18 Later, David defeated the Philistines, ·conquered [subdued] them, and took the city of Gath and the surrounding towns from the Philistines.
2 He also defeated the people of Moab. So the people of Moab became ·servants [subjects] of David and ·gave him the payment he demanded [paid tribute money].
3 David also defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah all the way to the town of Hamath as he ·tried to spread his kingdom to [extended his authority/rule to; or set up his boundary marker at; L extended his hand; C the Hebrew word can mean control or, less often, monument] the Euphrates River. 4 David captured one thousand of his chariots, seven thousand ·charioteers [horsemen], and twenty thousand foot soldiers. He ·crippled [hamstrung] all but a hundred of the chariot horses.
5 Arameans from Damascus came to help Hadadezer king of Zobah, but David killed twenty-two thousand of them. 6 Then David put ·groups of soldiers [garrisons] in Damascus in Aram. The Arameans became David’s ·servants [subjects] and ·gave him the payments he demanded [brought him tribute]. So the Lord gave David victory everywhere he went.
7 David took the shields of gold that had belonged to Hadadezer’s ·officers [guards; servants] and brought them to Jerusalem. 8 David also took many things made of bronze from Tebah and Cun, which had been cities under Hadadezer’s control. Later, Solomon used this bronze to make things for the ·Temple [L house]: the large bronze bowl, which was called the Sea [1 Kin. 7:23–26], the pillars [1 Kin. 7:15–22], and other bronze utensils.
9 ·Toi [Tou] king of Hamath heard that David had ·defeated all the [destroyed the entire] army of Hadadezer king of Zobah. 10 So Toi sent his son ·Hadoram [Joram, 2 Sam. 8:10] to greet and congratulate King David for defeating Hadadezer. (Hadadezer had been at war with Toi.) Hadoram brought items made of gold, silver, and bronze. 11 King David ·gave [dedicated] them to the Lord, along with the silver and gold he had taken from these nations: ·Edom [Aram, 2 Sam. 8:12, 14], Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.
12 Abishai son of Zeruiah killed eighteen thousand Edomites in the Valley of Salt [C this victory is attributed to David in 2 Sam. 8:13]. 13 David put ·groups of soldiers [garrsions] in Edom, and all the Edomites became his ·servants [subjects]. The Lord gave David victory everywhere he went.
David’s Important Officers
14 David ·was king [reigned] over all of Israel, and he did what was ·fair [just] and ·right [righteous] for all his people. 15 Joab son of Zeruiah was commander over the army. Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was the ·recorder [secretary; royal historian]. 16 Zadok son of Ahitub and Abiathar son of Ahimelech were priests. ·Shavsha [or Seriah; 2 Sam. 8:17] was the royal ·secretary [scribe]. 17 Benaiah son of Jehoiada was over the Kerethites and Pelethites [C foreign mercenaries who served as the king’s bodyguards]. And David’s sons were ·important officers who served [chief officials/assistants] at his side.
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