1 Samuel 2
New English Translation
Hannah Exalts the Lord in Prayer
2 Hannah prayed,[a]
“My heart has rejoiced[b] in the Lord;
my horn[c] has been raised high because of the Lord.
I have loudly denounced[d] my enemies.
Indeed I rejoice in your deliverance.
2 No one is holy[e] like the Lord!
There is no one other than you!
There is no rock[f] like our God!
3 Don’t keep speaking[g] so arrogantly.[h]
Proud talk should not[i] come out of your mouth,
for the Lord is a God who knows;
he[j] evaluates what people do.
4 The bows of warriors are shattered,
but those who stumbled have taken on strength.[k]
5 The well fed hire themselves out to earn food,
but the hungry no longer lack.[l]
Even[m] the barren woman has given birth to seven,[n]
but the one with many children has declined.[o]
6 The Lord both kills and gives life;
he brings down to the grave[p] and raises up.[q]
7 The Lord impoverishes and makes wealthy;
he humbles and he exalts.
8 He lifts the weak[r] from the dust;
he raises[s] the poor from the ash heap
to seat them with princes—
he bestows on them an honored position.[t]
The foundations of the earth belong to the Lord—
he placed the world on them.
9 He watches over[u] his holy ones,[v]
but the wicked are made speechless in the darkness,[w]
for it is not by one’s own[x] strength that one prevails.
10 The Lord shatters[y] his adversaries;[z]
he thunders against them from[aa] the heavens.
The Lord executes judgment to the ends of the earth.
He will strengthen[ab] his king
and exalt the power[ac] of his anointed one.”[ad]
11 Then Elkanah went back home to Ramah.
Eli’s Sons Misuse Their Sacred Office
The boy[ae] Samuel[af] was serving the Lord with the favor of[ag] Eli the priest.[ah] 12 But the sons of Eli were wicked men.[ai] They did not acknowledge the Lord’s authority.[aj] 13 This was the priests’ routine with the people. Whenever anyone was making a sacrifice,[ak] the priest’s attendant would come with a three-pronged fork[al] in his hand, just as the meat was boiling. 14 He would jab it into the basin, kettle, cauldron, or pot. Everything that the fork would bring up the priest would take for himself. This is how they used to treat all the Israelites[am] who came there[an] to Shiloh.
15 Also, before they burned the fat the priest’s attendant would come and say to the person who was making the sacrifice, “Give some meat for the priest to roast! He[ao] won’t accept boiled meat from you, but only raw.”[ap] 16 If[aq] the individual said to him, “They should certainly burn[ar] the fat away first, then take for yourself[as] whatever you wish,”[at] then he would say, “No![au] Give it now! If not, I’ll take it by force!”[av] 17 The sin of these young men[aw] was very great in the Lord’s sight, for they[ax] treated the Lord’s offering with contempt.
18 Now[ay] Samuel was ministering with the favor of the Lord.[az] The boy[ba] was dressed in a linen ephod. 19 His mother used to make him a small robe and bring it to him from time to time when she would go up with her husband to make the annual sacrifice. 20 Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife saying, “May the Lord establish[bb] descendants[bc] for you from this woman in place of the one that she dedicated[bd] to the Lord.” Then they[be] would go to their[bf] home. 21 And indeed the Lord attended to[bg] Hannah. She got pregnant and gave birth to[bh] three sons and two daughters. But the boy[bi] Samuel grew up before the Lord.[bj]
22 Eli was very old. And he would hear about everything that his sons used to do to all the people of Israel[bk] and[bl] how they used to go to bed with[bm] the women who were stationed at the entrance to the tent of meeting. 23 So he said to them, “Why do you do these things, these evil things that I hear about from all these people?[bn] 24 No, my sons! For the report that I hear circulating[bo] among the Lord’s people is not good. 25 If a man sins against a man, one may appeal to God on his behalf.[bp] But if a man sins against the Lord, who can intercede for him?” But Eli’s sons[bq] would not listen to their father.[br] Indeed[bs] the Lord had decided[bt] to kill them. 26 However, the boy[bu] Samuel was growing up and finding favor both with the Lord and with people.[bv]
The Lord Judges the House of Eli
27 Then a man of God came to Eli and said to him, “This is what the Lord has said: ‘I plainly[bw] revealed[bx] myself to your ancestor’s house when they were slaves to the house of Pharaoh in Egypt.[by] 28 I chose[bz] your ancestor[ca] from all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to offer sacrifice on my altar, to burn incense, and to bear[cb] the ephod before me. I gave to your ancestor’s house all the fire offerings made by the Israelites. 29 Why are you[cc] scorning my sacrifice and my offering that I commanded for my dwelling place?[cd] You have honored your sons more than you have me by having made yourselves fat from the best parts of all the offerings of my people Israel.’
