1 Kings 11-12
New English Translation
The Lord Punishes Solomon for Idolatry
11 King Solomon fell in love with many foreign women (besides Pharaoh’s daughter), including Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians, and Hittites. 2 They came from nations about which the Lord had warned the Israelites, “You must not establish friendly relations with them![a] If you do, they will surely shift your allegiance to their gods.”[b] But Solomon was irresistibly attracted to them.[c]
3 He had 700 royal wives[d] and 300 concubines;[e] his wives had a powerful influence over him.[f] 4 When Solomon became old, his wives shifted his allegiance to[g] other gods; he was not wholeheartedly devoted to the Lord his God, as his father David had been.[h] 5 Solomon worshiped[i] the Sidonian goddess Astarte and the detestable Ammonite god Milcom.[j] 6 Solomon did evil in the Lord’s sight;[k] he did not remain loyal to[l] the Lord, as his father David had. 7 Furthermore,[m] on the hill east of Jerusalem[n] Solomon built a high place[o] for the detestable Moabite god Chemosh[p] and for the detestable Ammonite god Milcom.[q] 8 He built high places for all his foreign wives so they could burn incense and make sacrifices to their gods.[r]
9 The Lord was angry with Solomon because he had shifted his allegiance[s] away from the Lord, the God of Israel, who had appeared to him on two occasions[t] 10 and had warned him about this very thing, so that he would not follow other gods.[u] But he did not obey[v] the Lord’s command. 11 So the Lord said to Solomon, “Because you insist on doing these things and have not kept the covenantal rules I gave you,[w] I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant. 12 However, for your father David’s sake I will not do this while you are alive. I will tear it away from your son’s hand instead. 13 But I will not tear away the entire kingdom; I will leave[x] your son one tribe for my servant David’s sake and for the sake of my chosen city Jerusalem.”
14 The Lord brought[y] against Solomon an enemy, Hadad the Edomite, a descendant of the Edomite king. 15 During David’s campaign against Edom,[z] Joab, the commander of the army, while on a mission to bury the dead, killed every male in Edom. 16 For Joab and the entire Israelite army[aa] stayed there six months until they had exterminated every male in Edom.[ab] 17 Hadad,[ac] who was only a small boy at the time, escaped with some of his father’s Edomite servants and headed for Egypt.[ad] 18 They went from Midian to Paran; they took some men from Paran and went to Egypt. Pharaoh, king of Egypt, gave him a house and some land and supplied him with food.[ae] 19 Pharaoh liked Hadad so well[af] he gave him his sister-in-law (Queen Tahpenes’ sister) as a wife.[ag] 20 Tahpenes’ sister gave birth to his son,[ah] named Genubath. Tahpenes raised[ai] him in Pharaoh’s palace; Genubath grew up in Pharaoh’s palace among Pharaoh’s sons. 21 While in Egypt Hadad heard that David had passed away[aj] and that Joab, the commander of the army, was dead. So Hadad asked Pharaoh, “Give me permission to leave[ak] so I can return to my homeland.” 22 Pharaoh said to him, “What do you lack here that makes you want to go to your homeland?”[al] Hadad replied,[am] “Nothing, but please give me permission to leave.”[an]
23 God also brought against Solomon[ao] another enemy, Rezon son of Eliada who had run away from his master, King Hadadezer of Zobah. 24 He gathered some men and organized a raiding band.[ap] When David tried to kill them,[aq] they went to Damascus, where they settled down and gained control of the city. 25 He was Israel’s enemy throughout Solomon’s reign and, like Hadad, caused trouble. He loathed[ar] Israel and ruled over Syria.
