare 23:19; Hebrew lacks the chief
  18. 1 Chronicles 24:26 Or his son; also verse 27

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