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1 Kings 11 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Lord Punishes Solomon for Idolatry

11 King Solomon fell in love with many foreign women (besides Pharaoh’s daughter), including Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians, and Hittites. They came from nations about which the Lord had warned the Israelites, “You must not establish friendly relations with them![a] If you do, they will surely shift your allegiance to their gods.”[b] But Solomon was irresistibly attracted to them.[c]

He had 700 royal wives[d] and 300 concubines;[e] his wives had a powerful influence over him.[f] When Solomon became old, his wives shifted his allegiance to[g] other gods; he was not wholeheartedly devoted to the Lord his God, as his father David had been.[h] Solomon worshiped[i] the Sidonian goddess Astarte and the detestable Ammonite god Milcom.[j] Solomon did evil in the Lord’s sight;[k] he did not remain loyal to[l] the Lord, as his father David had. Furthermore,[m] on the hill east of Jerusalem[n] Solomon built a high place[o] for the detestable Moabite god Chemosh[p] and for the detestable Ammonite god Milcom.[q] He built high places for all his foreign wives so they could burn incense and make sacrifices to their gods.[r]

The Lord was angry with Solomon because he had shifted his allegiance[s] away from the Lord, the God of Israel, who had appeared to him on two occasions[t] 10 and had warned him about this very thing, so that he would not follow other gods.[u] But he did not obey[v] the Lord’s command. 11 So the Lord said to Solomon, “Because you insist on doing these things and have not kept the covenantal rules I gave you,[w] I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant. 12 However, for your father David’s sake I will not do this while you are alive. I will tear it away from your son’s hand instead. 13 But I will not tear away the entire kingdom; I will leave[x] your son one tribe for my servant David’s sake and for the sake of my chosen city Jerusalem.”

14 The Lord brought[y] against Solomon an enemy, Hadad the Edomite, a descendant of the Edomite king. 15 During David’s campaign against Edom,[z] Joab, the commander of the army, while on a mission to bury the dead, killed every male in Edom. 16 For Joab and the entire Israelite army[aa] stayed there six months until they had exterminated every male in Edom.[ab] 17 Hadad,[ac] who was only a small boy at the time, escaped with some of his father’s Edomite servants and headed for Egypt.[ad] 18 They went from Midian to Paran; they took some men from Paran and went to Egypt. Pharaoh, king of Egypt, gave him a house and some land and supplied him with food.[ae] 19 Pharaoh liked Hadad so well[af] he gave him his sister-in-law (Queen Tahpenes’ sister) as a wife.[ag] 20 Tahpenes’ sister gave birth to his son,[ah] named Genubath. Tahpenes raised[ai] him in Pharaoh’s palace; Genubath grew up in Pharaoh’s palace among Pharaoh’s sons. 21 While in Egypt Hadad heard that David had passed away[aj] and that Joab, the commander of the army, was dead. So Hadad asked Pharaoh, “Give me permission to leave[ak] so I can return to my homeland.” 22 Pharaoh said to him, “What do you lack here that makes you want to go to your homeland?”[al] Hadad replied,[am] “Nothing, but please give me permission to leave.”[an]

23 God also brought against Solomon[ao] another enemy, Rezon son of Eliada who had run away from his master, King Hadadezer of Zobah. 24 He gathered some men and organized a raiding band.[ap] When David tried to kill them,[aq] they went to Damascus, where they settled down and gained control of the city. 25 He was Israel’s enemy throughout Solomon’s reign and, like Hadad, caused trouble. He loathed[ar] Israel and ruled over Syria.

26 Jeroboam son of Nebat, one of Solomon’s servants, rebelled against[as] the king. He was an Ephraimite[at] from Zeredah whose mother was a widow named Zeruah. 27 This is what prompted him to rebel against the king:[au] Solomon built a terrace, and he closed up a gap in the wall of the city of his father David.[av] 28 Jeroboam was a talented man;[aw] when Solomon saw that the young man was an accomplished worker, he made him the leader of the work crew from the tribe[ax] of Joseph. 29 At that time, when Jeroboam had left Jerusalem, the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite met him on the road; the two of them were alone in the open country. Ahijah[ay] was wearing a brand new robe, 30 and he grabbed the robe[az] and tore it into twelve pieces. 31 Then he told Jeroboam, “Take ten pieces, for this is what the Lord God of Israel has said: ‘Look, I am about to tear the kingdom from Solomon’s hand and I will give ten tribes to you. 32 He will retain one tribe, for my servant David’s sake and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel. 33 I am taking the kingdom from him[ba] because they have[bb] abandoned me and worshiped the Sidonian goddess Astarte, the Moabite god Chemosh, and the Ammonite god Milcom. They have not followed my instructions[bc] by doing what I approve and obeying my rules and regulations, as Solomon’s father David did.[bd] 34 I will not take the whole kingdom from his hand. I will allow him to be ruler for the rest of his life for the sake of my chosen servant David who kept my commandments and rules. 35 I will take the kingdom from the hand of his son and give ten tribes to you.[be] 36 I will leave[bf] his son one tribe so my servant David’s dynasty may continue to serve me[bg] in Jerusalem, the city I have chosen as my home.[bh] 37 I will select[bi] you; you will rule over all you desire to have and you will be king over Israel. 38 You must obey[bj] all I command you to do, follow my instructions,[bk] do what I approve,[bl] and keep my rules and commandments, as my servant David did. Then I will be with you and establish for you a lasting dynasty, as I did for David;[bm] I will give you Israel. 39 I will humiliate David’s descendants because of this,[bn] but not forever.’”[bo] 40 Solomon tried to kill Jeroboam, but Jeroboam escaped to Egypt and found refuge with King Shishak of Egypt.[bp] He stayed in Egypt until Solomon died.

