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1 Chronicles 12 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Warriors Who Joined David at Ziklag

12 These were the men who joined David in Ziklag, when he was banished[a] from the presence of Saul son of Kish. (They were among the warriors who assisted him in battle. They were armed with bows and could shoot arrows or sling stones right or left-handed. They were fellow tribesmen of Saul from Benjamin.[b]) These were:[c]

Ahiezer, the leader, and Joash, the sons of Shemaah the Gibeathite; Jeziel and Pelet, the sons of Azmaveth; Berachah, Jehu the Anathothite,

Ishmaiah the Gibeonite, one of the thirty warriors and their leader, (12:5)[d] Jeremiah, Jahaziel, Johanan, Jozabad the Gederathite,

(12:6) Eluzai, Jerimoth, Bealiah, Shemariah, Shephatiah the Haruphite,

Elkanah, Isshiah, Azarel, Joezer, and Jashobeam, who were Korahites,

and Joelah and Zebadiah, the sons of Jeroham from Gedor.

Some of the Gadites joined David at the stronghold in the wilderness. They were warriors who were trained for battle; they carried shields and spears. They were as fierce as lions and could run as quickly as gazelles across the hills.[e] Ezer was the leader, Obadiah the second in command, Eliab the third, 10 Mishmannah the fourth, Jeremiah the fifth, 11 Attai the sixth, Eliel the seventh, 12 Johanan the eighth, Elzabad the ninth, 13 Jeremiah the tenth, and Machbannai the eleventh. 14 These Gadites were military leaders; the least led a hundred men, the greatest a thousand.[f] 15 They crossed the Jordan River[g] in the first month,[h] when it was overflowing its banks, and routed those living in all the valleys to the east and west.[i]

16 Some from Benjamin and Judah also came to David’s stronghold. 17 David went out to meet them and said,[j] “If you come to me in peace and want to help me, then I will make an alliance with you.[k] But if you come to betray me to my enemies when I have not harmed you,[l] may the God of our ancestors[m] take notice and judge!” 18 But a spirit[n] empowered[o] Amasai, the leader of the group of warriors known as the Thirty, and he said:[p]

“We are yours, O David!

We support[q] you, O son of Jesse!

May you greatly prosper.[r]

May those who help you prosper.[s]

Indeed[t] your God helps you!”

So David accepted them and made them leaders of raiding bands.

19 Some men from Manasseh joined[u] David when he went with the Philistines to fight against Saul. (But in the end they did not help the Philistines because, after taking counsel, the Philistine lords sent David away, saying, “It would be disastrous for us if he deserts to his master Saul.”)[v] 20 When David[w] went to Ziklag, the men of Manasseh who joined him were Adnach, Jozabad, Jediael, Michael, Jozabad, Elihu, and Zillethai, leaders of 1,000 soldiers each in the tribe of Manasseh. 21 They helped David fight against raiding bands, for all of them were warriors and leaders in the army. 22 Each day men came to help David until his army became very large.[x]

Support for David in Hebron

23 The following is a record of the armed warriors who came with their leaders and joined David in Hebron in order to make David king in Saul’s place, in accordance with the Lord’s decree:[y]

24 From Judah came 6,800 trained warriors carrying shields and spears.[z]

25 From Simeon there were 7,100 warriors.

26 From Levi there were 4,600. 27 Jehoiada, the leader of Aaron’s descendants, brought 3,700 men with him, 28 along with Zadok, a young warrior, and 22 leaders from his family.

29 From Benjamin, Saul’s tribe,[aa] there were 3,000, most of whom, up to that time, had been loyal to Saul.[ab]

30 From Ephraim there were 20,800 warriors, who had brought fame to their families.[ac]

31 From the half-tribe of Manasseh there were 18,000 who had been designated by name to come and make David king.

32 From Issachar there were 200 leaders and all their relatives at their command—they understood the times and knew what Israel should do.[ad]

33 From Zebulun there were 50,000 warriors who were prepared for battle, equipped with all kinds of weapons, and ready to give their undivided loyalty.[ae]

34 From Naphtali there were 1,000 officers, along with 37,000 men carrying shields and spears.

35 From Dan there were 28,600 men prepared for battle.

36 From Asher there were 40,000 warriors prepared for battle.

37 From the other side of the Jordan, from Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, there were 120,000 men armed with all kinds of weapons.

