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1 Chronicles 15 New English Translation (NET Bible)

David Brings the Ark to Jerusalem

15 David constructed buildings in the City of David; he then prepared a place for the ark of God and pitched a tent for it. Then David said, “Only the Levites may carry the ark of God, for the Lord chose them to carry the ark of the Lord and to serve before him perpetually.” David assembled all Israel at Jerusalem to bring the ark of the Lord up to the place he had prepared for it. David gathered together the descendants of Aaron and the Levites:

From the descendants of Kohath: Uriel the leader and 120 of his relatives.

From the descendants of Merari: Asaiah the leader and 220 of his relatives.

From the descendants of Gershom:[a] Joel the leader and 130 of his relatives.

From the descendants of Elizaphan: Shemaiah the leader and 200 of his relatives.

From the descendants of Hebron: Eliel the leader and 80 of his relatives.

10 From the descendants of Uzziel: Amminadab the leader and 112 of his relatives.

11 David summoned the priests Zadok and Abiathar, along with the Levites Uriel, Asaiah, Joel, Shemaiah, Eliel, and Amminadab. 12 He told them: “You are the leaders of the Levites’ families. You and your relatives must consecrate yourselves and bring the ark of the Lord God of Israel up to the place I have prepared for it. 13 The first time you did not carry it; that is why the Lord God attacked us, because we did not ask him about the proper way to carry it.”[b] 14 The priests and Levites consecrated themselves so they could bring up the ark of the Lord God of Israel. 15 The descendants of Levi carried the ark of God on their shoulders with poles, just as Moses had commanded in keeping with the Lord’s instruction.[c]

16 David told the leaders of the Levites to appoint some of their relatives as musicians; they were to play various instruments, including stringed instruments and cymbals, and to sing loudly and joyfully.[d] 17 So the Levites appointed Heman son of Joel; one of his relatives, Asaph son of Berechiah; one of the descendants of Merari,[e] Ethan son of Kushaiah; 18 along with some of their relatives who were second in rank, including Zechariah,[f] Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, and Jeiel, the gatekeepers.

19 The musicians Heman, Asaph, and Ethan were to sound the bronze cymbals; 20 Zechariah, Aziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah, and Benaiah were to play the harps according to the alamoth style;[g] 21 Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-Edom, Jeiel, and Azaziah were to play the lyres according to the sheminith style,[h] as led by[i] the director; 22 Kenaniah, the leader of the Levites, was in charge of transport,[j] for he was well-informed[k] on this matter; 23 Berechiah and Elkanah were guardians[l] of the ark; 24 Shebaniah, Joshaphat, Nethanel, Amasai, Zechariah, Benaiah, and Eliezer the priests were to blow the trumpets before the ark of God; Obed-Edom and Jehiel were also guardians[m] of the ark.

25 So David, the leaders of Israel, and the commanders of units of a thousand went to bring up the ark of the Lord’s covenant from the house of Obed-Edom with celebration. 26 When God helped the Levites who were carrying the ark of the Lord’s covenant, they sacrificed seven bulls and seven rams. 27 David was wrapped in a linen robe, as were all the Levites carrying the ark, the musicians, and Kenaniah the supervisor of transport and the musicians;[n] David also wore a linen ephod.[o] 28 All Israel brought up the ark of the Lord’s covenant; they were shouting, blowing trumpets, sounding cymbals, and playing stringed instruments. 29 As the ark of the Lord’s covenant entered the City of David, Michal, Saul’s daughter, looked out the window. When she saw King David jumping and celebrating, she despised him.[p]