26 Jeroboam son of Nebat, one of Solomon’s servants, rebelled against[as] the king. He was an Ephraimite[at] from Zeredah whose mother was a widow named Zeruah. 27 This is what prompted him to rebel against the king:[au] Solomon built a terrace, and he closed up a gap in the wall of the city of his father David.[av] 28 Jeroboam was a talented man;[aw] when Solomon saw that the young man was an accomplished worker, he made him the leader of the work crew from the tribe[ax] of Joseph. 29 At that time, when Jeroboam had left Jerusalem, the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite met him on the road; the two of them were alone in the open country. Ahijah[ay] was wearing a brand new robe, 30 and he grabbed the robe[az] and tore it into twelve pieces. 31 Then he told Jeroboam, “Take ten pieces, for this is what the Lord God of Israel has said: ‘Look, I am about to tear the kingdom from Solomon’s hand and I will give ten tribes to you. 32 He will retain one tribe, for my servant David’s sake and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel. 33 I am taking the kingdom from him[ba] because they have[bb] abandoned me and worshiped the Sidonian goddess Astarte, the Moabite god Chemosh, and the Ammonite god Milcom. They have not followed my instructions[bc] by doing what I approve and obeying my rules and regulations, as Solomon’s father David did.[bd] 34 I will not take the whole kingdom from his hand. I will allow him to be ruler for the rest of his life for the sake of my chosen servant David who kept my commandments and rules. 35 I will take the kingdom from the hand of his son and give ten tribes to you.[be] 36 I will leave[bf] his son one tribe so my servant David’s dynasty may continue to serve me[bg] in Jerusalem, the city I have chosen as my home.[bh] 37 I will select[bi] you; you will rule over all you desire to have and you will be king over Israel. 38 You must obey[bj] all I command you to do, follow my instructions,[bk] do what I approve,[bl] and keep my rules and commandments, as my servant David did. Then I will be with you and establish for you a lasting dynasty, as I did for David;[bm] I will give you Israel. 39 I will humiliate David’s descendants because of this,[bn] but not forever.’”[bo] 40 Solomon tried to kill Jeroboam, but Jeroboam escaped to Egypt and found refuge with King Shishak of Egypt.[bp] He stayed in Egypt until Solomon died.
Solomon’s Reign Ends
41 The rest of the events of Solomon’s reign, including all his accomplishments and his wise decisions, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of Solomon.[bq] 42 Solomon ruled over all Israel from Jerusalem for forty years. 43 Then Solomon passed away[br] and was buried in the city of his father David.[bs] His son Rehoboam replaced him as king.[bt]
Rehoboam Loses His Kingdom
12 Rehoboam traveled to Shechem, for all Israel had gathered in[bu] Shechem to make Rehoboam[bv] king. 2 [bw] When Jeroboam son of Nebat heard the news, he was still in Egypt, where he had fled from King Solomon and had been living ever since.[bx] 3 They sent for him,[by] and Jeroboam and the whole Israelite assembly came and spoke to Rehoboam, saying, 4 “Your father made us work too hard.[bz] Now if you lighten the demands he made and don’t make us work as hard, we will serve you.”[ca] 5 He said to them, “Go away for three days, then return to me.” So the people went away.
6 King Rehoboam consulted with the older advisers who had served[cb] his father Solomon when he had been alive. He asked them,[cc] “How do you advise me to answer these people?” 7 They said to him, “Today if you will be a servant to these people and grant their request,[cd] speaking kind words to them,[ce] they will be your servants from this time forward.”[cf] 8 But Rehoboam rejected their advice and consulted the young advisers who served him, with whom he had grown up.[cg] 9 He asked them, “How do you advise me[ch] to respond to these people who said to me, ‘Lessen the demands your father placed on us’?”[ci] 10 The young advisers with whom Rehoboam[cj] had grown up said to him, “Say this to these people who have said to you, ‘Your father made us work hard, but now lighten our burden.’[ck] Say this to them: ‘I am a lot harsher than my father![cl] 11 My father imposed heavy demands on you; I will make them even heavier.[cm] My father punished you with ordinary whips; I will punish you with whips that really sting your flesh.’”[cn]
12 Jeroboam and all the people reported[co] to Rehoboam on the third day, just as the king had ordered when he said, “Return to me on the third day.” 13 The king responded to the people harshly. He rejected the advice of the older men 14 and followed[cp] the advice of the younger ones. He said, “My father imposed heavy demands on you; I will make them even heavier.[cq] My father punished you with ordinary whips; I will punish you with whips that really sting your flesh.”[cr] 15 The king refused to listen to the people, because the Lord was instigating this turn of events[cs] so that he might bring to pass the prophetic announcement he had made[ct] through Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam son of Nebat.