38 All these men were warriors who were ready to march.[af] They came to Hebron to make David king over all Israel by acclamation;[ag] all the rest of the Israelites also were in agreement that David should become king.[ah] 39 They spent three days feasting[ai] there with David, for their relatives had given them provisions. 40 Also their neighbors, from as far away as Issachar, Zebulun, and Naphtali, were bringing food on donkeys, camels, mules, and oxen. There were large supplies of flour, fig cakes, raisins, wine, olive oil, beef, and lamb,[aj] for Israel was celebrating.[ak]


  1. 1 Chronicles 12:1 tn Heb “kept from.”
  2. 1 Chronicles 12:2 tn Heb “ones armed with bow[s], using the right hand and the left hand with stones and with arrows with the bow, from the brothers of Saul from Benjamin.”
  3. 1 Chronicles 12:2 tn The words “These were” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons, because of the length of the intervening material since the beginning of the verse.
  4. 1 Chronicles 12:4 sn In the Hebrew text (BHS) a verse division occurs at this point, and for the remainder of the chapter the verse numbers of the Hebrew Bible differ by one from the English Bible. Thus 1 Chr 12:4b ET = 12:5 HT, and 12:5-40 ET = 12:6-41 HT. Beginning with 13:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.
  5. 1 Chronicles 12:8 tn Heb “warriors, men of battle for war, prepared with shield and spear, and [like] the face of a lion were their faces, and like gazelles on the hills to hurry.”
  6. 1 Chronicles 12:14 tn Heb “one for a hundred the small, and the great for a thousand.” Another option is to translate the preposition ל (lamed) as “against” and to understand this as a hyperbolic reference to their prowess: “the least could stand against a hundred, the greatest against a thousand.”
  7. 1 Chronicles 12:15 tn The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied for clarity.
  8. 1 Chronicles 12:15 sn That is, March-April.
  9. 1 Chronicles 12:15 tn Heb “and they chased all the valleys to the east and to the west.”
  10. 1 Chronicles 12:17 tn Heb “and David went out before them and answered and said to them.”
  11. 1 Chronicles 12:17 tn Heb “there will be to me concerning you a heart for unity.”
  12. 1 Chronicles 12:17 tn Heb “with no violence in my hands.”
  13. 1 Chronicles 12:17 tn Heb “fathers.”
  14. 1 Chronicles 12:18 tn Perhaps “the Spirit,” but the text has simply רוּחַ (ruakh) with no article (suggesting an indefinite reference).
  15. 1 Chronicles 12:18 tn Heb “clothed.”
  16. 1 Chronicles 12:18 tn The words “and he said” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
  17. 1 Chronicles 12:18 tn Heb “are with.”
  18. 1 Chronicles 12:18 tn Heb “Peace, peace to you.” The Hebrew term שָׁלוֹם (shalom, “peace”) is repeated to emphasize degree.
  19. 1 Chronicles 12:18 tn Heb “and peace to the one who helps you.”
  20. 1 Chronicles 12:18 tn Or “for.”
  21. 1 Chronicles 12:19 tn Heb “fell upon,” here in a good sense.
  22. 1 Chronicles 12:19 tn Heb “and they did not help them for by counsel they sent him away, the lords of the Philistines, saying, ‘With our heads he will fall to his master Saul.’”
  23. 1 Chronicles 12:20 tn Heb “he”; the referent (David) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  24. 1 Chronicles 12:22 tn Heb “for at the time of day in a day they were coming to David to help him until [there was] a great camp like the camp of God.” The term אֱלֹהִים (ʾelohim, “God”) is probably used idiomatically here to indicate the superlative.
  25. 1 Chronicles 12:23 tn Heb “these are the numbers of the heads of the forces armed for battle [who] came to David in Hebron to turn over the kingdom of Saul to him according to the mouth of the Lord.”
  26. 1 Chronicles 12:24 tn Heb “the sons of Judah, carrying shield and spear, [were] 6,800 armed for battle.”
  27. 1 Chronicles 12:29 tn Heb “from the sons of Benjamin, the brothers of Saul.”
  28. 1 Chronicles 12:29 tn Heb “and until then, the majority of them were keeping the charge of the house of Saul.”
  29. 1 Chronicles 12:30 tn Heb “men of names for the house of their fathers.”
  30. 1 Chronicles 12:32 tn Heb “from the sons of Issachar, knowers of understanding for times to know what Israel should do, their heads [were] 200, and all their brothers according to their mouth.”
  31. 1 Chronicles 12:33 tn Heb “from Zebulun, those going out for battle, prepared for war with all weapons of war, 50,000, and to help without a heart and a heart.”
  32. 1 Chronicles 12:38 tc Heb “all these [were] men of war, helpers of the battle line.” The present translation assumes an emendation of עֹדְרֵי (ʿodere, “helpers of”) to עֹרְכֵי, (ʿorekhe, “prepared for”).
  33. 1 Chronicles 12:38 tn Heb “with a complete heart they came to Hebron to make David king over all Israel.”
  34. 1 Chronicles 12:38 tn Heb “and also all the rest of Israel [was of] one mind to make David king.”
  35. 1 Chronicles 12:39 tn Heb “eating and drinking.”
  36. 1 Chronicles 12:40 tn Heb “cattle and sheep.”
  37. 1 Chronicles 12:40 tn Heb “for there was joy in Israel.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 41 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 41[a]