Solomon’s Reign Ends

41 The rest of the events of Solomon’s reign, including all his accomplishments and his wise decisions, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of Solomon.[bq] 42 Solomon ruled over all Israel from Jerusalem for forty years. 43 Then Solomon passed away[br] and was buried in the city of his father David.[bs] His son Rehoboam replaced him as king.[bt]


  1. 1 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “you must not go into them, and they must not go into you.”
  2. 1 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “Surely they will bend your heart after their gods.” The words “if you do” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  3. 1 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “Solomon clung to them for love.” The pronominal suffix, translated “them,” is masculine here, even though it appears the foreign women are in view. Perhaps this is due to attraction to the masculine forms used of the nations earlier in the verse.
  4. 1 Kings 11:3 tn Heb “wives, princesses.”
  5. 1 Kings 11:3 sn Concubines were slave women in ancient Near Eastern societies who were the legal property of their master, but who could have legitimate sexual relations with their master. A concubine’s status was more elevated than a mere servant, but she was not free and did not have the legal rights of a free wife. The children of a concubine could, in some instances, become equal heirs with the children of the free wife. The usage in the present passage suggests that after the period of the Judges concubines may have become more of a royal prerogative (cf. also 2 Sam 21:10-14).
  6. 1 Kings 11:3 tn Heb “his wives bent his heart.”
  7. 1 Kings 11:4 tn Heb “bent his heart after.”
  8. 1 Kings 11:4 tn Heb “his heart was not complete with the Lord his God, like the heart of David his father.”
  9. 1 Kings 11:5 tn Heb “walked after.”
  10. 1 Kings 11:5 tn Heb “Milcom, the detestable thing of the Ammonites.”
  11. 1 Kings 11:6 tn Heb “in the eyes of the Lord.”
  12. 1 Kings 11:6 tn The idiomatic statement reads in Hebrew, “he did not fill up after.”
  13. 1 Kings 11:7 tn Heb “then.”
  14. 1 Kings 11:7 sn The hill east of Jerusalem refers to the Mount of Olives.
  15. 1 Kings 11:7 sn A high place. The “high places” were places of worship that were naturally or artificially elevated (see 1 Kgs 3:2).
  16. 1 Kings 11:7 tn Heb “Chemosh, the detestable thing of Moab.”
  17. 1 Kings 11:7 tc The MT reads “Molech,” but Milcom must be intended (see vv. 5, 33).
  18. 1 Kings 11:8 tn Heb “and the same thing he did for all his foreign wives, [who] were burning incense and sacrificing to their gods.”
  19. 1 Kings 11:9 tn Heb “bent his heart.”
  20. 1 Kings 11:9 sn These two occasions are mentioned in 1 Kgs 3:5 and 9:2.
  21. 1 Kings 11:10 tn Heb “and had commanded him concerning this thing not to walk after other gods.”
  22. 1 Kings 11:10 tn Or “keep.”
  23. 1 Kings 11:11 tn Heb “Because this is with you, and you have not kept my covenant and my rules which I commanded you.”
  24. 1 Kings 11:13 tn Heb “give.”
  25. 1 Kings 11:14 tn Or “raised up.”
  26. 1 Kings 11:15 tn Heb “when David was [fighting (?)] with Edom.”
  27. 1 Kings 11:16 tn Heb “and all Israel.”
  28. 1 Kings 11:16 tn Heb “until he had cut off every male in Edom.”
  29. 1 Kings 11:17 tn The MT reads “Adad,” an alternate form of the name Hadad.
  30. 1 Kings 11:17 tn Heb “and Adad fled, he and Edomite men from the servants of his father, to go to Egypt, and Hadad was a small boy.”
  31. 1 Kings 11:18 tn Heb “and they arose from Midian and went to Paran and they took men with them from Paran and went to Egypt to Pharaoh king of Egypt and he gave to him a house and food he said to him, and a land he gave to him.”
  32. 1 Kings 11:19 tn Heb “and Hadad found great favor in the eyes of Pharaoh.”
  33. 1 Kings 11:19 tn Heb “and he gave to him a wife, the sister of his wife, the sister of Tahpenes the queen.”
  34. 1 Kings 11:20 tn Heb “bore him Genubath his son.”
  35. 1 Kings 11:20 tc The Hebrew text reads וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ (vattigmelehu, “weaned him”) but a slight alteration of the consonantal text yields וַתִּגְדְלֵהוּ (vattigdelehu, “raised him”), which seems to make better sense.
  36. 1 Kings 11:21 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  37. 1 Kings 11:21 tn Heb “send me away.”
  38. 1 Kings 11:22 tn Heb “Indeed what do you lack with me, that now you are seeking to go to your land?”
  39. 1 Kings 11:22 tn Heb “and he said.”
  40. 1 Kings 11:22 sn So Hadad asked Pharaoh…. This lengthy description of Hadad’s exile in Egypt explains why Hadad wanted to oppose Solomon and supports the author’s thesis that his hostility to Solomon found its ultimate source in divine providence. Though Hadad enjoyed a comfortable life in Egypt, when the Lord raised him up (apparently stirring up his desire for vengeance) he decided to leave the comforts of Egypt and return to Edom.
  41. 1 Kings 11:23 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Solomon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  42. 1 Kings 11:24 tn Heb “and he was the officer of a raiding band.”
  43. 1 Kings 11:24 tn The Hebrew text reads “when David killed them.” This phrase is traditionally joined with what precedes. The ancient Greek version does not reflect the phrase and some suggest that it has been misplaced from the end of v. 23.
  44. 1 Kings 11:25 tn The construction (Qal of קוּץ + בְּ [quts + bet] preposition) is rare, but not without parallel (see Lev 20:23).
  45. 1 Kings 11:26 tn Heb “raised a hand against.”
  46. 1 Kings 11:26 tn Heb “Ephrathite,” which here refers to an Ephraimite (see HALOT 81 s.v. אֶפְרַיִם).
  47. 1 Kings 11:27 tn Heb “this is the matter concerning which he raised a hand against the king.”
  48. 1 Kings 11:27 sn The city of his father David. The phrase refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7.
  49. 1 Kings 11:28 tn Heb “man of strength.”
  50. 1 Kings 11:28 tn Heb “house.”
  51. 1 Kings 11:29 tn The Hebrew text has simply “he,” making it a bit unclear whether Jeroboam or Ahijah is the subject, but in the Hebrew word order Ahijah is the nearer antecedent, and this is followed by the present translation.
  52. 1 Kings 11:30 tn Heb “and Ahijah grabbed the new robe that was on him.”
  53. 1 Kings 11:33 tn The words “I am taking the kingdom from him” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  54. 1 Kings 11:33 tc This is the reading of the MT; the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate read “he has.”
  55. 1 Kings 11:33 tn Heb “walked in my ways.”
  56. 1 Kings 11:33 tn Heb “by doing what is right in my eyes, my rules and my regulations, like David his father.”
  57. 1 Kings 11:35 tn Heb “and I will give it to you, ten tribes.”
  58. 1 Kings 11:36 tn Heb “give.”
  59. 1 Kings 11:36 tn Heb “so there might be a lamp for David my servant all the days before me in Jerusalem.” The metaphorical “lamp” symbolizes the Davidic dynasty. Because this imagery is unfamiliar to the modern reader, the translation “so my servant David’s dynasty may continue to serve me” has been used.
  60. 1 Kings 11:36 tn Heb “so there might be a lamp for David my servant all the days before me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen for myself to put my name there.”
  61. 1 Kings 11:37 tn Heb “take.”
  62. 1 Kings 11:38 tn Heb “If you obey.” In the Hebrew text v. 38 is actually one long conditional sentence, which has been broken into two parts in the translation for stylistic purposes.
  63. 1 Kings 11:38 tn Heb “walk in my ways.”
  64. 1 Kings 11:38 tn Heb “do what is right in my eyes.”
  65. 1 Kings 11:38 tn Heb “I will build for you a permanent house, like I built for David.”
  66. 1 Kings 11:39 sn Because of this. Reference is made to the idolatry mentioned earlier.
  67. 1 Kings 11:39 tn Heb “but not all the days.”
  68. 1 Kings 11:40 tn Heb “but Jeroboam arose and ran away to Egypt, to Shishak king of Egypt.”
  69. 1 Kings 11:41 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Solomon, and all which he did, and his wisdom, are they not written on the scroll of the events of Solomon?”
  70. 1 Kings 11:43 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  71. 1 Kings 11:43 sn The city of his father David. The phrase refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7.
  72. 1 Kings 11:43 tc Before this sentence the Old Greek translation includes the following words: “And it so happened that when Jeroboam son of Nebat heard—now he was in Egypt where he had fled from before Solomon and was residing in Egypt—he came straight to his city in the land of Sarira which is on mount Ephraim. And king Solomon slept with his fathers.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Psalm 69 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 69[a]