16 When all Israel saw that the king refused to listen to them, the people answered the king, “We have no portion in David, no share in the son of Jesse![cu] Return to your homes, O Israel![cv] Now, look after your own dynasty, O David!”[cw] So Israel returned to their homes.[cx] 17 (Rehoboam continued to rule over the Israelites who lived in the cities of Judah.) 18 King Rehoboam sent Adoniram,[cy] the supervisor of the work crews,[cz] out after them, but all Israel stoned him to death. King Rehoboam managed to jump into his chariot and escape to Jerusalem. 19 So Israel has been in rebellion against the Davidic dynasty to this very day. 20 When all Israel heard that Jeroboam had returned, they summoned him to the assembly and made him king over all Israel. No one except the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the Davidic dynasty.[da]
21 When Rehoboam arrived in Jerusalem, he summoned 180,000 skilled warriors from all Judah and the tribe of Benjamin[db] to attack Israel and restore the kingdom to Rehoboam son of Solomon. 22 But God told Shemaiah the prophet,[dc] 23 “Say this to King Rehoboam son of Solomon of Judah, and to all Judah and Benjamin, as well as the rest of the people, 24 ‘This is what the Lord has said: “Do not attack and make war with your brothers, the Israelites. Each of you go home. Indeed this thing has happened because of me.”’” So they obeyed the Lord’s message. They went home in keeping with the Lord’s message.
Jeroboam Makes Golden Calves
25 [dd] Jeroboam built up Shechem in the Ephraimite hill country and lived there. From there he went out and built up Penuel. 26 Jeroboam then thought to himself:[de] “Now the Davidic dynasty could regain the kingdom.[df] 27 If these people go up to offer sacrifices in the Lord’s temple in Jerusalem, their loyalty could shift to their former master,[dg] King Rehoboam of Judah. They might kill me and return to King Rehoboam of Judah.” 28 After the king had consulted with his advisers,[dh] he made two golden calves. Then he said to the people,[di] “It is too much trouble for you to go up to Jerusalem. Look, Israel, here are your gods who brought you up from the land of Egypt.” 29 He put one in Bethel and the other in Dan. 30 This caused Israel to sin;[dj] the people went to Bethel and Dan to worship the calves.[dk]
31 He built temples[dl] on the high places and appointed as priests common people who were not Levites. 32 Jeroboam inaugurated a festival on the fifteenth day of the eighth month,[dm] like the festival celebrated in Judah.[dn] On the altar in Bethel he offered sacrifices to the calves he had made.[do] In Bethel he also appointed priests for the high places he had made.
A Prophet from Judah Visits Bethel
33 On the fifteenth day of the eighth month (a date he had arbitrarily chosen)[dp] Jeroboam[dq] offered sacrifices on the altar he had made in Bethel. He inaugurated a festival for the Israelites and went up to the altar to offer sacrifices.
- 1 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “you must not go into them, and they must not go into you.”
- 1 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “Surely they will bend your heart after their gods.” The words “if you do” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- 1 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “Solomon clung to them for love.” The pronominal suffix, translated “them,” is masculine here, even though it appears the foreign women are in view. Perhaps this is due to attraction to the masculine forms used of the nations earlier in the verse.
- 1 Kings 11:3 tn Heb “wives, princesses.”
- 1 Kings 11:3 sn Concubines were slave women in ancient Near Eastern societies who were the legal property of their master, but who could have legitimate sexual relations with their master. A concubine’s status was more elevated than a mere servant, but she was not free and did not have the legal rights of a free wife. The children of a concubine could, in some instances, become equal heirs with the children of the free wife. The usage in the present passage suggests that after the period of the Judges concubines may have become more of a royal prerogative (cf. also 2 Sam 21:10-14).
- 1 Kings 11:3 tn Heb “his wives bent his heart.”
- 1 Kings 11:4 tn Heb “bent his heart after.”
- 1 Kings 11:4 tn Heb “his heart was not complete with the Lord his God, like the heart of David his father.”
- 1 Kings 11:5 tn Heb “walked after.”
- 1 Kings 11:5 tn Heb “Milcom, the detestable thing of the Ammonites.”
- 1 Kings 11:6 tn Heb “in the eyes of the Lord.”
- 1 Kings 11:6 tn The idiomatic statement reads in Hebrew, “he did not fill up after.”
- 1 Kings 11:7 tn Heb “then.”