For the music director, a psalm of David.

41 How blessed[b] is the one who treats the poor properly.[c]
When trouble comes,[d] may[e] the Lord deliver him.[f]
May the Lord protect him and save his life.[g]
May he be blessed[h] in the land.
Do not turn him over[i] to his enemies.[j]
The Lord supports[k] him on his sickbed;
you have healed him from his illness.[l]
As for me, I said:[m]
“O Lord, have mercy on me!
Heal me, for I have sinned against you.
My enemies ask this cruel question about me,[n]
‘When will he finally die and be forgotten?’[o]
When someone comes to visit,[p] he pretends to be friendly;[q]
he thinks of ways to defame me,[r]
and when he leaves he slanders me.[s]
All who hate me whisper insults about me to one another;[t]
they plan ways to harm me.
They say,[u]
‘An awful disease[v] overwhelms him,[w]
and now that he is bedridden he will never recover.’[x]
Even my close friend[y] whom I trusted,
he who shared meals with me, has turned against me.[z]
10 As for you, O Lord, have mercy on me and raise me up,
so I can pay them back!”[aa]
11 By this[ab] I know that you are pleased with me,
for my enemy does[ac] not triumph[ad] over me.
12 As for me, you uphold[ae] me because of my integrity;[af]
you allow[ag] me permanent access to your presence.[ah]
13 The Lord God of Israel deserves praise[ai]
in the future and forevermore.[aj]
We agree! We agree![ak]