30 “Therefore the Lord, the God of Israel, says, ‘I really did say[ce] that your house and your ancestor’s house would serve[cf] me forever.’ But now the Lord says, ‘May it never be![cg] For I will honor those who honor me, but those who despise me will be cursed! 31 In fact, days are coming when I will remove your strength[ch] and the strength[ci] of your father’s house. There will not be an old man in your house! 32 You will see trouble in my dwelling place![cj] Israel will experience blessings,[ck] but there will not be an old man in your[cl] house for all time.[cm] 33 Any man of yours that I do not cut off from my altar, I will cause his[cn] eyes to fail[co] and will cause him grief.[cp] All those born to your family[cq] will die by the sword of man.[cr] 34 This will be a confirming sign for you that will be fulfilled through your two sons,[cs] Hophni and Phinehas: in a single day they both will die! 35 Then I will raise up for myself a faithful priest. He will do what is in my heart and soul. I will build for him a lasting dynasty,[ct] and he will serve my chosen one for all time.[cu] 36 Everyone who remains in your house will come to bow before him for a little money[cv] and for a scrap of bread. Each will say, “Assign me to a priestly task so I can eat a scrap of bread.”’”
- 1 Samuel 2:1 tn Heb “prayed and said.” This is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.
- 1 Samuel 2:1 tn The verb עָלַץ (ʿalats) is a fientive verb. (Some emotion verbs in Hebrew are stative and some are fientive.) The Qal perfect form of a fientive verb is past or perfective (past action with a result that continues into the present). The LXX renders “my heart was strengthened.”
- 1 Samuel 2:1 sn Horns of animals have always functioned as both offensive and defensive weapons for them. As a figure of speech the horn is therefore often used in the Bible as a symbol of human strength (see also in v. 10). The allusion in v. 1 to the horn being lifted high suggests a picture of an animal elevating its head in a display of strength or virility.
- 1 Samuel 2:1 tn Heb “my mouth has opened wide against.”
- 1 Samuel 2:2 sn In this context God’s holiness refers primarily to his sovereignty and incomparability. He is unique and distinct from all other so-called gods.
- 1 Samuel 2:2 tn The LXX has “and there is none righteous like our God.” The Hebrew term translated “rock” refers to a rocky cliff where one can seek refuge from enemies. Here the metaphor depicts God as a protector of his people. Cf. TEV “no protector like our God”; CEV “We’re safer with you than on a high mountain.”
- 1 Samuel 2:3 tn Heb “Do not do a lot; do [not] speak.” The two verbs are understood together to refer to abundant speaking.
- 1 Samuel 2:3 tn Heb “proudly, proudly.” If MT is original, the repetition of the word is for emphasis, stressing the arrogance of those addressed. However, a few medieval Hebrew manuscripts and some other textual witnesses do not reflect the repetition, suggesting that the Hebrew text may be dittographic.
- 1 Samuel 2:3 tn The negative element, “not,” is understood to reapply from the first sentence through the poetic technique of ellipsis and double duty.
