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1 Chronicles 9 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Genealogical records were kept for all Israel; they are recorded in the Scroll of the Kings of Israel.

Exiles Who Resettled in Jerusalem

The people of Judah[a] were carried away to Babylon because of their unfaithfulness. The first to resettle on their property and in their cities were some Israelites, priests, Levites, and temple servants.[b] Some from the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Ephraim and Manasseh settled in Jerusalem.

The settlers included:[c] Uthai son of Ammihud, son of Omri, son of Imri, son of Bani, who was a descendant of Perez son of Judah.

From the Shilonites: Asaiah the firstborn and his sons.

From the descendants of Zerah: Jeuel.

Their relatives numbered 690.

From the descendants of Benjamin:

Sallu son of Meshullam, son of Hodaviah, son of Hassenuah; Ibneiah son of Jeroham; Elah son of Uzzi, son of Mikri; and Meshullam son of Shephatiah, son of Reuel, son of Ibnijah.

Their relatives, listed in their genealogical records, numbered 956. All these men were leaders of their families.[d]

10 From the priests:

Jedaiah; Jehoiarib; Jakin; 11 Azariah son of Hilkiah, son of Meshullam, son of Zadok, son of Meraioth, son of Ahitub the leader in God’s temple; 12 Adaiah son of Jeroham, son of Pashhur, son of Malkijah; and Maasai son of Adiel, son of Jahzerah, son of Meshullam, son of Meshillemith, son of Immer.

13 Their relatives, who were leaders of their families, numbered 1,760. They were capable men who were assigned to carry out the various tasks of service in God’s temple.[e]

14 From the Levites:

Shemaiah son of Hasshub, son of Azrikam, son of Hashabiah a descendant of Merari; 15 Bakbakkar; Heresh; Galal; Mattaniah son of Mika, son of Zikri, son of Asaph; 16 Obadiah son of Shemaiah, son of Galal, son of Jeduthun; and Berechiah son of Asa, son of Elkanah, who lived among the settlements of the Netophathites.

17 The gatekeepers were:

Shallum, Akkub, Talmon, Ahiman, and their brothers. Shallum was the leader; 18 he serves to this day at the King’s Gate on the east. These were the gatekeepers from the camp of the descendants of Levi.

19 Shallum son of Kore, son of Ebiasaph, son of Korah, and his relatives from his family (the Korahites) were assigned to guard the entrance to the sanctuary.[f] Their ancestors had guarded the entrance to the Lord’s dwelling place.[g] 20 Phinehas son of Eleazar had been their leader in earlier times, and the Lord was with him. 21 Zechariah son of Meshelemiah was the guard at the entrance to the meeting tent.

22 All those selected to be gatekeepers at the entrances numbered 212. Their names were recorded in the genealogical records of their settlements. David and Samuel the prophet[h] had appointed them to their positions.[i] 23 They and their descendants were assigned to guard the gates of the Lord’s sanctuary (that is, the tabernacle).[j] 24 The gatekeepers were posted on all four sides—east, west, north, and south. 25 Their relatives, who lived in their settlements, came from time to time and served with them for seven-day periods. 26 The four head gatekeepers, who were Levites, were assigned to guard the storerooms and treasuries in God’s sanctuary.[k] 27 They would spend the night in their posts all around God’s sanctuary,[l] for they were assigned to guard it and would open it with the key every morning. 28 Some of them were in charge of the articles used by those who served; they counted them when they brought them in and when they brought them out.[m] 29 Some of them were in charge of the equipment and articles of the sanctuary,[n] as well as the flour, wine, olive oil, incense, and spices. 30 (But some of the priests mixed the spices.) 31 Mattithiah, a Levite, the firstborn son[o] of Shallum the Korahite, was in charge of baking the bread for offerings. 32 Some of the Kohathites, their relatives, were in charge of preparing the bread that is displayed each Sabbath.

33 The musicians and Levite family leaders stayed in rooms at the sanctuary[p] and were exempt from other duties, for day and night they had to carry out their assigned tasks. 34 These were the family leaders of the Levites, as listed in their genealogical records. They lived in Jerusalem.

Jeiel’s Descendants

35 Jeiel (the father of Gibeon) lived in Gibeon. His wife[q] was Maacah. 36 His firstborn son was Abdon, followed by Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab, 37 Gedor, Ahio, Zechariah, and Mikloth. 38 Mikloth was the father of Shimeam. They also lived near their relatives in Jerusalem.[r]

39 Ner was the father of Kish, and Kish was the father of Saul. Saul was the father of Jonathan, Malki-Shua, Abinadab, and Eshbaal.[s]

40 The son of Jonathan:

Meribbaal,[t] who was the father of Micah.