  1. Psalm 41:1 sn Psalm 41. The psalmist is confident (vv. 11-12) that the Lord has heard his request to be healed (vv. 4-10), and he anticipates the joy he will experience when the Lord intervenes (vv. 1-3). One must assume that the psalmist is responding to a divine oracle of assurance (see P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 [WBC], 319-20). The final verse is a fitting conclusion to this psalm, but it is also serves as a fitting conclusion to the first “book” (or major editorial division) of the Psalter. Similar statements appear at or near the end of each of the second, third, and fourth “books” of the Psalter (see Pss 72:19; 89:52, and 106:48 respectively).
  2. Psalm 41:1 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1, 3; 2:12; 34:9; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
  3. Psalm 41:1 sn One who treats the poor properly. The psalmist is characterizing himself as such an individual and supplying a reason why God has responded favorably to his prayer. The Lord’s attitude toward the merciful mirrors their treatment of the poor.
  4. Psalm 41:1 tn Heb “in the day of trouble” (see Ps 27:5).
  5. Psalm 41:1 tn The prefixed verb יְמַלְּטֵהוּ (yemalletehu) has the form of the pronominal suffix typical of the jussive not the imperfect (יְמַלְּטֶנּוּ, yemalletennu). The jussive form continues throughout the next verse. The principle that begins v. 1 is the basis for the petition in vv. 1b-2. Verse 3 transitions to a statement of confidence and testimony.
  6. Psalm 41:1 tn That is, the one who has been kind to the poor.
  7. Psalm 41:2 tn The prefixed verbal forms are taken as jussives in the translation because of the form of the pronominal suffix (-ehu rather than -ennu) and because the jussive is clearly used in the final line of the verse.
  8. Psalm 41:2 tc The translation follows the consonantal Hebrew text (Kethib), which has a Pual (passive) prefixed form, regarded here as a jussive. The Pual of the verb אָשַׁר (ʾashar) also appears in Prov 3:18. The marginal reading (Qere) assumes a vav (ו) consecutive and Pual perfect. Some, with the support of the LXX, change the verb to a Piel (active) form with an objective pronominal suffix, “and may he bless him,” or “and he will bless him” (cf. NIV).
  9. Psalm 41:2 tn The negative particle אַל (ʾal) before the prefixed verbal form indicates the verb is a jussive and the statement a prayer. Those who want to take v. 2 as a statement of confidence suggest emending the negative particle to לֹא (loʾ), which is used with the imperfect. See the earlier note on the verbal forms in line one of this verse. According to GKC 322 §109.e, this is a case where the jussive is used rhetorically to “express that something cannot or should not happen.” In this case one might translate, “you will not turn him over to his enemies,” and take the preceding verbal forms as indicative in mood. However, none of the examples offered in GKC for this use of the jussive are compelling.
  10. Psalm 41:2 tn Heb “do not give him over to the desire of his enemies” (see Ps 27:12).
  11. Psalm 41:3 tn The prefixed verbal form could be taken as jussive, continuing the prayer of v. 2, but the parallel line in v. 3b employs the perfect, suggesting that the psalmist is again speaking in the indicative mood (see v. 1b). The imperfect can be understood as future or as generalizing (see v. 1).