  1. 1 Chronicles 15:7 sn Gershom is a variant spelling of the name Gershon.
  2. 1 Chronicles 15:13 tn Heb “because for what was at first [i.e., formerly] you [were] not, the Lord our God broke out against us, because we did not seek him concerning the procedure.”
  3. 1 Chronicles 15:15 tn Heb “word, message.”
  4. 1 Chronicles 15:16 tn Heb “causing to be heard to lift up with a voice of joy.”
  5. 1 Chronicles 15:17 tn The Hebrew text adds, “their brothers.”
  6. 1 Chronicles 15:18 tc The Hebrew text adds בֶּן (ben, “son”) here; the word is omitted in three Hebrew mss and most LXX mss. If the word is original, perhaps the name of Zechariah’s father was accidentally omitted. Some English versions treat the word as an additional name in the list (“Ben”; e.g., KJV, ASV, NASB).
  7. 1 Chronicles 15:20 tn The meaning of the Hebrew word עֲלָמוֹת (ʿalamot) is uncertain; perhaps it refers to a particular style of music. See HALOT 835-36 s.v. עַלְמָה.
  8. 1 Chronicles 15:21 tn The meaning of the Hebrew word שְׁמִינִית (sheminit) is uncertain; perhaps it refers to a particular style of music. See HALOT 1562 s.v. שְׁמִינֹי.
  9. 1 Chronicles 15:21 tn Heb “for” or “according to.”
  10. 1 Chronicles 15:22 tc The MT reads בְּמַשָּׂא יָסֹר בַּמַּשָּׂא (bemassa’ yasor bammassa’), leader of the Levites “in [the] lifting up, an instructor in lifting up.” The LXX reads ἄρχων τῶν ᾠδῶν (archōn tōn ōdōn) “ruler/leader of the songs,” apparently omitting the first Hebrew בְּמַשָּׂא (bemassa’) and then reading the similar sounding יָשֹׂר (yasor) “one who rules” for יָסֹר (yasor) “instructor.” The Vulgate associates the first Hebrew בְּמַשָּׂא (bemassa’) with prophesy (see note below) and the second with song. Luther renders “the master in song to teach them to sing” (see Keil and Delitzsch, The First Book of Chronicles, 204).tn Or “in charge of the singing,” i.e., was the director or conductor of music. The difficulties are: 1) the meaning of “lifting up,” 2) where to supply the verb “to be,” 3) choosing which elements of context to rely on. 1) The verb נָשָׂא (nasaʾ; “to lift, carry”) can mean to carry a load, but is also used in many idiomatic expressions, including to “raise” the voice. The noun מַשָּׂא (massaʾ) most often means a load or a prophetic announcement. DCH, a recent major dictionary, includes “perhaps music” under מַשָּׂא I, while noting that מַשָּׂא II is used at Qumran specifically as an “utterance or praise.” So מַשָּׂא likely refers either to carrying [the ark of the covenant] or to raising the voice/sound (קוֹל; qol) [of music]. A third possibility is that the expression is a technical term, a shorthand for the raising of hands in the conducting of music. 2) As a noun clause, the verb “to be” must be understood at some point, either “Kenaniah was leader of the Levites in [the] lifting up, an instructor in lifting up” or “Kenaniah, leader of the Levites in [the] lifting up, was an instructor in lifting up. 3) There are a four primary contextual considerations. A) Chapter 15 is about transporting the ark; verse 2 (but not 12-13) uses the root נָשָׂא (nasaʾ). B) Identifying what transporting activity Kenaniah would be trained/wise in and instructor of. They were no longer moving the tabernacle from place to place. C) Verse 16 appears to set the agenda for vss 19-22; it identifies musical instruments that Levites are appointed to in 19-21. Verse 16 last lists “causing the voice/sound (קוֹל; qol) to rise with joy.” The Hebrew root is רוּם (rum; “to be/make high”) not נָשָׂא, but this may only be due to the Hiphil stem. נָשָׂא is a very common verb but only occurs twice in the Hiphil, possibly due to a preference to switch verbs for the causative concept. D) A Kenaniah mentioned in 1 Chr 26:29 is in charge of external responsibilities, officers and judges. If this is the same Kenaniah, that would represent a significant change in responsibilities for an instructor of musical conducting, but may embrace oversight of transportation.
  11. 1 Chronicles 15:22 tn This is a Hiphil participle of בִּין (bin; “to understand”). In the Hiphil it means to act with skill or understanding, or to give understanding, i.e., to explain or teach.
  12. 1 Chronicles 15:23 tn Heb “gatekeepers.”
  13. 1 Chronicles 15:24 tn Heb “gatekeepers.”
  14. 1 Chronicles 15:27 tn Heb “the leader, the lifting up, the musicians.” See also the note on the word “matter” in v. 22.
  15. 1 Chronicles 15:27 sn An ephod was a priestly garment worn over the robe.
  16. 1 Chronicles 15:29 tn The Hebrew text adds “in her heart.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 44 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 44[a]

For the music director, by the Korahites; a well-written song.[b]

44 O God, we have clearly heard;[c]
our ancestors[d] have told us
what you did[e] in their days,
in ancient times.[f]
You, by your power,[g] defeated nations and settled our fathers on their land;[h]
you crushed[i] the people living there[j] and enabled our ancestors to occupy it.[k]
For they did not conquer[l] the land by their swords,
and they did not prevail by their strength,[m]
but rather by your power,[n] strength,[o] and good favor,[p]
for you were partial to[q] them.
You are my[r] king, O God.
Decree[s] Jacob’s[t] deliverance.
By your power[u] we will drive back[v] our enemies;
by your strength[w] we will trample down[x] our foes.[y]
For I do not trust in my bow,
and I do not prevail by my sword.
For you deliver[z] us from our enemies;
you humiliate[aa] those who hate us.
In God we boast all day long,
and we will continually give thanks to your name. (Selah)
But[ab] you rejected and embarrassed us.
You did not go into battle with our armies.[ac]
10 You made us retreat[ad] from the enemy.
Those who hate us take whatever they want from us.[ae]
11 You handed us[af] over like sheep to be eaten;
you scattered us among the nations.
12 You sold[ag] your people for a pittance;[ah]
you did not ask a high price for them.[ai]
13 You made us[aj] an object of disdain to our neighbors;
those who live on our borders taunt and insult us.[ak]
14 You made us[al] an object of ridicule[am] among the nations;
foreigners treat us with contempt.[an]
15 All day long I feel humiliated[ao]
and am overwhelmed with shame,[ap]
16 before the vindictive enemy
who ridicules and insults me.[aq]
17 All this has happened to us, even though we have not rejected you[ar]
or violated your covenant with us.[as]
18 We have not been unfaithful,[at]
nor have we disobeyed your commands.[au]
19 Yet you have battered us, leaving us a heap of ruins overrun by wild dogs;[av]
you have covered us with darkness.[aw]
20 If we had rejected our God,[ax]
and spread out our hands in prayer to another god,[ay]
21 would not God discover it,
for he knows[az] a person’s secret thoughts?[ba]
22 Yet because of you[bb] we are killed all day long;
we are treated like[bc] sheep at the slaughtering block.[bd]
23 Rouse yourself! Why do you sleep, O Lord?
Wake up![be] Do not reject us forever.
24 Why do you look the other way,[bf]
and ignore[bg] the way we are oppressed and mistreated?[bh]
25 For we lie in the dirt,
with our bellies pressed to the ground.[bi]
26 Rise up and help us.
Rescue us[bj] because of your loyal love.