41 The sons of Micah:

Pithon, Melech, Tahrea, and Ahaz.[u]

42 Ahaz was the father of Jarah,[v] and Jarah was the father of Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Zimri was the father of Moza, 43 and Moza was the father of Binea. His son was Rephaiah, whose son was Eleasah, whose son was Azel.

44 Azel had six sons: Azrikam his firstborn,[w] followed by Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. These were the sons of Azel.


  1. 1 Chronicles 9:1 tn The Hebrew text has simply “Judah,” though the verb הָגְלוּ (hoglu, “carried away”) is plural.
  2. 1 Chronicles 9:2 tn Heb “and the inhabitants, the first who [were] in their property in their cities, Israel, the priests, the Levites, and the temple servants.”
  3. 1 Chronicles 9:4 tn The words “the settlers included” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
  4. 1 Chronicles 9:9 tn Heb “and all these men were heads of fathers for the house of their fathers.”
  5. 1 Chronicles 9:13 tn Heb “capable [for] the work of the task of the house of God.”
  6. 1 Chronicles 9:19 tn Heb “and his brothers belonging to the house of his father, the Korachites, to the work of the task, guardians of the threshold of the tent.”
  7. 1 Chronicles 9:19 tn Heb “and their fathers to the camp of the Lord, guardians of the entrance.” Here “fathers” is used in a more general sense of “forefathers” or “ancestors” and is not limited specifically to their fathers only.
  8. 1 Chronicles 9:22 tn The Hebrew term is רֹאֶה (roʾeh, “seer”), an older word for נָבִיא (naviʾ, “prophet”).
  9. 1 Chronicles 9:22 tn Heb “they—David appointed, and Samuel the seer, in their position.”
  10. 1 Chronicles 9:23 tn Heb “and they and their sons to the gates of the house of the Lord, of the house of the tent, [were assigned] as guards.”
  11. 1 Chronicles 9:26 tn Heb “in the house of God.”
  12. 1 Chronicles 9:27 tn Heb “in the house of God.”
  13. 1 Chronicles 9:28 tn Heb “and from them over the articles of the task, for by number they would bring them in, and by number they would bring them out.”
  14. 1 Chronicles 9:29 tn Heb “holy place.”
  15. 1 Chronicles 9:31 tn The word “son” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.
  16. 1 Chronicles 9:33 tn Heb “were in rooms.” The words “at the sanctuary” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  17. 1 Chronicles 9:35 tn Heb “The name of his wife.”
  18. 1 Chronicles 9:38 tn Heb “and also they, opposite their brothers, lived in Jerusalem with their brothers.” This redundancy has been removed in the translation.
  19. 1 Chronicles 9:39 sn Eshbaal is called “Ishbosheth” in 2 Sam 2:8.
  20. 1 Chronicles 9:40 sn Meribbaal is called “Mephibosheth” in 2 Sam 4:4.
  21. 1 Chronicles 9:41 tc The name “Ahaz” is included in the Vulgate and Syriac, but omitted in the MT. It probably was accidentally omitted by haplography. Note that the name appears at the beginning of the next verse. Cf. also 8:35.
  22. 1 Chronicles 9:42 tc So MT; some Hebrew mss and the LXX read “Jadah” (cf. NIV, NCV, NLT) while in 8:36 the name “Jehoaddah’ appears (cf. NAB).
  23. 1 Chronicles 9:44 tc The Hebrew text has בֹּכְרוּ (bokheru), which some understand as a name: “Bocheru” (so, e.g., NEB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). But the form should probably be revocalized בְֹּכרוֹ (bekhoro, “his firstborn”). A name has accidentally dropped from the list, and a scribe apparently read בֹּכְרוּ as one of the names. Cf. also 1 Chr 8:38.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 38 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 38[a]

A psalm of David, written to get God’s attention.[b]