For the music director, according to the tune of “Lilies”;[b] by David.

69 Deliver me, O God,
for the water has reached my neck.[c]
I sink into the deep mire
where there is no solid ground;[d]
I am in[e] deep water,
and the current overpowers me.
I am exhausted from shouting for help.
My throat is sore;[f]
my eyes grow tired from looking for my God.[g]
Those who hate me without cause
are more numerous than the hairs of my head.
Those who want to destroy me,
my enemies for no reason,[h]
outnumber me.[i]
They make me repay what I did not steal.[j]
O God, you are aware of my foolish sins;[k]
my guilt is not hidden from you.[l]
Let none who rely on you be disgraced because of me,
O Sovereign Lord of Heaven’s Armies.[m]
Let none who seek you be ashamed because of me,
O God of Israel.
For I suffer[n] humiliation for your sake[o]
and am thoroughly disgraced.[p]
My own brothers treat me like a stranger;
they act as if I were a foreigner.[q]
Certainly[r] zeal for[s] your house[t] consumes me;
I endure the insults of those who insult you.[u]
10 I weep and refrain from eating food,[v]
which causes others to insult me.[w]
11 I wear sackcloth
and they ridicule me.[x]
12 Those who sit at the city gate gossip about me;
drunkards mock me in their songs.[y]
13 O Lord, may you hear my prayer and be favorably disposed to me.[z]
O God, because of your great loyal love,
answer me with your faithful deliverance.[aa]
14 Rescue me from the mud. Don’t let me sink.
Deliver me[ab] from those who hate me,
from the deep water.
15 Don’t let the current overpower me.
Don’t let the deep swallow me up.
Don’t let the Pit[ac] devour me.[ad]
16 Answer me, O Lord, for your loyal love is good.[ae]
Because of your great compassion, turn toward me.
17 Do not ignore[af] your servant,
for I am in trouble. Answer me right away.[ag]
18 Come near me and redeem me.[ah]
Because of my enemies, rescue me.
19 You know how I am insulted, humiliated, and disgraced;
you can see all my enemies.[ai]
20 Their insults are painful[aj] and make me lose heart;[ak]
I look[al] for sympathy, but receive none,[am]
for comforters, but find none.
21 They put bitter poison[an] into my food,
and to quench my thirst they give me vinegar to drink.[ao]
22 May their dining table become a trap before them.
May it be a snare for that group of friends.[ap]
23 May their eyes be blinded.[aq]
Make them shake violently.[ar]
24 Pour out your judgment[as] on them.
May your raging anger[at] overtake them.
25 May their camp become desolate,
their tents uninhabited.[au]
26 For they harass[av] the one whom you discipline;[aw]
they spread the news about the suffering of those whom you punish.[ax]
27 Hold them accountable for all their sins.[ay]
Do not vindicate them.[az]
28 May their names be deleted from the scroll of the living.[ba]
Do not let their names be listed with the godly.[bb]
29 I am oppressed and suffering.
O God, deliver and protect me.[bc]
30 I will sing praises to God’s name.[bd]
I will magnify him as I give him thanks.[be]
31 That will please the Lord more than an ox or a bull
with horns and hooves.
32 The oppressed look on—let them rejoice.
You who seek God,[bf] may you be encouraged.[bg]
33 For the Lord listens to the needy;
he does not despise his captive people.[bh]
34 Let the heavens and the earth praise him,
along with the seas and everything that swims in them.
35 For God will deliver Zion
and rebuild the cities of Judah,
and his people[bi] will again live in them and possess Zion.[bj]
36 The descendants of his servants will inherit it,
and those who are loyal to him[bk] will live in it.[bl]