- 1 Samuel 2:3 tc The translation assumes the reading of the Qere וְלוֹ (velo, “and by him”), which is supported by many medieval Hebrew mss, is correct, rather than the reading of the Kethib וְלוֹא (veloʾ, “and not”).tn HALOT cites three possibilities for the phrase. Reading the Niphal verb as passive to the Qal meaning (“to examine, check”) and reading the Qere וְלוֹ (velo, “and by him”): “actions [are] tested by him.” Taking the Niphal verb to mean “to measure up, be in order, be correct” (cf. Ezek 18:25, 29; 33:17, 20) and reading the Qere וְלוֹ (velo): “his [God’s] actions are in order.” Taking the verb as in the previous case but reading the Kethiv וְלֹא (veloʾ) and taking the noun עֲלִלוֹת (ʿalilot) as a pejorative: “[disgraceful] actions have no place.” (HALOT s.v. תכן). The translation agrees with the first option and translates the verb with active instead of passive voice.
- 1 Samuel 2:4 tn Heb “stumblers have put on strength.” Because of the contrast between the prior and current condition, the participle has been translated with past tense. The Hebrew metaphor is a picture of getting dressed with (“putting on”) strength like clothing.
- 1 Samuel 2:5 tn By implication these lines refer to those formerly well-fed and those formerly hungry.
- 1 Samuel 2:5 tc Against BHS but with the MT, the preposition (עַד, ʿad) should be taken with what follows rather than with what precedes. For this sense of the preposition see Job 25:5.
- 1 Samuel 2:5 sn The number seven is used here in an ideal sense. Elsewhere in the OT having seven children is evidence of fertility as a result of God’s blessing on the family. See, for example, Jer 15:9, Ruth 4:15.
- 1 Samuel 2:5 tn Or “languished.”
- 1 Samuel 2:6 tn Heb “Sheol”; NAB “the nether world”; CEV “the world of the dead.”
- 1 Samuel 2:6 tn The first three verbs are participles; the last is a preterite which is normally past consecutive. It is rare, even in poetry, for a preterite verb to follow a participle. The English translations all render the last verb as a participle. They either reason that the preterite continues the force of the participle or assume that it should be repointed as a simple vav plus imperfect (which can be habitual present). If the participles are understood as substantival, then the latter half might mean “the Lord…is one who brings down to [the point of] the grave and then raised up.”
- 1 Samuel 2:8 tn Or “lowly”; Heb “insignificant.”
- 1 Samuel 2:8 tn The imperfect verbal form, which is parallel to the participle in the preceding line, is best understood here as indicating what typically happens.
- 1 Samuel 2:8 tn Heb “he makes them inherit a seat of honor.”
- 1 Samuel 2:9 tn Heb “guards the feet of.” The expression means that God watches over and protects the godly in all of their activities and movements. The imperfect verbal forms in v. 9 are understood as indicating what is typically true. Another option is to translate them with the future tense. See v. 10b.
- 1 Samuel 2:9 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading the plural (“his holy ones”) rather than the singular (“his holy one”) of the Kethib.
- 1 Samuel 2:9 tc The LXX begins the verse differently, “granting the prayer to the one who prays; he blessed the years of the righteous.”
- 1 Samuel 2:9 tn Heb “For not by strength a person prevails.” Since the Lord’s strength is apparent in the context, the translation adds “one’s own” for clarity.
- 1 Samuel 2:10 tn The imperfect verbal forms in this line and in the next two lines are understood as indicating what is typically true. Another option is to translate them with the future tense. See v. 10b.
- 1 Samuel 2:10 tc The present translation follows the Qere, many medieval Hebrew manuscripts, the Syriac Peshitta, and the Vulgate in reading the plural (“his adversaries,” similarly many other English versions) rather than the singular (“his adversary”) of the Kethib. The LXX adds material very similar to Jer 9:23-24. “the Lord is holy. Let not the wise boast in his wisdom, and let not let the strong boast in his strength, and let not let the rich boast in his riches, but let him who boasts boast in this: to understand and know the Lord, and to practice justice and righteousness in the midst of the land.” The Greek text of Jeremiah uses different words for “wise” and “strong” and closes by referring to the Lord as one who performs justice, etc. and whose will is in these things.