  1. Psalm 44:1 sn Psalm 44. The speakers in this psalm (the worshiping community within the nation Israel) were disappointed with God. The psalm begins on a positive note, praising God for leading Israel to past military victories. Verses 1-8 appear to be a song of confidence and petition which the people recited prior to battle. But suddenly the mood changes as the nation laments a recent defeat. The stark contrast between the present and the past only heightens the nation’s confusion. Israel trusted in God for victory, but the Lord rejected them and allowed them to be humiliated in battle. If Israel had been unfaithful to God, their defeat would make sense, but the nation was loyal to the Lord. Comparing the Lord to a careless shepherd, the nation urges God to wake up and to extend his compassion to his suffering people.
  2. Psalm 44:1 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. See the note on the phrase “well-written song” in the superscription of Ps 42.
  3. Psalm 44:1 tn Heb “with our ears we have heard.”
  4. Psalm 44:1 tn Heb “fathers” (also in v. 2; the same Hebrew word may be translated either “fathers” or “ancestors” depending on the context.
  5. Psalm 44:1 tn Heb “the work you worked.”
  6. Psalm 44:1 tn Heb “in the days of old.” This refers specifically to the days of Joshua, during Israel’s conquest of the land, as vv. 2-3 indicate.
  7. Psalm 44:2 tn Heb “you, your hand.”
  8. Psalm 44:2 tn Heb “dispossessed nations and planted them.” The third masculine plural pronoun “them” refers to the fathers (v. 1). See Ps 80:8, 15.
  9. Psalm 44:2 tn The verb form in the Hebrew text is a Hiphil preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive) from רָעַע (raʿaʿ, “be evil; be bad”). If retained it apparently means, “you injured; harmed.” Some prefer to derive the verb from רָעַע (“break”; cf. NEB “breaking up the peoples”), in which case the form must be revocalized as Qal (since this verb is unattested in the Hiphil).
  10. Psalm 44:2 tn Or “peoples.”
  11. Psalm 44:2 tn Heb “and you sent them out.” The translation assumes that the third masculine plural pronoun “them” refers to the fathers (v. 1), as in the preceding parallel line. See Ps 80:11, where Israel, likened to a vine, “spreads out” its tendrils to the west and east. Another option is to take the “peoples” as the referent of the pronoun and translate, “and you sent them away,” though this does not provide as tight a parallel with the corresponding line.
  12. Psalm 44:3 tn Or “take possession of.”
  13. Psalm 44:3 tn Heb “and their arm did not save them.” The “arm” here symbolizes military strength.
  14. Psalm 44:3 tn Heb “your right hand.” The Lord’s “right hand” here symbolizes his power to protect and deliver (see Pss 17:7; 20:6; 21:8).
  15. Psalm 44:3 tn Heb “your arm.”
  16. Psalm 44:3 tn Heb “light of your face.” The idiom “light of your face” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
  17. Psalm 44:3 tn Or “favorable toward.”
  18. Psalm 44:4 sn The speaker changes here to an individual, perhaps the worship leader or the king. The oscillation between singular (vv. 4, 6) and plural (vv. 1-3, 5, 7-8) in vv. 1-8 may reflect an antiphonal ceremony.
  19. Psalm 44:4 tc The LXX assumes a participle here (מְצַוֶּה [metsavveh], “the one who commands/decrees”) which would stand in apposition to “my God.” It is possible that the MT, which has the imperative (צַוֵּה, tsavveh) form, has suffered haplography of the letter mem (ם). Note that the preceding word (אֱלֹהִים, ʾelohim) ends in mem. Another option is that the MT is divided in the wrong place; perhaps one could move the final mem from אֱלֹהִים to the beginning of the next word and read מְצַוֶּה אֱלֹהָי (ʾelohay metsavveh, “[You are my king,] my God, the one who decrees”).tn Or “command.” This may be the Israelites’ petition prior to the battle. See the introductory note to the psalm.
  20. Psalm 44:4 tn That is, Israel. See Pss 14:7; 22:23.
  21. Psalm 44:5 tn Heb “by you.”
  22. Psalm 44:5 tn Heb “gore” (like an ox). If this portion of the psalm contains the song of confidence/petition the Israelites recited prior to battle, then the imperfects here and in the next line may express their expectation of victory. Another option is that the imperfects function in an emphatic generalizing manner. In this case one might translate, “you [always] drive back…you [always] trample down.”sn The Hebrew verb translated “drive back” is literally “gore”; the imagery is that of a powerful wild ox that “gores” its enemies and tramples them underfoot.
  23. Psalm 44:5 tn Heb “in your name.” The Lord’s “name” refers here to his revealed character or personal presence. Specifically in this context his ability to deliver, protect, and energize for battle is in view (see Ps 54:1).
  24. Psalm 44:5 sn The image of the powerful wild ox continues; see the note on the phrase “drive back” in the preceding line.
  25. Psalm 44:5 tn Heb “those who rise up [against] us.”
  26. Psalm 44:7 tn Or “have delivered,” if past successes are in view. Another option is to take the perfect as rhetorical, emphasizing that victory is certain (note the use of the imperfect in vv. 5-6).
  27. Psalm 44:7 tn Or “have humiliated,” if past successes are in view. Another option is to take the perfect as rhetorical, emphasizing that victory is certain (note the use of the imperfect in vv. 5-6).
  28. Psalm 44:9 tn The particle אַף (ʾaf, “but”) is used here as a strong adversative contrasting the following statement with what precedes.
  29. Psalm 44:9 tn Heb “you did not go out with our armies.” The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
  30. Psalm 44:10 tn Heb “you caused us to turn backward.”