  1. Psalm 69:1 sn Psalm 69. The psalmist laments his oppressed condition and asks the Lord to deliver him by severely judging his enemies.
  2. Psalm 69:1 tn Heb “according to lilies.” See the superscription to Ps 45.
  3. Psalm 69:1 tn The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) here refers to the psalmist’s throat or neck. The psalmist compares himself to a helpless, drowning man.
  4. Psalm 69:2 tn Heb “and there is no place to stand.”
  5. Psalm 69:2 tn Heb “have entered.”
  6. Psalm 69:3 tn Or perhaps “raw”; Heb “burned; inflamed.”
  7. Psalm 69:3 tn Heb “my eyes fail from waiting for my God.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision.
  8. Psalm 69:4 tn Heb “[with] a lie.” The Hebrew noun שֶׁקֶר (sheqer, “lie”) is used here as an adverb, “falsely, wrongfully” (see Pss 35:19; 38:19).
  9. Psalm 69:4 tn The Hebrew verb עָצַם (ʿatsam) can sometimes mean “are strong,” but here it probably focuses on numerical superiority; note the parallel verb רָבַב (ravav, “be many”).
  10. Psalm 69:4 tn Heb “that which I did not steal, then I restore.” Apparently אָז (ʾaz, “then”) is used here to emphasize the verb that follows.sn They make me repay what I did not steal. The psalmist’s enemies falsely accuse him and hold him accountable for alleged crimes he did not even commit.
  11. Psalm 69:5 tn Heb “you know my foolishness.”
  12. Psalm 69:5 sn The psalmist is the first to admit that he is not perfect. But even so, he is innocent of the allegations which his enemies bring against him (v. 5b). God, who is aware of his foolish sins and guilt, can testify to the truth of his claim.
  13. Psalm 69:6 tn Heb “O Lord Yahweh of hosts.” Both titles draw attention to God’s sovereign position.
  14. Psalm 69:7 tn Heb “carry, bear.”
  15. Psalm 69:7 tn Heb “on account of you.”
  16. Psalm 69:7 tn Heb “and shame covers my face.”
  17. Psalm 69:8 tn Heb “and I am estranged to my brothers, and a foreigner to the sons of my mother.”
  18. Psalm 69:9 tn Or “for.” This verse explains that the psalmist’s suffering is due to his allegiance to God.
  19. Psalm 69:9 tn Or “devotion to.”
  20. Psalm 69:9 sn God’s house, the temple, here represents by metonymy God himself.
  21. Psalm 69:9 tn Heb “the insults of those who insult you fall upon me.”sn Jn 2:17 applies the first half of this verse to Jesus’ ministry in the context of John’s account of Jesus cleansing the temple.
  22. Psalm 69:10 sn Fasting was a practice of mourners. By refraining from normal activities such as eating food, the mourner demonstrated the sincerity of his sorrow.
  23. Psalm 69:10 tn Heb “and it becomes insults to me.”
  24. Psalm 69:11 tn Heb “and I am an object of ridicule to them.”
  25. Psalm 69:12 tn Heb “the mocking songs of the drinkers of beer.”
  26. Psalm 69:13 tn Heb “as for me, [may] my prayer be to you, O Lord, [in] a time of favor.”
  27. Psalm 69:13 tn Heb “O God, in the abundance of your loyal love, answer me in the faithfulness of your deliverance.”
  28. Psalm 69:14 tn Heb “let me be delivered.”
  29. Psalm 69:15 tn Heb “well,” which here symbolizes the place of the dead (cf. Ps 55:23).
  30. Psalm 69:15 tn Heb “do not let the well close its mouth upon me.”
  31. Psalm 69:16 tn Or “pleasant”; or “desirable.”
  32. Psalm 69:17 tn Heb “do not hide your face from.” The Hebrew idiom “hide the face” can (1) mean “ignore” (see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9) or (2) carry the stronger idea of “reject” (see Pss 30:7; 88:14).
  33. Psalm 69:17 tn Or “quickly.”
  34. Psalm 69:18 tn Heb “come near my life and redeem it.” The verb “redeem” casts the Lord in the role of a leader who protects members of his extended family in times of need and crisis (see Ps 19:14).
  35. Psalm 69:19 tn Heb “before you [are] all my enemies.”
  36. Psalm 69:20 tn Heb “break my heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the origin of the psalmist’s emotions.
  37. Psalm 69:20 tn The verb form appears to be a Qal preterite from an otherwise unattested root נוּשׁ (nush), which some consider an alternate form of אָנַשׁ (ʾanash, “be weak; be sick”; see BDB 60 s.v. I אָנַשׁ). Perhaps the form should be emended to a Niphal, וָאֵאָנְשָׁה (vaʾeʾaneshah, “and I am sick”). The Niphal of אָנַשׁ occurs in 2 Sam 12:15, where it is used to describe David’s sick child.
  38. Psalm 69:20 tn Heb “wait.”
  39. Psalm 69:20 tn Heb “and I wait for sympathy, but there is none.” The form נוּד (nud) is an infinitive functioning as a verbal noun:, “sympathizing.” Some suggest emending the form to a participle נָד (nad, “one who shows sympathy”). The verb נוּד (nud) also has the nuance “show sympathy” in Job 2:11; 42:11 and Isa 51:19.
  40. Psalm 69:21 tn According to BDB 912 s.v. II רֹאשׁ the term can mean “a bitter and poisonous plant.”
  41. Psalm 69:21 sn John 19:28-30 appears to understand Jesus’ experience on the cross as a fulfillment of this passage (or Ps 22:15). See the study note on the word “thirsty” in John 19:28.
  42. Psalm 69:22 tc Heb “and to the friends for a snare.” The plural of שָׁלוֹם (shalom, “peace”) is used in Ps 55:20 of one’s “friends.” If the reading of the MT is retained here, the term depicts the psalmist’s enemies as a close-knit group of friends who are bound together by their hatred for the psalmist. Some prefer to revocalize the text as וּלְשִׁלּוּמִים (uleshillumim, “and for retribution”). In this case the noun stands parallel to פַּח (pakh, “trap”) and מוֹקֵשׁ (moqesh, “snare”), and one might translate, “may their dining table become a trap before them, [a means of] retribution and a snare” (cf. NIV).
  43. Psalm 69:23 tn Heb “may their eyes be darkened from seeing.”
  44. Psalm 69:23 tn Heb “make their hips shake continually.”
  45. Psalm 69:24 tn Heb “anger.” “Anger” here refers metonymically to divine judgment, which is the practical effect of God’s anger.
  46. Psalm 69:24 tn Heb “the rage of your anger.” The phrase “rage of your anger” employs an appositional genitive. Synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971), 17-81.
  47. Psalm 69:25 tn Heb “in their tents may there not be one who dwells.”sn In Acts 1:20 Peter applies the language of this verse to Judas’ experience. By changing the pronouns from plural to singular, he is able to apply the ancient curse, pronounced against the psalmist’s enemies, to Judas in particular.
  48. Psalm 69:26 tn Or “persecute”; Heb “chase.”
  49. Psalm 69:26 tn Heb “for you, the one whom you strike, they chase.”
  50. Psalm 69:26 tn Heb “they announce the pain of your wounded ones” (i.e., “the ones whom you wounded,” as the parallel line makes clear).sn The psalmist is innocent of the false charges made by his enemies (v. 4), but he is also aware of his sinfulness (v. 5) and admits that he experiences divine discipline (v. 26) despite his devotion to God (v. 9). Here he laments that his enemies take advantage of such divine discipline by harassing and slandering him. They “kick him while he’s down,” as the expression goes.
  51. Psalm 69:27 tn Heb “place sin upon their sin.”
  52. Psalm 69:27 tn Heb “let them not come into your vindication.”
  53. Psalm 69:28 tn Heb “let them be wiped out of the scroll of the living.”sn The phrase the scroll of the living occurs only here in the OT. It pictures a scroll or census list containing the names of the citizens of a community. When an individual died, that person’s name was removed from the list. So this curse is a very vivid way of asking that the enemies die.
  54. Psalm 69:28 tn Heb “and with the godly let them not be written.”sn Do not let their names be listed with the godly. This curse pictures a scroll in which God records the names of his loyal followers. The psalmist makes the point that his enemies have no right to be included in this list of the godly.
  55. Psalm 69:29 tn Heb “your deliverance, O God, may it protect me.”
  56. Psalm 69:30 tn Heb “I will praise the name of God with a song.”
  57. Psalm 69:30 tn Heb “I will magnify him with thanks.”
  58. Psalm 69:32 sn You who seek God refers to those who seek to have a relationship with God by obeying and worshiping him (see Ps 53:2).
  59. Psalm 69:32 tn Heb “may your heart[s] live.” See Ps 22:26.
  60. Psalm 69:33 tn Heb “his prisoners he does not despise.”
  61. Psalm 69:35 tn Heb “they”; the referent (God’s people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  62. Psalm 69:35 tn Heb “it.” The third feminine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to “Zion” (see Pss 48:12; 102:14); thus the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  63. Psalm 69:36 tn Heb “the lovers of his name.” The phrase refers to those who are loyal to God (cf. v. 35). See Pss 5:11; 119:132; Isa 56:6.
  64. Psalm 69:36 sn Verses 35-36 appear to be an addition to the psalm from the time of the exile. The earlier lament reflects an individual’s situation, while these verses seem to reflect a communal application of it.
New English Translation (NET)