38 O Lord, do not continue to rebuke me in your anger.
Do not continue to punish me in your raging fury.[c]
For your arrows pierce[d] me,
and your hand presses me down.[e]
My whole body is sick because of your judgment;[f]
I am deprived of health because of my sin.[g]
For my sins overwhelm me;[h]
like a heavy load, they are too much for me to bear.
My wounds[i] are infected and starting to smell,[j]
because of my foolish sins.[k]
I am dazed[l] and completely humiliated;[m]
all day long I walk around mourning.
For I am overcome with shame,[n]
and my whole body is sick.[o]
I am numb with pain and severely battered;[p]
I groan loudly because of the anxiety I feel.[q]
O Lord, you understand my heart’s desire;[r]
my groaning is not hidden from you.
10 My heart beats quickly;
my strength leaves me.
I can hardly see.[s]
11 Because of my condition,[t] even my friends and acquaintances keep their distance;[u]
my neighbors stand far away.[v]
12 Those who seek my life try to entrap me;[w]
those who want to harm me speak destructive words.
All day long they say deceitful things.
13 But I am like a deaf man—I hear nothing;
I am like a mute who cannot speak.[x]
14 I am like a man who cannot hear
and is incapable of arguing his defense.[y]
15 Yet[z] I wait for you, O Lord!
You will respond, O Lord, my God!
16 I have prayed for deliverance, because otherwise they will gloat over me;[aa]
when my foot slips they will arrogantly taunt me.[ab]
17 For I am about to stumble,
and I am in constant pain.[ac]
18 Yes,[ad] I confess my wrongdoing,
and I am concerned about my sins.
19 But those who are my enemies for no reason are numerous;[ae]
those who hate me without cause outnumber me.[af]
20 They repay me evil for the good I have done;
though I have tried to do good to them, they hurl accusations at me.[ag]
21 Do not abandon me, O Lord.
My God, do not remain far away from me.
22 Hurry and help me,[ah] O Lord, my deliverer.


  1. Psalm 38:1 sn Psalm 38. The author asks the Lord to deliver him from his enemies. He confesses his sin and recognizes that the crisis he faces is the result of divine discipline. Yet he begs the Lord not to reject him.
  2. Psalm 38:1 tn The Hebrew text reads simply, “to cause to remember.” The same form, the Hiphil infinitive of זָכַר (zakhar, “remember”), also appears in the heading of Ps 70. Some understand this in the sense of “for the memorial offering,” but it may carry the idea of bringing one’s plight to God’s attention (see P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 [WBC], 303).
  3. Psalm 38:1 tn The words “continue to” are supplied in the translation of both lines. The following verses make it clear that the psalmist is already experiencing divine rebuke/punishment. He asks that it might cease.sn Cf. Ps 38:1 with Ps 6:1, which has similar wording.
  4. Psalm 38:2 tn The verb Hebrew נָחַת (nakhat) apparently here means “penetrate, pierce” (note the use of the Qal in Prov 17:10). The psalmist pictures the Lord as a warrior who shoots arrows at him (see Ps 7:12-13).
  5. Psalm 38:2 tn Heb “and your hand [?] upon me.” The meaning of the verb נָחַת (nakhat) is unclear in this context. It could mean “your hand comes down on me.” It may be preferable to emend the form to וַתָּנַח (vattanakh) from the verb נוּחַ (nuakh, “rest”). In this case the text would read literally, “and your hand rests upon me” (see Isa 25:10, though the phrase is used in a positive sense there, unlike Ps 38:2).
  6. Psalm 38:3 tn Heb “there is no soundness in my flesh from before your anger.” “Anger” here refers metonymically to divine judgment, which is the practical effect of God’s anger at the psalmist’s sin.
  7. Psalm 38:3 tn Heb “there is no health in my bones from before my sin.”
  8. Psalm 38:4 tn Heb “pass over my head.”
  9. Psalm 38:5 sn The reference to wounds may be an extension of the metaphorical language of v. 2. The psalmist pictures himself as one whose flesh is ripped and torn by arrows.
  10. Psalm 38:5 tn Heb “my wounds stink, they are festering” (cf. NEB).
  11. Psalm 38:5 tn Heb “from before my foolishness.”
  12. Psalm 38:6 tn The verb’s precise shade of meaning in this context is not entirely clear. The verb, which literally means “to bend,” may refer to the psalmist’s posture. In Isa 21:3 it seems to mean “be confused, dazed.”
  13. Psalm 38:6 tn Heb “I am bowed down to excess.”
  14. Psalm 38:7 tn Heb “for my loins are filled with shame.” The “loins” are viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s emotions. The present translation assumes that נִקְלֶה (niqleh) is derived from קָלָה (qalah, “be dishonored”). Some derive it instead from a homonymic root קָלָה (qalah), meaning “to roast.” In this case one might translate “fever” (cf. NEB “my loins burn with fever”).
  15. Psalm 38:7 tn Heb “there is no soundness in my flesh” (see v. 3).
  16. Psalm 38:8 tn Heb “I am numb and crushed to excess.”
  17. Psalm 38:8 tn Heb “I roar because of the moaning of my heart.”
  18. Psalm 38:9 tn Heb “O Lord, before you [is] all my desire.”
  19. Psalm 38:10 tn Heb “and the light of my eyes, even they, there is not with me.” The “light of the eyes” may refer to physical energy (see 1 Sam 14:27, 29), life itself (Ps 13:3), or the ability to see (Prov 29:23).
  20. Psalm 38:11 tn Or “wound,” or “illness.”
  21. Psalm 38:11 tn Heb “stand [aloof].”
  22. Psalm 38:11 tn Heb “and the ones near me off at a distance stand.”
  23. Psalm 38:12 tn Heb “lay snares.”
  24. Psalm 38:13 sn I am like a deaf man…like a mute. The psalmist is like a deaf mute; he is incapable of defending himself and is vulnerable to his enemies’ deception (see v. 14).
  25. Psalm 38:14 tn Heb “and there is not in his mouth arguments.”
  26. Psalm 38:15 tn Or perhaps “surely.”
  27. Psalm 38:16 tn Heb “For I said, ‘Lest they rejoice over me.’” The psalmist recalls the motivating argument of his petition. He probably prefaced this statement with a prayer for deliverance (see Pss 7:1-2; 13:3-4; 28:1).
  28. Psalm 38:16 tn Heb “they will magnify against me.” See Pss 35:26; 55:13.
  29. Psalm 38:17 tn Heb “and my pain [is] before me continually.”
  30. Psalm 38:18 tn Or “for.” The translation assumes that כִּי (ki) is asseverative here.
  31. Psalm 38:19 tn Heb “and my enemies, life, are many.” The noun חַיִּים (khayyim, “life”) fits very awkwardly here. The translation assumes an emendation to חִנָּם (khinnam, “without reason”; note the parallelism with שֶׁקֶר [sheqer, “falsely”] and see Pss 35:19; 69:4; Lam 3:52). The verb עָצַם (ʿatsam) can sometimes mean “are strong,” but here it probably focuses on numerical superiority (note the parallel verb רָבַב, ravav, “be many”).
  32. Psalm 38:19 tn Heb “are many.”
  33. Psalm 38:20 tn Heb “the ones who repay evil instead of good accuse me, instead of my pursuing good.”
  34. Psalm 38:22 tn Heb “hurry to my help.” See Ps 22:19.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Mark 6 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Rejection at Nazareth