- 1 Samuel 2:10 tn The Hebrew preposition here has the sense of “from within.”
- 1 Samuel 2:10 tn The imperfect verbal forms in this and the next line are understood as indicating what is anticipated and translated with the future tense, because at the time of Hannah’s prayer Israel did not yet have a king.
- 1 Samuel 2:10 tn Heb “the horn,” here a metaphor for power or strength. Cf. NCV “make his appointed king strong”; NLT “increases the might of his anointed one.”
- 1 Samuel 2:10 tc The LXX greatly expands v. 10 with an addition that seems to be taken from Jer 9:23-24.sn The anointed one is the anticipated king of Israel, as the preceding line makes clear.
- 1 Samuel 2:11 tn The term נַעַר (naʿar), here translated “boy,” often refers to a servant or apprentice in line for a position of authority.
- 1 Samuel 2:11 tn The name “Samuel” has been supplied here for clarity.
- 1 Samuel 2:11 tn Heb “with [or “before”] the face of.” Possibly “under the supervision of.” Cf. 1 Sam 2:18 and 1 Kgs 13:6 where the face represents favor.
- 1 Samuel 2:11 tc The transition between the end of the song and the next portion of the narrative varies in the ancient witnesses. At Qumran, vs 11 is entirely omitted from 4QSama. The MT refers to Elkanah returning to Ramah, then Samuel serving the Lord “with the face” of Eli. The LXX focuses initially on Hannah. According to Graeme Auld (I & II Samuel [Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011] 40 and 43) the first scribe of Codex B wrote “And she left him there facing Yahweh. And she went to Ramathaim. And the lad was serving in face of Yahweh, facing Eli the priest.” The Lucianic Greek text differs as to the beginning, “And they left him before Yahweh there, and did homage to Yahweh, and departed for Ramah for their home.” Thus the MT and the early Greek text focus on the different spouses, while the Lucianic tradition blends them together with a plural verb. The omission from Qumran and variation among the other texts suggests that this verse was either damaged in a very early copy or added to smooth out the transition between topics. If the MT is accepted, the principal question remaining is where to divide the paragraphs. Does Samuel’s service to the Lord function primarily as contrast to his parent’s return trip or as contrast to Eli’s dishonorable sons? The syntactic structure for both options is the same, vav plus noun first, and therefore not decisive. That the next section starts at 2:18 with nearly identical phrasing argues to begin a paragraph here with the statement about Samuel.
- 1 Samuel 2:12 tn Heb “sons of worthlessness.”
- 1 Samuel 2:12 tn Heb “they did not know the Lord.” The verb here has the semantic nuance “acknowledge [the authority of].” Eli’s sons obviously knew who the Lord was; they served in his sanctuary. But they did not acknowledge his moral authority.
- 1 Samuel 2:13 tc The LXX reads “As to the right of the priests from the people, [from] anyone sacrificing.”
- 1 Samuel 2:13 sn The Hebrew word occurs only twice in the OT, here and again in v. 14. Its exact meaning is not entirely clear, although from the context it appears to be a sacrificial tool used for retrieving things from boiling water.
- 1 Samuel 2:14 tn Heb “everyone of Israel.”
- 1 Samuel 2:14 tc The LXX reads “who came to sacrifice at Shiloh.”
- 1 Samuel 2:15 tc LXX “I.”
- 1 Samuel 2:15 tn Heb “living.”
- 1 Samuel 2:16 tn The Hebrew has a preterite verb, normally “and then he said.” In this case it gives the next event in a sequence that is modal and describes something typical in past time. Most English translations add “if” because this is a possible and common scenario rather than a specific incident only.