  31. Psalm 44:10 tn Heb “plunder for themselves.” The prepositional phrase לָמוֹ (lamo, “for themselves”) here has the nuance “at their will” or “as they please” (see Ps 80:6).
  32. Psalm 44:11 tn The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
  33. Psalm 44:12 tn The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
  34. Psalm 44:12 tn Heb “for what is not wealth.”
  35. Psalm 44:12 tn Heb “you did not multiply their purchase prices.”
  36. Psalm 44:13 tn The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
  37. Psalm 44:13 tn Heb “an [object of] taunting and [of] mockery to those around us.”
  38. Psalm 44:14 tn The prefixed verbal form is a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive).
  39. Psalm 44:14 tn Heb “a proverb,” or “[the subject of] a mocking song.”
  40. Psalm 44:14 tn Heb “a shaking of the head among the peoples.” Shaking the head was a derisive gesture (see Jer 18:16; Lam 2:15).
  41. Psalm 44:15 tn Heb “all the day my humiliation [is] in front of me.”
  42. Psalm 44:15 tn Heb “and the shame of my face covers me.”
  43. Psalm 44:16 tn Heb “from the voice of one who ridicules and insults, from the face of an enemy and an avenger.” See Ps 8:2.
  44. Psalm 44:17 tn Heb “we have not forgotten you.” To “forget” God refers here to worshiping false gods and thereby refusing to recognize his sovereignty (see v. 20, as well as Deut 8:19; Judg 3:7; 1 Sam 12:9; Isa 17:10; Jer 3:21; Ps 9:17).Thus the translation “we have not rejected you” has been used.
  45. Psalm 44:17 tn Heb “and we did not deal falsely with your covenant.”
  46. Psalm 44:18 tn Heb “our heart did not turn backward.” Cf. Ps 78:57.
  47. Psalm 44:18 tn Heb “and our steps did [not] turn aside from your path.” The negative particle is understood by ellipsis (see the preceding line). God’s “path” refers to his commands, i.e., the moral pathway he has prescribed for the psalmist. See Pss 17:5; 25:4.
  48. Psalm 44:19 tn Heb “yet you have battered us in a place of jackals.”
  49. Psalm 44:19 tn The Hebrew term צַלְמָוֶת (tsalmavet) has traditionally been understood as a compound noun meaning “shadow of death” (מָוֶת + צֵל [tsel + mavet]; see BDB 853 s.v. צַלְמָוֶת; cf. NASB). Other scholars prefer to vocalize the form צַלְמוּת (tsalmut) and understand it as an abstract noun (from the root צלם) meaning “darkness” (cf. NIV, NRSV). An examination of the word’s usage favors the latter derivation. It is frequently associated with darkness/night and contrasted with light/morning (see Job 3:5; 10:21-22; 12:22; 24:17; 28:3; 34:22; Ps 107:10, 14; Isa 9:1; Jer 13:16; Amos 5:8). In some cases the darkness described is associated with the realm of death (Job 10:21-22; 38:17), but this is a metaphorical application of the word and does not reflect its inherent meaning. In Ps 44:19 darkness symbolizes defeat and humiliation.
  50. Psalm 44:20 tn Heb “If we had forgotten the name of our God.” To “forget the name” here refers to rejecting the Lord’s authority (see Jer 23:27) and abandoning him as an object of prayer and worship (see the next line).
  51. Psalm 44:20 tn Heb “and spread out your hands to another god.” Spreading out the hands was a prayer gesture (see Exod 9:29, 33; 1 Kgs 8:22, 38; 2 Chr 6:12-13, 29; Ezra 9:15; Job 11:13; Isa 1:15). In its most fundamental sense זָר (zar, “another; foreign; strange”) refers to something that is outside one’s circle, often making association with it inappropriate. A “strange” god is an alien deity, an “outside god” (see L. A. Snijders, TDOT 4:54-55).
  52. Psalm 44:21 tn The active participle describes what is characteristically true.
  53. Psalm 44:21 tn Heb “would not God search out this, for he knows the hidden things of [the] heart?” The expression “search out” is used metonymically here, referring to discovery, the intended effect of a search. The “heart” (i.e., mind) is here viewed as the seat of one’s thoughts. The rhetorical question expects the answer, “Of course he would!” The point seems to be this: There is no way the Israelites who are the speakers in the psalm would reject God and turn to another god, for the omniscient God would easily discover such a sin.
  54. Psalm 44:22 tn The statement “because of you” (1) may simply indicate that God is the cause of the Israelites’ defeat (see vv. 9-14, where the nation’s situation is attributed directly to God’s activity, and cf. NEB, NRSV), or (2) it may suggest they suffer because of their allegiance to God (see Ps 69:7 and Jer 15:15). In this case one should translate, “for your sake” (cf. NASB, NIV). The citation of this verse in Rom 8:36 follows the LXX (Ps 43:23 LXX), where the Greek term ἕνεκεν (heneken; LXX ἕνεκα) may likewise mean “because of” or “for the sake of” (BDAG 334 s.v. ἕνεκα 1).
  55. Psalm 44:22 tn Or “regarded as.”
  56. Psalm 44:22 tn Heb “like sheep of slaughtering,” that is, sheep destined for slaughter.
  57. Psalm 44:23 sn Wake up! See Ps 35:23.
  58. Psalm 44:24 tn Heb “Why do you hide your face?” The idiom “hide the face” can mean “ignore” (see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9) or carry the stronger idea of “reject” (see Pss 30:7; 88:14).
  59. Psalm 44:24 tn Or “forget.”
  60. Psalm 44:24 tn Heb “our oppression and our affliction.”
  61. Psalm 44:25 tn Heb “for our being/life sinks down to the dirt, our belly clings to the earth.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being, life”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.
  62. Psalm 44:26 tn Or “redeem us.” See Pss 25:22; 26:11; 69:18; 119:134.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Mark 12 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Parable of the Tenants