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Luke 20 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Authority of Jesus

20 Now one[a] day, as Jesus[b] was teaching the people in the temple courts[c] and proclaiming[d] the gospel, the chief priests and the experts in the law[e] with the elders came up[f] and said to him,[g] “Tell us: By what authority[h] are you doing these things?[i] Or who is it who gave you this authority?” He answered them,[j] “I will also ask you a question, and you tell me: John’s baptism[k]—was it from heaven or from people?”[l] So[m] they discussed it with one another, saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why did you not believe him?’ But if we say, ‘From people,’ all the people will stone us, because they are convinced that John was a prophet.” So[n] they replied that they did not know[o] where it came from. Then[p] Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you[q] by whose authority[r] I do these things.”

The Parable of the Tenants

Then[s] he began to tell the people this parable: “A man[t] planted a vineyard,[u] leased it to tenant farmers,[v] and went on a journey for a long time. 10 When harvest time came, he sent a slave[w] to the tenants so that they would give[x] him his portion of the crop.[y] However, the tenants beat his slave[z] and sent him away empty-handed. 11 So[aa] he sent another slave. They beat this one too, treated him outrageously, and sent him away empty-handed.[ab] 12 So[ac] he sent still a third. They even wounded this one, and threw him out. 13 Then[ad] the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What should I do? I will send my one dear son;[ae] perhaps they will respect him.’ 14 But when the tenants saw him, they said to one another, ‘This is the heir; let’s kill him so the inheritance will be ours!’ 15 So[af] they threw him out of the vineyard and killed[ag] him. What then will the owner of the vineyard do to them? 16 He will come and destroy[ah] those tenants and give the vineyard to others.”[ai] When the people[aj] heard this, they said, “May this never happen!”[ak] 17 But Jesus[al] looked straight at them and said, “Then what is the meaning of that which is written: ‘The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone’?[am] 18 Everyone who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces,[an] and the one on whom it falls will be crushed.”[ao] 19 Then[ap] the experts in the law[aq] and the chief priests wanted to arrest[ar] him that very hour, because they realized he had told this parable against them. But[as] they were afraid of the people.

Paying Taxes to Caesar

20 Then[at] they watched him carefully and sent spies who pretended to be sincere.[au] They wanted to take advantage of what he might say[av] so that they could deliver him up to the authority and jurisdiction[aw] of the governor. 21 Thus[ax] they asked him, “Teacher, we know that you speak and teach correctly,[ay] and show no partiality, but teach the way of God in accordance with the truth.[az] 22 Is it right[ba] for us to pay the tribute tax[bb] to Caesar[bc] or not?” 23 But Jesus[bd] perceived their deceit[be] and said to them, 24 “Show me a denarius.[bf] Whose image[bg] and inscription are on it?”[bh] They said, “Caesar’s.” 25 So[bi] he said to them, “Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”[bj] 26 Thus[bk] they were unable in the presence of the people to trap[bl] him with his own words.[bm] And stunned[bn] by his answer, they fell silent.