- 1 Samuel 2:16 tc The construction is a Piel infinitive absolute followed by a Hiphil imperfect, the only case of such syntax. Normally the infinitive absolute agrees with the verbal stem of the main verb, or sometimes is Qal when the main verb is not. The LXX renders in the passive voice, “the fat should be burned,” probably interpreting the consonants of these verbs as Pual forms.
- 1 Samuel 2:16 tc The LXX adds “from any.”
- 1 Samuel 2:16 tn Heb “whatever your soul desires.”
- 1 Samuel 2:16 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss (“no”) rather than the MT’s Kethib, which reads “to him.”
- 1 Samuel 2:16 tc The Qumran text, 4QSama, reads “you must give and I will take by force.” 4QSama continues with a text similar to vss 13-14, in which the priest’s servant describes stabbing the trident into the pot to take whatever would come up. Either this repetition was original and the MT and LXX eliminated the redundancy, or the tradition behind the Qumran scroll may have read these elements in a different order than the MT and LXX and then added the material to the earlier location (matching the MT and LXX) resulting in the repetition. See Graeme Auld, I & II Samuel (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011) 44-45.
- 1 Samuel 2:17 tn The term נַעַר (naʿar), here translated “young men,” often refers to a servant or apprentice in line for a position of authority. The same term describes Samuel in vs 11 and 18. The repetition helps establish the contrast between Samuel and Eli’s sons.
- 1 Samuel 2:17 tc Heb “the men,” which is absent from one medieval Hebrew ms, a Qumran ms, and the LXX.
- 1 Samuel 2:18 tn The word “now” does not appear in the Hebrew but was added as part of beginning a new topic in a new paragraph. Verse 11b begins similarly.
- 1 Samuel 2:18 tn Heb “with [or “before”] the face of.” Cf. 1 Sam 2:11 and 1 Kgs 13:6 where the face represents favor.
- 1 Samuel 2:18 tn The term נַעַר (naʿar), here translated “boy,” often refers to a servant or apprentice in line for a position of authority. The same term describes Samuel in vs 11 and Eli’s sons in vs 17. The repetition helps establish the contrast between Samuel and Eli’s sons.
- 1 Samuel 2:20 tn The Hebrew verb שִׂים (sim) means “to position, to set down, to set up, to install.”
- 1 Samuel 2:20 tn Heb “seed.”
- 1 Samuel 2:20 tc The MT reads “in place of the request which he asked of the Lord.” The LXX reads “in place of the loan which you lent to the Lord.” At Qumran 4QSama has the Hiphil form of שָׁאַל (shaʾal), “which she loaned (or entrusted) to the Lord” (cf. 1:28). The masculine verb in the MT is odd, since the context expects Hannah to be the subject. A masculine form would need to be read impersonally or repointed as a passive. The translation most closely follows 4QSama and understands the “request” to be Samuel, the requested one. A longer English translation would be “in place of the one which was requested which she dedicated to the Lord.”
- 1 Samuel 2:20 tc LXX “the man.”
- 1 Samuel 2:20 tn Heb “his.”
- 1 Samuel 2:21 tn The core component of Hebrew verb פָּקַד (paqad) is “to take note of.” But it also carries the implication of acting accordingly with what is noted. When the syntax combines the Qal of פָּקַד (paqad) plus a direct object which is a person, plus contextually stated benefits, the verb regularly describes assisting or providing for someone (Brian Webster, The Cambridge Introduction to Biblical Hebrew [New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009] 230). The same verb is used to describe enabling Sara to have Isaac in Gen 21:1.
- 1 Samuel 2:21 tn Presumably in successive pregnancies, not as quintuplets.
- 1 Samuel 2:21 tn The term נַעַר (naʿar), here translated “boy,” often refers to a servant or apprentice in line for a position of authority. tc At Qumran 4QSama omits “the boy” and reads “he grew up there.” The Hebrew word “there” (שָׁם; sham) consists of the first two letters of Samuel’s name.