12 Then[a] he began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard.[b] He put a fence around it, dug a pit for its winepress, and built a watchtower. Then[c] he leased it to tenant farmers[d] and went on a journey. At harvest time he sent a slave[e] to the tenants to collect from them[f] his portion of the crop.[g] But[h] those tenants[i] seized his slave,[j] beat him,[k] and sent him away empty-handed.[l] So[m] he sent another slave to them again. This one they struck on the head and treated outrageously. He sent another, and that one they killed. This happened to many others, some of whom were beaten, others killed. He had one left, his one dear son.[n] Finally he sent him to them, saying, ‘They will respect my son.’ But those tenants said to one another, ‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him and the inheritance will be ours!’ So[o] they seized him,[p] killed him, and threw his body[q] out of the vineyard.[r] What then will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy[s] those tenants and give the vineyard to others.[t] 10 Have you not read this scripture:

The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone.[u]
11 This is from the Lord, and it is marvelous in our eyes’?”[v]

12 Now[w] they wanted to arrest him (but they feared the crowd), because they realized that he told this parable against them. So[x] they left him and went away.[y]

Paying Taxes to Caesar

13 Then[z] they sent some of the Pharisees[aa] and Herodians[ab] to trap him with his own words.[ac] 14 When they came they said to him, “Teacher, we know that you are truthful and do not court anyone’s favor, because you show no partiality[ad] but teach the way of God in accordance with the truth.[ae] Is it right[af] to pay taxes[ag] to Caesar[ah] or not? Should we pay or shouldn’t we?” 15 But he saw through their hypocrisy and said[ai] to them, “Why are you testing me? Bring me a denarius[aj] and let me look at it.” 16 So[ak] they brought one, and he said to them, “Whose image[al] is this, and whose inscription?” They replied,[am] “Caesar’s.” 17 Then Jesus said to them, “Give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”[an] And they were utterly amazed at him.

Marriage and the Resurrection

18 Sadducees[ao] (who say there is no resurrection)[ap] also came to him and asked him,[aq] 19 “Teacher, Moses wrote for us: ‘If a mans brother dies and leaves a wife but no children, that man[ar] must marry[as] the widow and father children[at] for his brother.’[au] 20 There were seven brothers. The first one married,[av] and when he died he had no children. 21 The second married her and died without any children, and likewise the third. 22 None of the seven had children. Finally, the woman died too. 23 In the resurrection, when they rise again,[aw] whose wife will she be? For all seven had married her.”[ax] 24 Jesus said to them, “Aren’t you deceived[ay] for this reason, because you don’t know the scriptures or the power of God? 25 For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels[az] in heaven. 26 Now as for the dead being raised,[ba] have you not read in the book of Moses, in the passage about the bush,[bb] how God said to him, ‘I am the God of Abraham, the[bc] God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’?[bd] 27 He is not the God of the dead but of the living.[be] You are badly mistaken!”

The Greatest Commandment

28 Now[bf] one of the experts in the law[bg] came and heard them debating. When he saw that Jesus[bh] answered them well, he asked him, “Which commandment is the most important of all?” 29 Jesus answered, “The most important is: ‘Listen, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. 30 Love[bi] the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.’[bj] 31 The second is: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’[bk] There is no other commandment greater than these.” 32 The expert in the law said to him, “That is true, Teacher; you are right to say that he is one, and there is no one else besides him.[bl] 33 And to love him with all your heart, with all your mind, and with all your strength[bm] and to love your neighbor as yourself[bn] is more important than all burnt offerings and sacrifices.” 34 When Jesus saw that he had answered thoughtfully, he said to him, “You are not far from the kingdom of God.”[bo] Then no one dared any longer to question him.