Now[a] Jesus left that place and came to his hometown,[b] and his disciples followed him. When the Sabbath came, he began to teach in the synagogue.[c] Many who heard him were astonished, saying, “Where did he get these ideas?[d] And what is this wisdom that has been given to him? What are these miracles that are done through his hands? Isn’t this the carpenter, the son[e] of Mary[f] and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? And aren’t his sisters here with us?” And so they took offense at him. Then[g] Jesus said to them, “A prophet is not without honor except in his hometown, and among his relatives, and in his own house.” He was not able to do a miracle there, except to lay his hands on a few sick people and heal them. And he was amazed because of their unbelief. Then[h] he went around among the villages and taught.

Sending Out the Twelve Apostles

Jesus[i] called the twelve and began to send them out two by two. He gave them authority over the unclean spirits.[j] He instructed them to take nothing for the journey except a staff[k]—no bread, no bag,[l] no money in their belts— and to put on sandals but not to wear two tunics.[m] 10 He said to them, “Wherever you enter a house, stay there[n] until you leave the area. 11 If a place will not welcome you or listen to you, as you go out from there, shake the dust off[o] your feet as a testimony against them.” 12 So[p] they went out and preached that all should repent. 13 They cast out many demons and anointed many sick people with olive oil and healed them.

The Death of John the Baptist

14 Now[q] King Herod[r] heard this, for Jesus’[s] name had become known. Some[t] were saying, “John the baptizer[u] has been raised from the dead, and because of this, miraculous powers are at work in him.” 15 Others said, “He is Elijah.” Others said, “He is a prophet, like one of the prophets from the past.” 16 But when Herod heard this, he said, “John, whom I beheaded, has been raised!” 17 For Herod himself had sent men, arrested John, and bound him in prison on account of Herodias, his brother Philip’s wife, because Herod[v] had married her. 18 For John had repeatedly told[w] Herod, “It is not lawful for you to have your brother’s wife.”[x] 19 So Herodias nursed a grudge against him and wanted to kill him. But[y] she could not 20 because Herod stood in awe of[z] John and protected him, since he knew that John[aa] was a righteous and holy man. When Herod[ab] heard him, he was thoroughly baffled,[ac] and yet[ad] he liked to listen to John.[ae]