- 1 Samuel 2:21 tc The MT reads “with the Lord.” The LXX and 4QSama read “before the Lord.” The Hebrew phrasing “with (עִם; ʾim) the Lord” or “with God” is uncommon and varies in significance. The preposition indicates generally that the action in the verb is done in association with the preposition’s object. From context we understand that Samuel’s religious duties are specially in the Lord’s presence, hence the NAB and TEV “in the service of the Lord”; or the CEV “at the Lord’s house in Shiloh.” The NIV, NRSV, and NLT follow the LXX “in the presence of the Lord.”
- 1 Samuel 2:22 tn Heb “to all Israel.”
- 1 Samuel 2:22 tc The latter half of the verse is absent in the LXX. It also appears to be absent from 4QSama, as judged by the lack of adequate space between the remaining text.
- 1 Samuel 2:22 tn Heb “lie down with,” a euphemism for sexual relations.
- 1 Samuel 2:23 tn The MT reads, “Why do you act according to these things which I am hearing—evil things—from all these people?”tc The LXX ends “from all the people of the Lord” (κυρίου, kuriou). Perhaps the final phrase of v. 24 (“the people of the Lord”) influenced the LXX. Somewhat less likely is the view that the MT reading is due to a distorted dittography of the first word of v. 24. The Vulgate lacks the word.
- 1 Samuel 2:24 tn The verb is a Hiphil participle from עָבַר (ʿabar). The Concise Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (p. 309) understands it to mean “spread[ing] about” in this context. The term can also mean “causing to transgress.”tc The LXX reads “the report…is not good, so that the people do not serve God.”
- 1 Samuel 2:25 tc MT “God may arbitrate [for] him.” LXX “they shall pray for him to the Lord.” Auld suggests that אֶל יהוה (ʾel YHWH; “to the Lord”), attested in 4QSama, may have been corrupted into אֱלֹהִים (ʾelohim; “God”) (Graeme Auld, I & II Samuel [Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011] 46).
- 1 Samuel 2:25 tn Heb “they”; the referent (Eli’s sons) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Samuel 2:25 tn Heb “the voice of their father.”
- 1 Samuel 2:25 tn Or “Indeed.”
- 1 Samuel 2:25 tn Heb “desired” or “had become willing to.”
- 1 Samuel 2:26 tn The term נַעַר (naʿar), here translated “boy,” often refers to a servant or apprentice in line for a position of authority. A decade or more has probably passed since Hannah brought him to Eli.
- 1 Samuel 2:26 sn This is a parenthetic remark in which Samuel is again contrasted with Hophni and Phinehas (cf. 2:11b-12; 2:17-18).
- 1 Samuel 2:27 tn Or “certainly.” The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb to emphasize its modality, here the indicative mode.
- 1 Samuel 2:27 tc The MT poses as a question “Did I actually reveal myself…?” The LXX records as a statement “I revealed myself…” The syntax of the Hebrew can either ask for information that is not known or be used as a rhetorical question which expects the answer “no.” In this context the expected answer would be “yes.” One approach is to leave the question as in the Hebrew, probably expecting the reader to still think the answer should be “yes,” even though it is the not the syntax for it (ESV, KJV). Another is to add a missing negative “did I not reveal myself…” so that the question expects the answer “yes” (NIV, NAS, NKJV). More likely the interrogative הֲ (ha) is a case of dittography, as the previous word ends with the same letter ה (he) (NRSV, NLT).
- 1 Samuel 2:27 tc Reading with 4QSama and the LXX “when they were in the land of Egypt, slaves to the house of Pharaoh.” The MT omits “slaves,” probably lost due to homoioteleuton.
- 1 Samuel 2:28 tn Heb “even choosing.” The finite verb shortens the sentence for better English style.