- 1 Kings 11:7 sn The hill east of Jerusalem refers to the Mount of Olives.
- 1 Kings 11:7 sn A high place. The “high places” were places of worship that were naturally or artificially elevated (see 1 Kgs 3:2).
- 1 Kings 11:7 tn Heb “Chemosh, the detestable thing of Moab.”
- 1 Kings 11:7 tc The MT reads “Molech,” but Milcom must be intended (see vv. 5, 33).
- 1 Kings 11:8 tn Heb “and the same thing he did for all his foreign wives, [who] were burning incense and sacrificing to their gods.”
- 1 Kings 11:9 tn Heb “bent his heart.”
- 1 Kings 11:9 sn These two occasions are mentioned in 1 Kgs 3:5 and 9:2.
- 1 Kings 11:10 tn Heb “and had commanded him concerning this thing not to walk after other gods.”
- 1 Kings 11:10 tn Or “keep.”
- 1 Kings 11:11 tn Heb “Because this is with you, and you have not kept my covenant and my rules which I commanded you.”
- 1 Kings 11:13 tn Heb “give.”
- 1 Kings 11:14 tn Or “raised up.”
- 1 Kings 11:15 tn Heb “when David was [fighting (?)] with Edom.”
- 1 Kings 11:16 tn Heb “and all Israel.”
- 1 Kings 11:16 tn Heb “until he had cut off every male in Edom.”
- 1 Kings 11:17 tn The MT reads “Adad,” an alternate form of the name Hadad.
- 1 Kings 11:17 tn Heb “and Adad fled, he and Edomite men from the servants of his father, to go to Egypt, and Hadad was a small boy.”
- 1 Kings 11:18 tn Heb “and they arose from Midian and went to Paran and they took men with them from Paran and went to Egypt to Pharaoh king of Egypt and he gave to him a house and food he said to him, and a land he gave to him.”
- 1 Kings 11:19 tn Heb “and Hadad found great favor in the eyes of Pharaoh.”
- 1 Kings 11:19 tn Heb “and he gave to him a wife, the sister of his wife, the sister of Tahpenes the queen.”
- 1 Kings 11:20 tn Heb “bore him Genubath his son.”
- 1 Kings 11:20 tc The Hebrew text reads וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ (vattigmelehu, “weaned him”) but a slight alteration of the consonantal text yields וַתִּגְדְלֵהוּ (vattigdelehu, “raised him”), which seems to make better sense.
- 1 Kings 11:21 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
- 1 Kings 11:21 tn Heb “send me away.”
- 1 Kings 11:22 tn Heb “Indeed what do you lack with me, that now you are seeking to go to your land?”
- 1 Kings 11:22 tn Heb “and he said.”
- 1 Kings 11:22 sn So Hadad asked Pharaoh…. This lengthy description of Hadad’s exile in Egypt explains why Hadad wanted to oppose Solomon and supports the author’s thesis that his hostility to Solomon found its ultimate source in divine providence. Though Hadad enjoyed a comfortable life in Egypt, when the Lord raised him up (apparently stirring up his desire for vengeance) he decided to leave the comforts of Egypt and return to Edom.
- 1 Kings 11:23 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Solomon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 11:24 tn Heb “and he was the officer of a raiding band.”
- 1 Kings 11:24 tn The Hebrew text reads “when David killed them.” This phrase is traditionally joined with what precedes. The ancient Greek version does not reflect the phrase and some suggest that it has been misplaced from the end of v. 23.
- 1 Kings 11:25 tn The construction (Qal of קוּץ + בְּ [quts + bet] preposition) is rare, but not without parallel (see Lev 20:23).
- 1 Kings 11:26 tn Heb “raised a hand against.”
- 1 Kings 11:26 tn Heb “Ephrathite,” which here refers to an Ephraimite (see HALOT 81 s.v. אֶפְרַיִם).
- 1 Kings 11:27 tn Heb “this is the matter concerning which he raised a hand against the king.”
- 1 Kings 11:27 sn The city of his father David. The phrase refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7.
- 1 Kings 11:28 tn Heb “man of strength.”
- 1 Kings 11:28 tn Heb “house.”
- 1 Kings 11:29 tn The Hebrew text has simply “he,” making it a bit unclear whether Jeroboam or Ahijah is the subject, but in the Hebrew word order Ahijah is the nearer antecedent, and this is followed by the present translation.