21 But[af] a suitable day[ag] came, when Herod gave a banquet on his birthday for his court officials, military commanders, and leaders of Galilee. 22 When his daughter Herodias[ah] came in and danced, she pleased Herod and his dinner guests. The king said to the girl, “Ask me for whatever you want and I will give it to you.” 23 He swore to her,[ai] “Whatever you ask I will give you, up to half my kingdom.”[aj] 24 So[ak] she went out and said to her mother, “What should I ask for?” Her mother said,[al] “The head of John the baptizer.”[am] 25 Immediately she hurried back to the king and made her request:[an] “I want the head of John the Baptist on a platter immediately.” 26 Although it grieved the king deeply,[ao] he did not want to reject her request because of his oath and his guests. 27 So[ap] the king sent an executioner at once to bring John’s[aq] head, and he went and beheaded John in prison. 28 He brought his head on a platter and gave it to the girl, and the girl gave it to her mother. 29 When John’s[ar] disciples heard this, they came and took his body and placed it in a tomb.

The Feeding of the Five Thousand

30 Then[as] the apostles gathered around Jesus and told him everything they had done and taught. 31 He said to them, “Come with me privately to an isolated place and rest a while” (for many were coming and going, and there was no time to eat). 32 So they went away by themselves in a boat[at] to some remote place. 33 But many saw them leaving and recognized them, and they hurried on foot[au] from all the towns[av] and arrived there ahead of them.[aw] 34 As Jesus[ax] came ashore[ay] he saw the large crowd and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd. So[az] he taught them many things.

35 When it was already late, his disciples came to him and said, “This is an isolated place[ba] and it is already very late. 36 Send them away so that they can go into the surrounding countryside and villages and buy something for themselves to eat.” 37 But he answered them,[bb] “You[bc] give them something to eat.” And they said, “Should we go and buy bread for 200 silver coins[bd] and give it to them to eat?” 38 He said to them, “How many loaves do you have? Go and see.” When they found out, they said, “Five—and two fish.” 39 Then he directed them all to sit down in groups on the green grass. 40 So they reclined in groups of hundreds and fifties. 41 He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke the loaves. He[be] gave them to his[bf] disciples to serve the people, and he divided the two fish among them all. 42 They all ate and were satisfied, 43 and they picked up the broken pieces and fish that were left over, twelve baskets full. 44 Now[bg] there were 5,000 men[bh] who ate the bread.[bi]

Walking on Water

45 Immediately Jesus[bj] made his disciples get into the boat[bk] and go on ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he dispersed the crowd. 46 After saying goodbye to them, he went to the mountain to pray. 47 When evening came, the boat was in the middle of the sea and he was alone on the land. 48 He[bl] saw them straining at the oars, because the wind was against them. As the night was ending,[bm] he came to them walking on the sea,[bn] for[bo] he wanted to pass by them.[bp] 49 When they saw him walking on the water[bq] they thought he was a ghost. They[br] cried out, 50 for they all saw him and were terrified. But immediately he spoke to them:[bs] “Have courage! It is I. Do not be afraid.” 51 Then he went up with them into the boat, and the wind ceased. They were completely astonished, 52 because they did not understand about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened.

Healing the Sick

53 After they had crossed over, they came to land at Gennesaret[bt] and anchored there. 54 As they got out of the boat, people immediately recognized Jesus.[bu] 55 They ran through that whole region and began to bring the sick on mats to wherever he was rumored to be.[bv] 56 And wherever he would go—into villages, towns, or countryside—they would place the sick in the marketplaces,[bw] and would ask him if[bx] they could just touch the edge of his cloak, and all who touched it were healed.