  12. Psalm 41:3 tn Heb “all his bed you have changed in his illness.” The perfect verb may indicate a testimony of what God has done in the past as part of the statement of confidence.
  13. Psalm 41:4 sn In vv. 4-10 the psalmist recites the prayer of petition and lament he offered to the Lord.
  14. Psalm 41:5 tn Heb “my enemies speak evil concerning me.”
  15. Psalm 41:5 tn Heb “and his name perish.”
  16. Psalm 41:6 tn Heb “to see.”
  17. Psalm 41:6 tn Heb “he speaks deceitfully.”
  18. Psalm 41:6 tn Heb “his heart gathers sin to itself.”
  19. Psalm 41:6 tn Heb “he goes outside and speaks.”
  20. Psalm 41:7 tn Heb “together against me they whisper, all those who hate me.” The Hitpael of לָחַשׁ (lakhash) refers here to whispering to one another (see 2 Sam 12:19).
  21. Psalm 41:8 tn The words “they say” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation to make it clear that v. 8 contains a quotation of what the psalmist’s enemies say about him (see v. 7a).
  22. Psalm 41:8 tn Heb “thing of worthlessness.” In Ps 101:3 the phrase refers to evil deeds in general, but here it appears to refer more specifically to the illness that plagues the psalmist.
  23. Psalm 41:8 tn Heb “is poured out on him.” The passive participle of יָצַק (yatsaq) is used.
  24. Psalm 41:8 tn Heb “and he who lies down will not again arise.”
  25. Psalm 41:9 tn Heb “man of my peace.” The phrase here refers to one’s trusted friend (see Jer 38:22; Obad 7).
  26. Psalm 41:9 tn Heb “has made a heel great against me.” The precise meaning of this phrase, which appears only here, is uncertain.sn The language of this verse is applied to Judas Iscariot in John 13:18.
  27. Psalm 41:10 tn The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) here indicates purpose or result (“Then I will repay them”) after the preceding imperatives.
  28. Psalm 41:11 sn By this. Having recalled his former lament and petition, the psalmist returns to the confident mood of vv. 1-3. The basis for his confidence may be a divine oracle of deliverance, assuring him that God would intervene and vindicate him. The demonstrative pronoun “this” may refer to such an oracle, which is assumed here, though its contents are not included. See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 319, 321.
  29. Psalm 41:11 tn Or “will.” One may translate the imperfect verbal form as descriptive (present, cf. NIV) or as anticipatory (future, cf. NEB).
  30. Psalm 41:11 tn Heb “shout.”
  31. Psalm 41:12 tn Or “have upheld.” The perfect verbal form can be taken as generalizing/descriptive (present) or as a present perfect.
  32. Psalm 41:12 sn Because of my integrity. See Pss 7:8; 25:21; 26:1, 11.
  33. Psalm 41:12 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive has the same aspectual function as the preceding perfect. It is either generalizing/descriptive (present) or has a present perfect nuance (“you have allowed”).
  34. Psalm 41:12 tn Heb “and you cause me to stand before you permanently.”
  35. Psalm 41:13 tn Heb “[be] blessed.” See Pss 18:46; 28:6; 31:21.
  36. Psalm 41:13 tn Heb “from everlasting to everlasting.” See 1 Chr 16:36; Neh 9:5; Pss 90:2; 106:48.
  37. Psalm 41:13 tn Heb “surely and surely” (אָמֵן וְאָמֵן [ʾamen veʾamen], i.e., “amen and amen”). This is probably a congregational response to the immediately preceding statement about the propriety of praising God.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Mark 9 New English Translation (NET Bible)