- 1 Kings 11:30 tn Heb “and Ahijah grabbed the new robe that was on him.”
- 1 Kings 11:33 tn The words “I am taking the kingdom from him” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- 1 Kings 11:33 tc This is the reading of the MT; the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate read “he has.”
- 1 Kings 11:33 tn Heb “walked in my ways.”
- 1 Kings 11:33 tn Heb “by doing what is right in my eyes, my rules and my regulations, like David his father.”
- 1 Kings 11:35 tn Heb “and I will give it to you, ten tribes.”
- 1 Kings 11:36 tn Heb “give.”
- 1 Kings 11:36 tn Heb “so there might be a lamp for David my servant all the days before me in Jerusalem.” The metaphorical “lamp” symbolizes the Davidic dynasty. Because this imagery is unfamiliar to the modern reader, the translation “so my servant David’s dynasty may continue to serve me” has been used.
- 1 Kings 11:36 tn Heb “so there might be a lamp for David my servant all the days before me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen for myself to put my name there.”
- 1 Kings 11:37 tn Heb “take.”
- 1 Kings 11:38 tn Heb “If you obey.” In the Hebrew text v. 38 is actually one long conditional sentence, which has been broken into two parts in the translation for stylistic purposes.
- 1 Kings 11:38 tn Heb “walk in my ways.”
- 1 Kings 11:38 tn Heb “do what is right in my eyes.”
- 1 Kings 11:38 tn Heb “I will build for you a permanent house, like I built for David.”
- 1 Kings 11:39 sn Because of this. Reference is made to the idolatry mentioned earlier.
- 1 Kings 11:39 tn Heb “but not all the days.”
- 1 Kings 11:40 tn Heb “but Jeroboam arose and ran away to Egypt, to Shishak king of Egypt.”
- 1 Kings 11:41 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Solomon, and all which he did, and his wisdom, are they not written on the scroll of the events of Solomon?”
- 1 Kings 11:43 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
- 1 Kings 11:43 sn The city of his father David. The phrase refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7.
- 1 Kings 11:43 tc Before this sentence the Old Greek translation includes the following words: “And it so happened that when Jeroboam son of Nebat heard—now he was in Egypt where he had fled from before Solomon and was residing in Egypt—he came straight to his city in the land of Sarira which is on mount Ephraim. And king Solomon slept with his fathers.”
- 1 Kings 12:1 tn Heb “come [to].”
- 1 Kings 12:1 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Rehoboam) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 12:2 tc Verse 2 is not included in the Old Greek translation. See the note on 11:43.
- 1 Kings 12:2 tn Heb “and Jeroboam lived in Egypt.” The parallel text in 2 Chr 10:2 reads, “and Jeroboam returned from Egypt.” In a purely consonantal text the forms “and he lived” and “and he returned” are identical (וישׁב).
- 1 Kings 12:3 tn Heb “They sent and called for him.”
- 1 Kings 12:4 tn Heb “made our yoke burdensome.”
- 1 Kings 12:4 tn Heb “but you, now, lighten the burdensome work of your father and the heavy yoke which he placed on us, and we will serve you.” In the Hebrew text the prefixed verbal form with vav (וְנַעַבְדֶךָ, [venaʿavdekha] “and we will serve you”) following the imperative (הָקֵל [haqel], “lighten”) indicates purpose (or result). The conditional sentence used in the translation above is an attempt to bring out the logical relationship between these forms.
- 1 Kings 12:6 tn Heb “stood before.”
- 1 Kings 12:6 tn Heb “saying.”
- 1 Kings 12:7 tn Heb “and serve them and answer them,” understood as “serve them in how you answer them,” hence “grant their request.”
- 1 Kings 12:7 tn Heb “and speak to them good words.”
- 1 Kings 12:7 tn Heb “all the days.” The Hebrew phrase contrasts what he is asked to do “today” (literally “the day”) with the benefit for “all the days.”
- 1 Kings 12:8 tn Heb “He rejected the advice of the elders which they advised and he consulted the young men with whom he had grown up, who stood before him.” The referent (Rehoboam) of the initial pronoun (“he”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 12:9 tn In the Hebrew text the verb “we will respond” is plural, although it can be understood as an editorial “we.” The ancient versions have the singular here.