Marriage and the Resurrection

27 Now some Sadducees[bo] (who contend that there is no resurrection)[bp] came to him. 28 They asked him,[bq] “Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother dies leaving a wife but no children, that man[br] must marry[bs] the widow and father children[bt] for his brother.[bu] 29 Now there were seven brothers. The first one married a woman[bv] and died without children. 30 The second[bw] 31 and then the third married her, and in this same way all seven died, leaving no children. 32 Finally the woman died too. 33 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife will the woman be?[bx] For all seven had married her.”[by]

34 So[bz] Jesus said to them, “The people of this age[ca] marry and are given in marriage. 35 But those who are regarded as worthy to share in[cb] that age and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage.[cc] 36 In fact, they can no longer die, because they are equal to angels[cd] and are sons of God, since they are[ce] sons[cf] of the resurrection. 37 But even Moses revealed that the dead are raised[cg] in the passage about the bush,[ch] where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.[ci] 38 Now he is not God of the dead, but of the living,[cj] for all live before him.”[ck] 39 Then[cl] some of the experts in the law[cm] answered, “Teacher, you have spoken well!”[cn] 40 For they did not dare any longer to ask[co] him anything.

The Messiah: David’s Son and Lord

41 But[cp] he said to them, “How is it that they say that the Christ[cq] is David’s son?[cr] 42 For David himself says in the book of Psalms,

The Lord said to my[cs] lord,
Sit at my right hand,
43 until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”’[ct]

44 If David then calls him ‘Lord,’ how can he be his son?”[cu]

Jesus Warns the Disciples against Pride

45 As[cv] all the people were listening, Jesus[cw] said to his disciples, 46 “Beware[cx] of the experts in the law.[cy] They[cz] like walking around in long robes, and they love elaborate greetings[da] in the marketplaces[db] and the best seats[dc] in the synagogues[dd] and the places of honor at banquets. 47 They[de] devour[df] widows’ property,[dg] and as a show make long prayers. They will receive a more severe punishment.”