The Messiah: David’s Son and Lord

35 While Jesus was teaching in the temple courts, he said, “How is it that the experts in the law[bp] say that the Christ[bq] is David’s son?[br] 36 David himself, by the Holy Spirit, said,

The Lord said to my lord,[bs]
Sit at my right hand,
until I put your enemies under your feet.”’[bt]

37 If David himself calls him ‘Lord,’ how can he be his son?”[bu] And the large crowd was listening to him with delight.

Warnings About Experts in the Law

38 In his teaching Jesus[bv] also said, “Watch out for the experts in the law.[bw] They like walking[bx] around in long robes and elaborate greetings[by] in the marketplaces,[bz] 39 and the best seats in the synagogues[ca] and the places of honor at banquets. 40 They[cb] devour widows’ property,[cc] and as a show make long prayers. These men will receive a more severe punishment.”

The Widow’s Offering

41 Then[cd] he[ce] sat down opposite the offering box,[cf] and watched the crowd putting coins into it. Many rich people were throwing in large amounts. 42 And a poor widow came and put in two small copper coins,[cg] worth less than a penny. 43 He called his disciples and said to them, “I tell you the truth,[ch] this poor widow has put more into the offering box[ci] than all the others.[cj] 44 For they all gave out of their wealth.[ck] But she, out of her poverty, put in what she had to live on, everything she had.”[cl]