  1. Mark 6:1 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  2. Mark 6:1 sn Jesus’ hometown (where he spent his childhood years) was Nazareth, about 20 miles (30 km) southwest of Capernaum.
  3. Mark 6:2 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21. Jesus undoubtedly took the opportunity on this occasion to speak about his person and mission, and the relation of both to OT fulfillment.
  4. Mark 6:2 tn Or “this teaching”; Grk “these things.” The response of the people centers upon the content of Jesus’ teaching, so the phrase “these ideas” was supplied in the text to make this clear.
  5. Mark 6:3 tc Evidently because of the possible offensiveness of designating Jesus a carpenter, several mss ([P45vid] ƒ13 33vid [565 579] 700 [2542] it vgmss) harmonize the words “carpenter, the son” to the parallel passage in Matt 13:55, “the son of the carpenter.” Almost all the rest of the mss read “the carpenter, the son.” Since the explicit designation of Jesus as a carpenter is the more difficult reading, and is much better attested, it is most likely correct.
  6. Mark 6:3 sn The reference to Jesus as the carpenter is probably derogatory, indicating that they knew Jesus only as a common laborer like themselves. The reference to him as the son of Mary (even though Jesus’ father was probably dead by this point) appears to be somewhat derogatory, for a man was not regarded as his mother’s son in Jewish usage unless an insult was intended (cf. Judg 11:1-2; John 6:42; 8:41; 9:29).
  7. Mark 6:4 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  8. Mark 6:6 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  9. Mark 6:7 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  10. Mark 6:7 sn The phrase unclean spirits refers to evil spirits.
  11. Mark 6:8 sn Neither Matt 10:9-10 nor Luke 9:3 allow for a staff. It might be that Matthew and Luke mean not taking an extra staff, or that the expression is merely rhetorical for “traveling light,” which has been rendered in two slightly different ways.
  12. Mark 6:8 tn Or “no traveler’s bag”; or possibly “no beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).
  13. Mark 6:9 tn Or “shirts” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, chitōn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a “tunic” was any more than they would be familiar with a “chiton.” On the other hand, attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “Shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.
  14. Mark 6:10 sn Jesus telling his disciples to stay there in one house contrasts with the practice of religious philosophers in the ancient world who went from house to house begging.
  15. Mark 6:11 sn To shake the dust off represented shaking off the uncleanness from one’s feet; see Luke 10:11; Acts 13:51; 18:6. It was a sign of rejection.
  16. Mark 6:12 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  17. Mark 6:14 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  18. Mark 6:14 sn Herod was technically not a king, but a tetrarch, a ruler with rank and authority lower than a king. A tetrarch ruled only with the approval of the Roman authorities. This was roughly equivalent to being governor of a region. In the NT, Herod, who ruled over Galilee, is called a king (Matt 14:9, Mark 6:14-29), reflecting popular usage rather than an official title.
  19. Mark 6:14 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  20. Mark 6:14 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  21. Mark 6:14 tn While Matthew and Luke consistently use the noun βαπτίστης (baptistēs, “the Baptist”) to refer to John, as a kind of a title, Mark prefers the substantival participle ὁ βαπτίζων (ho baptizōn, “the one who baptizes, the baptizer”) to describe him (only twice does he use the noun [Mark 6:25; 8:28]).
  22. Mark 6:17 tn Grk “he”; here it is necessary to specify the referent as “Herod,” since the nearest previous antecedent in the translation is Philip.
  23. Mark 6:18 tn The imperfect tense verb is here rendered with an iterative force.
  24. Mark 6:18 sn It is not lawful for you to have your brother’s wife. This was a violation of OT law (Lev 18:16; 20:21). In addition, both Herod Antipas and Herodias had each left marriages to enter into this union.
  25. Mark 6:19 tn Grk “and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  26. Mark 6:20 tn Grk “was fearing,” “was respecting”; the imperfect tense connotes an ongoing fear or respect for John.
  27. Mark 6:20 tn Grk “he”; the referent (John) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  28. Mark 6:20 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  29. Mark 6:20 tc In place of ἠπόρει (ēporei, “he was baffled”) the majority of mss (A C D ƒ1 33 M lat sy) have ἐποίει (epoiei, “he did”; cf. KJV’s “he did many things.”) The best mss (א B L [W] Θ co) support the reading followed in the translation. The variation may be no more than a simple case of confusion of letters, since the two readings look very much alike. The verb ποιέω (poieō, “I do”) certainly occurs more frequently than ἀπορέω (aporeō, “I am at a loss”), so a scribe would be more likely to write a more familiar word. Further, even though the reading ἐποίει is the harder reading in terms of the sense, it is virtually nonsensical here, rendering it most likely an unintentional scribal error.tn Or “terribly disturbed,” “rather perplexed.” The verb ἀπορέω (aporeō) means “to be in perplexity, with the implication of serious anxiety” (L&N 32.9).