  1. Luke 20:1 tn Grk “Now it happened that one.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  2. Luke 20:1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  3. Luke 20:1 tn Grk “the temple.”
  4. Luke 20:1 tn Or “preaching.”
  5. Luke 20:1 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  6. Luke 20:1 sn The chief priests and the experts in the law with the elders came up. The description is similar to Luke 19:47. The leaders are really watching Jesus at this point.
  7. Luke 20:2 tn Grk “and said, saying to him.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
  8. Luke 20:2 tn On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ.
  9. Luke 20:2 sn The leadership is looking back to acts like the temple cleansing (19:45-48). How could a Galilean preacher do these things?
  10. Luke 20:3 tn Grk “answering, he said to them.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
  11. Luke 20:4 sn John, like Jesus, was not a part of the official rabbinic order. So the question “John’s baptism—was it from heaven or from men?” draws an analogy between John the Baptist and Jesus. See Luke 3:1-20; 7:24-27. The phrase John’s baptism refers to the baptism practiced by John.
  12. Luke 20:4 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anthrōpōn) is used here (and in v. 6) in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NAB, NRSV, “of human origin”; TEV, “from human beings”; NLT, “merely human”).sn The question is whether John’s ministry was of divine or human origin.
  13. Luke 20:5 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ question.
  14. Luke 20:7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the dilemma Jesus’ opponents faced.
  15. Luke 20:7 sn Very few questions could have so completely revealed the wicked intentions of the religious leaders. Jesus’ question revealed the motivation of the religious leaders and exposed them for what they really were—hypocrites. They indicted themselves when they cited only two options and chose neither of them. The point of Luke 20:1-8 is that no matter what Jesus said in response to their question they were not going to believe it and would in the end use it against him.
  16. Luke 20:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  17. Luke 20:8 sn Neither will I tell you. Though Jesus gave no answer, the analogy he used to their own question makes his view clear. His authority came from heaven.
  18. Luke 20:8 tn On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ. This is exactly the same phrase as in v. 2.
  19. Luke 20:9 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. The parable Jesus tells here actually addresses the question put to him by the leaders.
  20. Luke 20:9 tc ‡ There are several variants here, most of which involve variations in word order that do not affect translation. However, the presence or absence of τις (tis) after ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), which would be translated “a certain man,” does affect translation. The witnesses that have τις include A W Θ ƒ13 1241 2542 al sy. Those that lack it include א B C D L Ψ ƒ1 33 M it. Externally, the evidence is significantly stronger for the omission. Internally, however, there is some pause. A feature unique to Luke-Acts in the NT is to use the construction ἄνθρωπος τις (cf. 10:30; 12:16; 14:2, 16; 15:11; 16:1; 19:12; Acts 9:33). However, scribes who were familiar with this idiom may have inserted it here. In light of the overwhelming external support for the omission of τις, the shorter reading is preferred. NA28 places τις in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.
  21. Luke 20:9 sn The vineyard is a figure for Israel in the OT (Isa 5:1-7). The nation and its leaders are the tenants, so the vineyard here may well refer to the promise that resides within the nation. The imagery is like that in Rom 11:11-24.
  22. Luke 20:9 sn The leasing of land to tenant farmers was common in this period.
  23. Luke 20:10 sn This slave (along with the next two) represent the prophets God sent to the nation, who were mistreated and rejected.
  24. Luke 20:10 tc Instead of the future indicative δώσουσιν (dōsousin, “they will give”), most witnesses (C D W Θ Ψ ƒ1 M) have the aorist subjunctive δῶσιν (dōsin, “they might give”). The aorist subjunctive is expected following ἵνα (hina, “so that”), so it is almost surely a motivated reading. Further, early and excellent witnesses, as well as a few others (א A B ƒ13 33 579 1241 2542 al), have δώσουσιν. It is thus more likely that the future indicative is authentic. For a discussion of this construction, see BDF §369.2.
  25. Luke 20:10 tn Grk “from the fruit of the vineyard.”
  26. Luke 20:10 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the slave sent by the owner) has been specified in the translation for clarity.sn The image of the tenants beating up the owner’s slave pictures the nation’s rejection of the prophets and their message.
  27. Luke 20:11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ mistreatment of the first slave.
  28. Luke 20:11 sn The slaves being sent empty-handed suggests that the vineyard was not producing any fruit—and thus neither was the nation of Israel.
  29. Luke 20:12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ mistreatment of the first two slaves.
  30. Luke 20:13 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  31. Luke 20:13 tn Grk “my beloved son.” See comment at Luke 3:22. sn The owner’s decision to send his one dear son represents God sending Jesus.
  32. Luke 20:15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ decision to kill the son.
  33. Luke 20:15 sn Throwing the heir out of the vineyard pictures Jesus’ death outside of Jerusalem.
  34. Luke 20:16 sn The statement that the owner will come and destroy those tenants is a promise of judgment; see Luke 13:34-35; 19:41-44.
  35. Luke 20:16 sn The warning that the owner would give the vineyard to others suggests that the care of the promise and the nation’s hope would be passed to others. This eventually looks to Gentile inclusion; see Eph 2:11-22.
  36. Luke 20:16 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people addressed in v. 9) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  37. Luke 20:16 sn May this never happen! Jesus’ audience got the point and did not want to consider a story where the nation would suffer judgment.
  38. Luke 20:17 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  39. Luke 20:17 tn Or “capstone,” “keystone.” Although these meanings are lexically possible, the imagery in Eph 2:20-22 and 1 Cor 3:11 indicates that the term κεφαλὴ γωνίας (kephalē gōnias) refers to a cornerstone, not a capstone.sn The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. The use of Ps 118:22-23 and the “stone imagery” as a reference to Christ and his suffering and exaltation is common in the NT (see also Matt 21:42; Mark 12:10; Acts 4:11; 1 Pet 2:6-8; cf. also Eph 2:20). The irony in the use of Ps 118:22-23 here is that in the OT, Israel was the one rejected (or perhaps her king) by the Gentiles, but in the NT it is Jesus who is rejected by Israel.
  40. Luke 20:18 tn On this term, see BDAG 972 s.v. συνθλάω.
  41. Luke 20:18 tn Grk “on whomever it falls, it will crush him.”sn This proverb basically means that the stone crushes, without regard to whether it falls on someone or someone falls on it. On the stone as a messianic image, see Isa 28:16 and Dan 2:44-45.
  42. Luke 20:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  43. Luke 20:19 tn Or “The scribes” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  44. Luke 20:19 tn Grk “tried to lay hands on him.”
  45. Luke 20:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  46. Luke 20:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  47. Luke 20:20 tn Grk “righteous,” but in this context the point is their false sincerity.
  48. Luke 20:20 tn Grk “so that they might catch him in some word.”
  49. Luke 20:20 tn This word is often translated “authority” in other contexts, but here, in combination with ἀρχή (archē), it refers to the domain or sphere of the governor’s rule (L&N 37.36).
  50. Luke 20:21 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the plans by the spies.
  51. Luke 20:21 tn Or “precisely”; Grk “rightly.” Jesus teaches exactly, the straight and narrow.
  52. Luke 20:21 sn Teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. Very few comments are as deceitful as this one; they did not really believe this at all. The question was specifically designed to trap Jesus.
  53. Luke 20:22 tn Or “lawful,” that is, in accordance with God’s divine law. On the syntax of ἔξεστιν (exestin) with an infinitive and accusative, see BDF §409.3.
  54. Luke 20:22 tn This was a “poll tax.” L&N 57.182 states this was “a payment made by the people of one nation to another, with the implication that this is a symbol of submission and dependence—‘tribute tax.’”
  55. Luke 20:22 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).
  56. Luke 20:23 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  57. Luke 20:23 tn Or “craftiness.” The term always has negative connotations in the NT (1 Cor 3:19; 2 Cor 4:2; 11:3; Eph 4:14).