  1. Mark 12:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  2. Mark 12:1 sn The vineyard is a figure for Israel in the OT (Isa 5:1-7). The nation and its leaders are the tenants, so the vineyard here may well refer to the promise that resides within the nation. The imagery is like that in Rom 11:11-24.
  3. Mark 12:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  4. Mark 12:1 sn The leasing of land to tenant farmers was common in this period.
  5. Mark 12:2 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 10:44.sn This slave (along with the others) represent the prophets God sent to the nation, who were mistreated and rejected.
  6. Mark 12:2 tn Grk “from the tenants,” but this is redundant in English, so the pronoun (“them”) was used in the translation.
  7. Mark 12:2 tn Grk “from the fruits of the vineyard.”
  8. Mark 12:3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  9. Mark 12:3 tn Grk “But they”; the referent (the tenants, v. 1) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  10. Mark 12:3 tn Grk “seizing him, they beat and sent away empty-handed.” The referent of the direct object of “seizing” (the slave sent by the owner) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The objects of the verbs “beat” and “sent away” have been supplied in the translation to conform to English style. Greek often omits direct objects when they are clear from the context.
  11. Mark 12:3 sn The image of the tenants beating up the owner’s slave pictures the nation’s rejection of the prophets and their message.
  12. Mark 12:3 sn The slaves being sent empty-handed suggests that the vineyard was not producing any fruit—and thus neither was the nation of Israel.
  13. Mark 12:4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ mistreatment of the first slave.
  14. Mark 12:6 tn Grk “one beloved son.” See comment at Mark 1:11.sn The owner’s decision to send his one dear son represents God sending Jesus.
  15. Mark 12:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  16. Mark 12:8 tn Grk “seizing him.” The participle λαβόντες (labontes) has been translated as attendant circumstance.
  17. Mark 12:8 tn Grk “him.”
  18. Mark 12:8 sn Throwing the heir’s body out of the vineyard pictures Jesus’ death outside of Jerusalem.
  19. Mark 12:9 sn The statement that the owner will come and destroy those tenants is a promise of judgment; see Luke 13:34-35; 19:41-44.
  20. Mark 12:9 sn The warning that the owner would give the vineyard to others suggests that the care of the promise and the nation’s hope would be passed to others. This eventually looks to Gentile inclusion; see Eph 2:11-22.
  21. Mark 12:10 tn Or “capstone,” “keystone.” Although these meanings are lexically possible, the imagery in Eph 2:20-22 and 1 Cor 3:11 indicates that the term κεφαλὴ γωνίας (kephalē gōnias) refers to a cornerstone, not a capstone.sn The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. The use of Ps 118:22-23 and the “stone imagery” as a reference to Christ and his suffering and exaltation is common in the NT (see also Matt 21:42; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11; 1 Pet 2:6-8; cf. also Eph 2:20). The irony in the use of Ps 118:22-23 in Mark 12:10-11 is that in the OT, Israel was the one rejected (or perhaps her king) by the Gentiles, but in the NT it is Jesus who is rejected by Israel.
  22. Mark 12:11 sn A quotation from Ps 118:22-23.
  23. Mark 12:12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to introduce a somewhat parenthetical remark by the author.
  24. Mark 12:12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  25. Mark 12:12 sn The point of the parable in Mark 12:1-12 is that the leaders of the nation have been rejected by God and the vineyard (v. 9, referring to the nation and its privileged status) will be taken from them and given to others (an allusion to the Gentiles).
  26. Mark 12:13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  27. Mark 12:13 sn See the note on Pharisees in 2:16.
  28. Mark 12:13 sn Pharisees and Herodians made a very interesting alliance. W. W. Wessel (“Mark,” EBC 8:733) comments: “The Herodians were as obnoxious to the Pharisees on political grounds as the Sadducees were on theological grounds. Yet the two groups united in their opposition to Jesus. Collaboration in wickedness, as well as goodness, has great power. Their purpose was to trip Jesus up in his words so that he would lose the support of the people, leaving the way open for them to destroy him.” See also the note on “Herodians” in Mark 3:6.
  29. Mark 12:13 tn Grk “trap him in word.”
  30. Mark 12:14 tn Grk “and it is not a concern to you about anyone because you do not see the face of men.”
  31. Mark 12:14 sn Teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. Very few comments are as deceitful as this one; they did not really believe this at all. The question of the Pharisees and Herodians was specifically designed to trap Jesus.
  32. Mark 12:14 tn Or “lawful,” that is, in accordance with God’s divine law. On the syntax of ἔξεστιν (exestin) with an infinitive and accusative, see BDF §409.3.
  33. Mark 12:14 tn According to L&N 57.180 the term κῆνσος (kēnsos) was borrowed from Latin and referred to a poll tax, a tax paid by each adult male to the Roman government.sn This question concerning taxes was specifically designed to trap Jesus. If he answered yes, then his opponents could publicly discredit him as a sympathizer with Rome. If he answered no, then they could go to the Roman governor and accuse Jesus of rebellion.
  34. Mark 12:14 tn Or “the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).
  35. Mark 12:15 tn Grk “Aware of their hypocrisy he said.”
  36. Mark 12:15 tn Here the specific name of the coin was retained in the translation, because not all coins in circulation in Palestine at the time carried the image of Caesar. In other places δηνάριον (dēnarion) has been translated simply as “silver coin” with an explanatory note.sn A denarius was a silver coin stamped with the image of the emperor and worth approximately one day’s wage for a laborer.
  37. Mark 12:16 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate their response to Jesus’ request for a coin.
  38. Mark 12:16 tn Or “whose likeness.”sn In this passage Jesus points to the image (Grk εἰκών, eikōn) of Caesar on the coin. This same Greek word is used in Gen 1:26 (LXX) to state that humanity is made in the “image” of God. Jesus is making a subtle yet powerful contrast: Caesar’s image is on the denarius, so he can lay claim to money through taxation, but God’s image is on humanity, so he can lay claim to each individual life.
  39. Mark 12:16 tn Grk “they said to him.”
  40. Mark 12:17 sn Jesus’ answer to give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s was a both/and, not the questioners’ either/or. So he slipped out of their trap.
  41. Mark 12:18 sn The Sadducees controlled the official political structures of Judaism at this time, being the majority members of the Sanhedrin. They were known as extremely strict on law and order issues (Josephus, J. W. 2.8.2 [2.119], 2.8.14 [2.164-166]; Ant. 13.5.9 [13.171-173], 13.10.6 [13.293-298], 18.1.2 [18.11], 18.1.4 [18.16-17], 20.9.1 [20.199]; Life 2 [10-11]). They also did not believe in resurrection or in angels, an important detail in v. 25. See also Matt 3:7; 16:1-12; 22:23-34; Luke 20:27-38; Acts 4:1; 5:17; 23:6-8.
  42. Mark 12:18 sn This remark is best regarded as a parenthetical note by the author.
  43. Mark 12:18 tn Grk “and asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  44. Mark 12:19 tn Grk “his brother”; but this would be redundant in English with the same phrase “his brother” at the end of the verse, so most modern translations render this phrase “the man” (so NIV, NRSV).
  45. Mark 12:19 tn The use of ἵνα (hina) with imperatival force is unusual (BDF §470.1).
  46. Mark 12:19 tn Grk “raise up seed” (an idiom for fathering children).