  30. Mark 6:20 tn Grk “and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “and yet” to indicate the concessive nature of the final clause.
  31. Mark 6:20 tn Grk “him”; the referent (John) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  32. Mark 6:21 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  33. Mark 6:21 tn Grk “a day of opportunity”; cf. BDAG 407 s.v. εὔκαιρος, “in our lit. only pert. to time than is considered a favorable occasion for some event or circumstance, well-timed, suitable.”
  34. Mark 6:22 tc Behind “his daughter Herodias” is a most difficult textual problem. The reading adopted in the translation, τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτοῦ ῾Ηρῳδιάδος (tēs thugatros autou herōdiados), is supported by א B D L Δ 565; it is also the most difficult reading internally since it describes Herodias as Herod’s daughter. Other readings are less awkward, but they do not have adequate external support. The reading τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτῆς τῆς ῾Ηρῳδιάδος (tēs thugatros autēs tēs herōdiados, “the daughter of Herodias herself”) is supported by A C (W) Θ ƒ13 33 M, but this is also grammatically awkward. The easiest reading, τῆς θυγατρὸς τῆς ῾Ηρῳδιάδος (“the daughter of Herodias”) is supported by ƒ1, but this reading probably arose from an accidental omission of αὐτῆς in the previous reading. The reading τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτοῦ ῾Ηρῳδιάδος, despite its historical difficulties, is most likely original due to external attestation and the fact that it most likely gave rise to the other readings as scribes sought to correct it.
  35. Mark 6:23 tc ‡ The witnesses here support several different readings: αὐτῇ πολλά (autē polla, “to her insistently”) is found in D Θ 565 700 it; πολλά is the reading of P45vid 28; both words are lacking in L; and א A B C2vid ƒ13 33 M lat have just αὐτῇ. The best candidates for authenticity, on external grounds, are αὐτῇ πολλά and αὐτῇ. So the issue revolves around whether πολλά is part of the text. On the one hand, πολλά used adverbially is a distinctive Markanism (10 of the 16 NT instances are found in Mark; of the other Gospels, Matthew alone adds a single example [Matt 9:14]). It could be argued that such an unremarkable term would go unnoticed by the scribes, and consequently would not have been inserted in imitation of Mark’s style observed elsewhere. On the other hand, the largest cluster of instances of an adverbial πολλά are in Mark 5-6, with the most recent example coming just three verses earlier (Mark 5:23, 38, 43; 6:20). Scribes may well have imitated the usage so recently and so frequently seen. Further, the best Alexandrian witnesses, as well as good representatives of the Western and Byzantines texts, lack πολλά. On the whole, though a decision is difficult, it is probably best to read the text without πολλά. NA28 places the word in brackets, indicating some doubt as to its authenticity.
  36. Mark 6:23 sn The expression up to half my kingdom is a proverbial comment meaning “great wealth.”
  37. Mark 6:24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  38. Mark 6:24 tn Grk “She said”; the referent (the girl’s mother) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  39. Mark 6:24 tn While Matthew and Luke consistently use the noun βαπτίστης (baptistēs, “the Baptist”) to refer to John, as a kind of a title, Mark employs the substantival participle ὁ βαπτίζων (ho baptizōn, “the one who baptizes, the baptizer”) to describe him (though twice he does use the noun [Mark 6:25; 8:28]).
  40. Mark 6:25 tn Grk “she asked, saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant and has not been translated.
  41. Mark 6:26 tn Grk “and being deeply grieved, the king did not want.”
  42. Mark 6:27 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  43. Mark 6:27 tn Grk “his”; the referent (John the Baptist) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  44. Mark 6:29 tn Grk “his”; the referent (John the Baptist) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  45. Mark 6:30 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  46. Mark 6:32 sn See the note at Mark 1:19 for a description of the first-century fishing boat discovered in 1986 near Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
  47. Mark 6:33 tn Grk “ran together on foot.” The idea of συντρέχω (suntrechō) is “to come together quickly to form a crowd” (L&N 15.133).
  48. Mark 6:33 tn Or “cities.”
  49. Mark 6:33 tc The translation here follows the reading προῆλθον (proēlthon, “they preceded”), found in א B (0187) 892 lat co. Some mss (D 28 33 700) read συνῆλθον (sunēlthon, “arrived there with them”), while the majority of mss, most of them late (P84vid [A ƒ13] M syh), conflate the two readings (προῆλθον αὐτοὺς καὶ συνῆλθον πρὸς αὐτόν, “they preceded them and came together to him”). The reading adopted here thus has better external credentials than the variants. As well, it is the harder reading internally, being changed “by copyists who thought it unlikely that the crowd on the land could have outstripped the boat” (TCGNT 78).