  58. Luke 20:24 tn Here the specific name of the coin was retained in the translation, because not all coins in circulation in Palestine at the time carried the image of Caesar. In other places δηνάριον (dēnarion) has been translated simply as “silver coin” with an explanatory note.sn A denarius was a silver coin worth approximately one day’s wage for a laborer. The fact that the leaders had such a coin showed that they already operated in the economic world of Rome. The denarius would have had a picture of Tiberius Caesar, the Roman emperor, on it.
  59. Luke 20:24 tn Or “whose likeness.”sn In this passage Jesus points to the image (Grk εἰκών, eikōn) of Caesar on the coin. This same Greek word is used in Gen 1:26 (LXX) to state that humanity is made in the “image” of God. Jesus is making a subtle yet powerful contrast: Caesar’s image is on the denarius, so he can lay claim to money through taxation, but God’s image is on humanity, so he can lay claim to each individual life.
  60. Luke 20:24 tn Grk “whose likeness and inscription does it have?”
  61. Luke 20:25 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ pronouncement results from the opponents’ answer to his question.
  62. Luke 20:25 sn Jesus’ answer to give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s was a both/and, not the questioners’ either/or. So he slipped out of their trap.
  63. Luke 20:26 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ unexpected answer.
  64. Luke 20:26 tn On this term, see BDAG 374 s.v. ἐπιλαμβάνομαι 3.
  65. Luke 20:26 tn Grk “to trap him in a saying.”
  66. Luke 20:26 tn Or “amazed.”
  67. Luke 20:27 sn The Sadducees controlled the official political structures of Judaism at this time, being the majority members of the Sanhedrin. They were known as extremely strict on law and order issues (Josephus, J. W. 2.8.2 [2.119], 2.8.14 [2.164-166]; Ant. 13.5.9 [13.171-173], 13.10.6 [13.293-298], 18.1.2 [18.11], 18.1.4 [18.16-17], 20.9.1 [20.199]; Life 2 [10-11]). They also did not believe in resurrection or in angels, an important detail in v. 36. See also Matt 3:7; 16:1-12; 22:23-34; Mark 12:18-27; Acts 4:1; 5:17; 23:6-8.
  68. Luke 20:27 sn This remark is best regarded as a parenthetical note by the author.
  69. Luke 20:28 tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  70. Luke 20:28 tn Grk “his brother,” but this would be redundant in English with the same phrase “his brother” at the end of the verse, so most modern translations render this phrase “the man” (so NIV, NRSV).
  71. Luke 20:28 tn The use of ἵνα (hina) with imperatival force is unusual (BDF §470.1).
  72. Luke 20:28 tn Grk “and raise up seed,” an idiom for procreating children (L&N 23.59).
  73. Luke 20:28 sn A quotation from Deut 25:5. Because the OT quotation does not include “a wife” as the object of the verb, it has been left as normal type. This practice is called levirate marriage (see also Ruth 4:1-12; Mishnah, m. Yevamot; Josephus, Ant. 4.8.23 [4.254-256]). The levirate law is described in Deut 25:5-10. The brother of a man who died without a son had an obligation to marry his brother’s widow. This served several purposes: It provided for the widow in a society where a widow with no children to care for her would be reduced to begging, and it preserved the name of the deceased, who would be regarded as the legal father of the first son produced from that marriage.
  74. Luke 20:29 tn Grk “took a wife” (an idiom for marrying a woman).
  75. Luke 20:30 tc Most mss (A W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 M lat) have the words, “took the wife and this one died childless” after “the second.” But this looks like a clarifying addition, assimilating the text to Mark 12:21. In light of the early and diverse witnesses that lack the expression (א B D L 0266 892 1241 co), the shorter reading should be considered authentic.
  76. Luke 20:33 sn The point is a dilemma. In a world arguing a person should have one spouse, whose wife will she be in the afterlife? The question was designed to show that (in the opinion of the Sadducees) resurrection leads to a major problem.
  77. Luke 20:33 tn Grk “For the seven had her as wife.”
  78. Luke 20:34 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ response is a result of their framing of the question.
  79. Luke 20:34 tn Grk “sons of this age” (an idiom, see L&N 11.16). The following clause which refers to being “given in marriage” suggests both men and women are included in this phrase.
  80. Luke 20:35 tn Grk “to attain to.”
  81. Luke 20:35 sn Life in the age to come is different than life here (they neither marry nor are given in marriage). This means Jesus’ questioners had made a false assumption that life was the same both now and in the age to come.
  82. Luke 20:36 sn Angels do not die, nor do they eat according to Jewish tradition (1 En. 15:6; 51:4; Wis 5:5; 2 Bar. 51:10; 1QH 3.21-23).
  83. Luke 20:36 tn Grk “sons of God, being.” The participle ὄντες (ontes) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle here.
  84. Luke 20:36 tn Or “people.” The noun υἱός (huios) followed by the genitive of class or kind (“sons of…”) denotes a person of a class or kind, specified by the following genitive construction. This Semitic idiom is frequent in the NT (L&N 9.4).
  85. Luke 20:37 tn Grk “But that the dead are raised even Moses revealed.”
  86. Luke 20:37 sn See Exod 3:6. Jesus used a common form of rabbinic citation here to refer to the passage in question.
  87. Luke 20:37 sn A quotation from Exod 3:6.
  88. Luke 20:38 sn He is not God of the dead but of the living. Jesus’ point was that if God could identify himself as God of the three old patriarchs, then they must still be alive when God spoke to Moses; and so they must be raised.
  89. Luke 20:38 tn On this syntax, see BDF §192. The point is that all live “to” God or “before” God.
  90. Luke 20:39 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  91. Luke 20:39 tn Or “some of the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  92. Luke 20:39 sn Teacher, you have spoken well! The scribes, being Pharisees, were happy for the defense of resurrection and angels, which they (unlike the Sadducees) believed in.
  93. Luke 20:40 sn The attempt to show Jesus as ignorant had left the experts silenced. At this point they did not dare any longer to ask him anything.
  94. Luke 20:41 sn If the religious leaders will not dare to question Jesus any longer, then he will question them.
  95. Luke 20:41 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  96. Luke 20:41 sn It was a common belief in Judaism that Messiah would be David’s son in that he would come from the lineage of David. On this point the Pharisees agreed and were correct. But their understanding was nonetheless incomplete, for Messiah is also David’s Lord. With this statement Jesus was affirming that, as the Messiah, he is both God and man.
  97. Luke 20:42 sn The Lord said to my lord. With David being the speaker, this indicates his respect for his descendant (referred to as my lord). Jesus was arguing, as the ancient exposition assumed, that the passage is about the Lord’s anointed. The passage looks at an enthronement of this figure and a declaration of honor for him as he takes his place at the side of God. In Jerusalem, the king’s palace was located to the right of the temple to indicate this kind of relationship. Jesus was pressing the language here to get his opponents to reflect on how great Messiah is.
  98. Luke 20:43 sn A quotation from Ps 110:1.
  99. Luke 20:44 tn Grk “David thus calls him ‘Lord.’ So how is he his son?” The conditional nuance, implicit in Greek, has been made explicit in the translation (cf. Matt 22:45).
  100. Luke 20:45 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  101. Luke 20:45 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  102. Luke 20:46 tn Or “Be on guard against.” This is a present imperative and indicates that pride is something to constantly be on the watch against.
  103. Luke 20:46 tn Or “of the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  104. Luke 20:46 tn Grk “who,” continuing the sentence begun by the prior phrase.
  105. Luke 20:46 sn There is later Jewish material in the Talmud that spells out such greetings in detail. See D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1642; H. Windisch, TDNT 1:498.
  106. Luke 20:46 sn See the note on marketplace in Luke 7:32.
  107. Luke 20:46 sn See Luke 14:7-14.
  108. Luke 20:46 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.
  109. Luke 20:47 tn Grk “who,” continuing the sentence begun in v. 46.
  110. Luke 20:47 sn How they were able to devour widows’ houses is debated. Did they seek too much for contributions, or take too high a commission for their work, or take homes after debts failed to be paid? There is too little said here to be sure.
  111. Luke 20:47 tn Grk “houses,” “households”; however, the term can have the force of “property” or “possessions” as well (O. Michel, TDNT 5:131; BDAG 695 s.v. οἶκια 1.a).
New English Translation (NET)

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