  47. Mark 12:19 sn A quotation from Deut 25:5. This practice is called levirate marriage (see also Ruth 4:1-12; Mishnah, m. Yevamot; Josephus, Ant. 4.8.23 [4.254-256]). The levirate law is described in Deut 25:5-10. The brother of a man who died without a son had an obligation to marry his brother’s widow. This served several purposes: It provided for the widow in a society where a widow with no children to care for her would be reduced to begging, and it preserved the name of the deceased, who would be regarded as the legal father of the first son produced from that marriage.
  48. Mark 12:20 tn Grk “took a wife” (an idiom for marrying a woman).
  49. Mark 12:23 tc The words “when they rise again” are missing from several significant witnesses (א B C D L W Δ Ψ 33 579 892 c r1 k syp co). They are included in A Θ ƒ1,(13) M lat sys,h. The strong external pedigree of the shorter reading gives one pause. Nevertheless, the Alexandrian and other mss most likely dropped the words from the text either to conform the wording to the parallel in Matt 22:28 or because “when they rise again” was redundant. But the inclusion of these words is thoroughly compatible with Mark’s usually pleonastic style (see TCGNT 93), and therefore most probably authentic to Mark’s Gospel.
  50. Mark 12:23 tn Grk “For the seven had her as wife.”
  51. Mark 12:24 tn Or “mistaken” (cf. BDAG 822 s.v. πλανάω 2.c.γ).
  52. Mark 12:25 sn Angels do not die, nor do they eat according to Jewish tradition (1 En. 15:6; 51:4; Wis 5:5; 2 Bar. 51:10; 1QH 3.21-23).
  53. Mark 12:26 tn Grk “Now as for the dead that they are raised.”
  54. Mark 12:26 sn See Exod 3:6. Jesus used a common form of rabbinic citation here to refer to the passage in question.
  55. Mark 12:26 tn Grk “and the,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
  56. Mark 12:26 sn A quotation from Exod 3:6.
  57. Mark 12:27 sn He is not God of the dead but of the living. Jesus’ point was that if God could identify himself as God of the three old patriarchs, then they must still be alive when God spoke to Moses; and so they must be raised.
  58. Mark 12:28 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  59. Mark 12:28 tn Or “One of the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  60. Mark 12:28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  61. Mark 12:30 tn Grk “You will love.” The future indicative is used here with imperatival force (see ExSyn 452 and 569).
  62. Mark 12:30 sn A quotation from Deut 6:4-5 and Josh 22:5 (LXX). The fourfold reference to different parts of the person says, in effect, that one should love God with all one’s being.
  63. Mark 12:31 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.
  64. Mark 12:32 sn A quotation from Deut 4:35.
  65. Mark 12:33 sn A quotation from Deut 6:5.
  66. Mark 12:33 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.
  67. Mark 12:34 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself.
  68. Mark 12:35 tn Or “that the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  69. Mark 12:35 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.
  70. Mark 12:35 sn It was a common belief in Judaism that Messiah would be David’s son in that he would come from the lineage of David. On this point the Pharisees agreed and were correct. But their understanding was nonetheless incomplete, for Messiah is also David’s Lord. With this statement Jesus was affirming that, as the Messiah, he is both God and man.
  71. Mark 12:36 sn The Lord said to my lord. With David being the speaker, this indicates his respect for his descendant (referred to as my lord). Jesus was arguing, as the ancient exposition assumed, that the passage is about the Lord’s anointed. The passage looks at an enthronement of this figure and a declaration of honor for him as he takes his place at the side of God. In Jerusalem, the king’s palace was located to the right of the temple to indicate this kind of relationship. Jesus was pressing the language here to get his opponents to reflect on how great Messiah is.
  72. Mark 12:36 sn A quotation from Ps 110:1.
  73. Mark 12:37 tn Grk “David himself calls him ‘Lord.’ So how is he his son?” The conditional nuance, implicit in Greek, has been made explicit in the translation (cf. Matt 22:45).
  74. Mark 12:38 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  75. Mark 12:38 tn Or “for the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  76. Mark 12:38 tn In Greek this is the only infinitive in vv. 38-39. It would be awkward in English to join an infinitive to the following noun clauses, so this has been translated as a gerund.
  77. Mark 12:38 sn There is later Jewish material in the Talmud that spells out such greetings in detail. See H. Windisch, TDNT 1:498.
  78. Mark 12:38 sn See the note on marketplaces in Mark 6:56.
  79. Mark 12:39 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.
  80. Mark 12:40 tn Grk “who,” continuing the sentence begun in v. 38.
  81. Mark 12:40 tn Grk “houses,” “households”; however, the term can have the force of “property” or “possessions” as well (O. Michel, TDNT 5:131; BDAG 695 s.v. οἶκια 1.a).
  82. Mark 12:41 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  83. Mark 12:41 tc Most mss, predominantly of the Western and Byzantine texts (A D W Θ ƒ1,13 33 2542 M lat), have ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (ho Iēsous, “Jesus”) as the explicit subject here, while א B L Δ Ψ 892 lack the name. A natural scribal tendency is to expand the text, especially to add the Lord’s name as the explicit subject of a verb. Scribes much less frequently omitted the Lord’s name (cf. the readings of W Θ 565 1424 in Mark 12:17). The internal and external evidence support one another here in behalf of the shorter reading.
  84. Mark 12:41 tn On the term γαζοφυλάκιον (gazophulakion), often translated “treasury,” see BDAG 186 s.v., which states, “For Mk 12:41, 43; Lk 21:1 the mng. contribution box or receptacle is attractive. Acc. to Mishnah, Shekalim 6, 5 there were in the temple 13 such receptacles in the form of trumpets. But even in these passages the general sense of ‘treasury’ is prob., for the contributions would go [into] the treasury via the receptacles.” Based upon the extra-biblical evidence (see sn following), however, the translation opts to refer to the actual receptacles and not the treasury itself.sn The offering box probably refers to the receptacles in the temple forecourt by the Court of Women used to collect freewill offerings. These are mentioned by Josephus, J. W. 5.5.2 (5.200); 6.5.2 (6.282); Ant. 19.6.1 (19.294), and in 1 Macc 14:49 and 2 Macc 3:6, 24, 28, 40 (see also Luke 21:1; John 8:20).
  85. Mark 12:42 sn These two small copper coins were lepta (sing. “lepton”), the smallest and least valuable coins in circulation in Palestine, worth one-half of a quadrans or 1/128 of a denarius, or about six minutes of an average daily wage. This was next to nothing in value.
  86. Mark 12:43 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  87. Mark 12:43 tn See the note on the term “offering box” in v. 41.
  88. Mark 12:43 sn Has put more into the offering box than all the others. With God, giving is weighed evaluatively, not counted. The widow was praised because she gave sincerely and at some considerable cost to herself.
  89. Mark 12:44 tn Grk “out of what abounded to them.”
  90. Mark 12:44 sn The contrast between this passage, 12:41-44, and what has come before in 11:27-12:40 is remarkable. The woman is set in stark contrast to the religious leaders. She was a poor widow, they were rich. She was uneducated in the law, they were well educated in the law. She was a woman, they were men. But whereas they evidenced no faith and actually stole money from God and men (cf. 11:17), she evidenced great faith and gave out of her extreme poverty everything she had.
New English Translation (NET)

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