  50. Mark 6:34 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  51. Mark 6:34 tn Grk “came out [of the boat],” with the reference to the boat understood.
  52. Mark 6:34 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “So” to indicate this action is the result of Jesus’ compassion on the crowd in the narrative.
  53. Mark 6:35 tn Or “a desert” (meaning a deserted or desolate area with sparse vegetation).
  54. Mark 6:37 tn Grk “answering, he said to them.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant, but the syntax of the sentence has been changed for clarity.
  55. Mark 6:37 tn Here the pronoun ὑμεῖς (humeis) is used, making “you” in the translation emphatic.
  56. Mark 6:37 sn The silver coin referred to here is the denarius. A denarius, inscribed with a picture of Tiberius Caesar, was worth approximately one day’s wage for a laborer. Two hundred denarii was thus approximately equal to eight months’ wages. The disciples did not have the resources in their possession to feed the large crowd, so Jesus’ request is his way of causing them to trust him as part of their growth in discipleship.
  57. Mark 6:41 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  58. Mark 6:41 tc ‡ Most mss (P45 A D W Θ ƒ1,13 M lat sy) have αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”) after τοῖς μαθηταῖς (tois mathētais, “the disciples”), but several excellent witnesses (א B L Δ 33 579 892 1241 1424) lack the pronoun. This kind of variant is often a predictable expansion of the text; further, that many significant mss lack the pronoun gives support for the shorter reading. For these reasons, the pronoun is considered to be secondary. NA28 puts αὐτοῦ in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.tn Grk “the disciples”; the Greek article has been translated here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  59. Mark 6:44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate a somewhat parenthetical remark by the author.
  60. Mark 6:44 tn The Greek word here is ἀνήρ, meaning “adult male” (BDAG 79 s.v. 1). According to Matt 14:21, Jesus fed not only 5,000 men, but also an unspecified number of women and children.
  61. Mark 6:44 tc Many good mss (P45 א D W Θ ƒ1,13 28 565 700 2542 lat sa) lack τοὺς ἄρτους (tous artous, lit. “the loaves” [here translated “the bread”]). On the other hand, just as weighty mss (A B L 33 M) have the words. Although a decision is not easy, the most satisfactory explanation seems to be that scribes were more prone to delete than to add the words here. They may have been puzzled as to why “the bread” should be mentioned without a corresponding mention of “fish.” Since neither Matt 14:21 or Luke 9:17 explicitly mention the bread, a desire for harmonization may have motivated the copyists as well. On the other hand, D and W are prone to longer, explanatory readings. Since they both lack the words here, it is likely that their archetypes also lacked the words. But given Mark’s pleonastic style, the good witnesses with “the bread,” and a reasonable explanation for the omission, “the bread” is most likely part of the initial text of Mark.
  62. Mark 6:45 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  63. Mark 6:45 sn See the note at Mark 1:19 for a description of the first-century fishing boat discovered in 1986 near Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
  64. Mark 6:48 tn This verse is one complete sentence in the Greek text, but it has been broken into two sentences in English for clarity.
  65. Mark 6:48 tn Grk “about the fourth watch of the night,” between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m.
  66. Mark 6:48 tn Or “on the lake.”
  67. Mark 6:48 tn The καί (kai) was translated so as to introduce a subordinate clause, i.e., with the use of “for.” See BDF §442.9.
  68. Mark 6:48 sn The statement he wanted to pass by them is somewhat difficult to understand. There are at least two common interpretations: (1) it refers to the perspective of the disciples, that is, from their point of view it seemed that Jesus wanted to pass by them; or (2) it refers to a theophany and uses the language of the Greek Old Testament (LXX) when God “passed by” Moses at Sinai (cf. Exod 33:19, 22). According to the latter alternative, Jesus is “passing by” the disciples during their struggle, in order to assure them of his presence with them. See W L. Lane, Mark (NICNT), 236.
  69. Mark 6:49 tn Grk “on the sea,” “on the lake.” The translation “water” has been used here for stylistic reasons (cf. the same phrase in v. 48).
  70. Mark 6:49 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  71. Mark 6:50 tn Grk “he spoke with them, and said to them.”
  72. Mark 6:53 sn Gennesaret was a fertile plain south of Capernaum (see also Matt 14:34). This name was also sometimes used for the Sea of Galilee (Luke 5:1).
  73. Mark 6:54 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  74. Mark 6:55 tn Grk “wherever they heard he was.”
  75. Mark 6:56 sn The marketplaces (Greek agora) were not only places of trade and commerce in the first century Greco-Roman world. They were places of discussion and dialogue (the “public square”), places of judgment (courts held session there), places for idle people and those seeking work, and places for children to play.
  76. Mark 6:56 tn Grk “asked that they might touch.”
New English Translation (NET)

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