- 1 Samuel 2:28 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Eli’s ancestor, i.e., Aaron) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Samuel 2:28 tn The verb נָשָׁא (nasaʾ) normally means “to carry” or “to bear” and refers to an ephod three times. The issue is whether the context here views the ephod more as a piece of clothing or as a cultic object. Exodus 28:4 classifies the ephod as a garment, which is made of linen (Exod 39:2). But a different verb is used in 1 Sam 2:18 and elsewhere to describe wearing an ephod. The ephod also includes stones with cultic significance as a memorial (Exod 28:12; 39:7). An ephod is associated with or appears as a cultic object (Judg 8:27 and possibly 17:5 and 18:14-20) and can be “in the hand” (1 Sam 23:6) or brought as an object (1 Sam 30:7). David uses an ephod, brought by Abiathar the priest, to consult the Lord’s will (1 Sam 23:9-10; 30:7-8). In keeping with the other infinitives in this verse that refer to priestly activities and functions, the translation “bear the ephod” reflects carrying the ephod which was used for divine consultation.
- 1 Samuel 2:29 tc The MT has a plural “you” here, but the LXX and a Qumran ms have the singular. The singular may be the correct reading; the verb “you have honored” later in the verse is singular even in the MT. However, it is more probable that the Lord here refers to Eli and his sons. Note the plural in the second half of the verse (“you have made yourselves fat”).
- 1 Samuel 2:29 tn Heb “which I commanded, dwelling place.” The noun is functioning as an adverbial accusative in relation to the verb. Since God’s dwelling place/sanctuary is in view, the pronoun “my” is supplied in the translation.tc The LXX reads “Why did you look at my incense and my sacrifice with a shameless eye?” The LXX may have read the first verb as being from the root נָבַט (nabat) “to look at” rather than the rare בָּעַט (baʿat) “to kick.” And the final consonants of מָעוֹן (maʿon) are easily confused with עַיִן (ʿayin). But the rest of the variation appears inexplicable as a copying error from either direction.
- 1 Samuel 2:30 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.
- 1 Samuel 2:30 tn Heb “walk about before.”
- 1 Samuel 2:30 tn Heb “may it be far removed from me.”
- 1 Samuel 2:31 tn Heb “chop off your arm.” The arm here symbolizes strength and activity.
- 1 Samuel 2:31 tn Heb “arm.”
- 1 Samuel 2:32 tn Heb “you will see [the] trouble of [the] dwelling place.” Since God’s dwelling place/sanctuary is in view, the pronoun is supplied in the translation (see v. 29).
- 1 Samuel 2:32 tn Heb “in all which he does good with Israel.”
- 1 Samuel 2:32 tc The LXX and a Qumran manuscript have the first person pronoun “my” here.
- 1 Samuel 2:32 tn Heb “all the days.”
- 1 Samuel 2:33 tc The MT reads “your eyes.” The LXX, a Qumran ms, and a few old Latin mss read “his eyes.”
- 1 Samuel 2:33 tn Heb “to cause your eyes to fail.” Elsewhere this verb, when used of eyes, refers to bloodshot eyes resulting from weeping, prolonged staring, or illness (see Lev 26:16; Pss 69:3; 119:82; Lam 2:11; 4:17).
- 1 Samuel 2:33 tn The MT reads “and to cause your soul grief.” The LXX, a Qumran ms, and a few old Latin mss read “his soul.”
- 1 Samuel 2:33 tn Heb “and all the increase of your house.”
- 1 Samuel 2:33 tc The MT says “all the increase of your house will die men.” The LXX and a Qumran ms, read “all…will die by the sword of men.” This reading (cf. ESV, NAB, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT) makes sense syntactically. Some translations take “men” adverbially, “die as men,” and then understand it to mean something like “all…will die in the prime of life” (cf. NASB, NIV, KJV). However, the proposed syntax is very odd and such an adverbial function for “men” is otherwise unattested.
- 1 Samuel 2:34 tn Heb “and this to you [is] the sign which will come to both of your sons.”
- 1 Samuel 2:35 tn Heb “house.”
- 1 Samuel 2:35 tn Heb “and he will walk about before my anointed one all the days.”
- 1 Samuel 2:36 tn Heb “a piece of silver” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).