- 1 Kings 12:9 tn Heb “Lighten the yoke which your father placed on us.”
- 1 Kings 12:10 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Rehoboam) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 12:10 tn Heb “Your father made our yoke heavy, but make it lighter upon us.”
- 1 Kings 12:10 tn Heb “My little one is thicker than my father’s hips.” The referent of “my little one” is not clear. The traditional view is that it refers to the little finger. As the following statement makes clear, Rehoboam’s point is that he is more harsh and demanding than his father.
- 1 Kings 12:11 tn Heb “and now my father placed upon you a heavy yoke, but I will add to your yoke.”
- 1 Kings 12:11 tn Heb “My father punished you with whips, but I will punish you with scorpions.” “Scorpions” might allude to some type of torture using poisonous insects, but more likely it refers to a type of whip that inflicts an especially biting, painful wound. Cf. CEV “whips with pieces of sharp metal.”
- 1 Kings 12:12 tn Heb “came.”
- 1 Kings 12:14 tn Heb “and spoke to them according to.”
- 1 Kings 12:14 tn Heb “My father made your yoke heavy, but I will add to your yoke.”
- 1 Kings 12:14 tn Heb “My father punished you with whips, but I will punish you with scorpions.” See the note on the same phrase in v. 11.
- 1 Kings 12:15 tn Heb “because this turn of events was from the Lord.”
- 1 Kings 12:15 tn Heb “so that he might bring to pass his word which the Lord spoke.”
- 1 Kings 12:16 sn We have no portion in David; no share in the son of Jesse. Their point seems to be that they have no familial relationship with David that brings them any benefits or places upon them any obligations. They are being treated like outsiders.
- 1 Kings 12:16 tn Heb “to your tents, Israel.” The word “return” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- 1 Kings 12:16 tn Heb “Now see your house, David.”
- 1 Kings 12:16 tn Heb “went to their tents.”
- 1 Kings 12:18 tc The MT has “Adoram” here, but the Old Greek translation and Syriac Peshitta have “Adoniram.” Cf. 1 Kgs 4:6.
- 1 Kings 12:18 sn The work crews. See the note on this expression in 4:6.
- 1 Kings 12:20 tn Heb “there was no one [following] after the house of David except the tribe of Judah, it alone.”
- 1 Kings 12:21 tn Heb “he summoned all the house of Judah and the tribe of Benjamin, 180,000 chosen men, accomplished in war.”
- 1 Kings 12:22 tn Heb “and the word of God came to Shemaiah the man of God, saying.”
- 1 Kings 12:25 tc The Old Greek translation has here a lengthy section consisting of twenty-three verses that are not found in the MT.
- 1 Kings 12:26 tn Heb “said in his heart.”
- 1 Kings 12:26 tn Heb “Now the kingdom could return to the house of David.” The imperfect verbal form translated “could return” is understood as having a potential force here. Perhaps this is not strong enough; another option is “will return.”
- 1 Kings 12:27 tn Heb “the heart of these people could return to their master.”
- 1 Kings 12:28 tn The words “with his advisers” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- 1 Kings 12:28 tn Heb “to them.”
- 1 Kings 12:30 tn Heb “and this thing became a sin.”
- 1 Kings 12:30 tc The MT reads “and the people went before the one to Dan.” It is likely that some words have been accidentally omitted and that the text originally said, “and the people went before the one at Bethel and before the one at Dan.”
- 1 Kings 12:31 tn The Hebrew text has the singular, but the plural is preferable here (see 1 Kgs 13:32). The Old Greek translation and the Vulgate have the plural.
- 1 Kings 12:32 sn The eighth month would correspond to October-November in modern reckoning.
- 1 Kings 12:32 sn The festival celebrated in Judah probably refers to the Feast of Tabernacles (i.e., Booths or Temporary Shelters), held in the seventh month (September-October). See also 1 Kgs 8:2.
- 1 Kings 12:32 tn Heb “and he offered up [sacrifices] on the altar; he did this in Bethel, sacrificing to the calves which he had made.”
- 1 Kings 12:33 tn Heb “which he had chosen by himself.”
- 1 Kings 12:33 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jeroboam) has been specified in the translation for clarity.