And he said to them, “I tell you the truth,[a] there are some standing here who will not[b] experience[c] death before they see the kingdom of God come with power.”[d]

The Transfiguration

Six days later[e] Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John and led them alone up a high mountain privately. And he was transfigured before them,[f] and his clothes became radiantly white, more so than any launderer in the world could bleach them. Then Elijah appeared before them along with Moses,[g] and they were talking with Jesus. So[h] Peter said to Jesus,[i] “Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let us make three shelters[j]—one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” (For they were afraid, and he did not know what to say.)[k] Then[l] a cloud[m] overshadowed them,[n] and a voice came from the cloud, “This is my one dear Son.[o] Listen to him!”[p] Suddenly when they looked around, they saw no one with them any more except Jesus.

As they were coming down from the mountain, he gave them orders not to tell anyone what they had seen until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead. 10 They kept this statement to themselves, discussing what this rising from the dead meant.

11 Then[q] they asked him,[r] “Why do the experts in the law[s] say that Elijah must come first?” 12 He said to them, “Elijah does indeed come first, and restores all things. And why is it written that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be despised? 13 But I tell you that Elijah has certainly come, and they did to him whatever they wanted, just as it is written about him.”

The Disciples’ Failure to Heal

14 When they came to the disciples, they saw a large crowd around them and experts in the law[t] arguing with them. 15 When the whole crowd saw him, they were amazed and ran[u] at once and greeted him. 16 He asked them, “What are you arguing about with them?” 17 A member of the crowd said to him, “Teacher, I brought you my son, who is possessed by a spirit that makes him mute. 18 Whenever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, grinds his teeth, and becomes rigid. I asked your disciples to cast it out, but[v] they were not able to do so.”[w] 19 He answered them,[x] “You[y] unbelieving[z] generation! How much longer[aa] must I be with you? How much longer must I endure[ab] you?[ac] Bring him to me.” 20 So they brought the boy[ad] to him. When the spirit saw him, it immediately threw the boy into a convulsion. He[ae] fell on the ground and rolled around, foaming at the mouth. 21 Jesus[af] asked his father, “How long has this been happening to him?” And he said, “From childhood. 22 It has often thrown him into fire or water to destroy him. But if you are able to do anything, have compassion on us and help us.” 23 Then Jesus said to him, “‘If you are able?’[ag] All things are possible for the one who believes.” 24 Immediately the father of the boy cried out and said, “I believe; help my unbelief!”

25 Now when Jesus saw that a crowd was quickly gathering, he rebuked[ah] the unclean spirit,[ai] saying to it, “Mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him and never enter him again.” 26 It shrieked, threw him into terrible convulsions, and came out. The boy[aj] looked so much like a corpse that many said, “He is dead!” 27 But Jesus gently took his hand and raised him to his feet, and he stood up.

28 Then,[ak] after he went into the house, his disciples asked him privately, “Why couldn’t we cast it out?” 29 He told them, “This kind can come out only by prayer.”[al]

Second Prediction of Jesus’ Death and Resurrection

30 They went out from there and passed through Galilee. But[am] Jesus[an] did not want anyone to know, 31 for he was teaching his disciples and telling them, “The Son of Man will be betrayed into the hands of men.[ao] They[ap] will kill him,[aq] and after three days he will rise.”[ar] 32 But they did not understand this statement and were afraid to ask him.

Questions About the Greatest

33 Then[as] they came to Capernaum.[at] After Jesus[au] was inside the house he asked them, “What were you discussing on the way?” 34 But they were silent, for on the way they had argued with one another about who was the greatest. 35 After he sat down, he called the twelve and said to them, “If anyone wants to be first, he must be last of all and servant of all.” 36 He took a little child and had him stand among them. Taking him in his arms, he said to them, 37 “Whoever welcomes[av] one of these little children[aw] in my name welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me does not welcome me but the one who sent me.”

On Jesus’ Side

38 John said to him, “Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop him because he was not following us.” 39 But Jesus said, “Do not stop him, because no one who does a miracle in my name will be able soon afterward to say anything bad about me. 40 For whoever is not against us is for us. 41 For I tell you the truth,[ax] whoever gives you a cup of water because[ay] you bear Christ’s[az] name will never lose his reward.

42 “If anyone causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a huge millstone[ba] tied around his neck and to be thrown into the sea. 43 If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off! It is better for you to enter into life crippled than to have[bb] two hands and go into hell,[bc] to the unquenchable fire.[bd] 45 If your foot causes you to sin, cut it off! It is better to enter life lame than to have[be] two feet and be thrown into hell.[bf] 47 If your eye causes you to sin, tear it out![bg] It is better to enter into the kingdom of God[bh] with one eye than to have[bi] two eyes and be thrown into hell, 48 where their worm never dies and the fire is never quenched. 49 Everyone will be salted with fire.[bj] 50 Salt[bk] is good, but if it loses its saltiness,[bl] how can you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with each other.”


  1. Mark 9:1 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  2. Mark 9:1 tn The Greek negative here (οὐ μή, ou mē) is the strongest possible.
  3. Mark 9:1 tn Grk “will not taste.” Here the Greek verb does not mean “sample a small amount” (as a typical English reader might infer from the word “taste”), but “experience something cognitively or emotionally; come to know something” (cf. BDAG 195 s.v. γεύομαι 2).
  4. Mark 9:1 sn Several suggestions have been made as to the referent for the phrase the kingdom of God come with power: (1) the transfiguration itself, which immediately follows in the narrative; (2) Jesus’ resurrection and ascension; (3) the coming of the Spirit and the inauguration of the kingdom in the present age; (4) Jesus’ second coming and the final establishment of the kingdom. The reference to after six days in 9:2 seems to some interpreters to indicate that Mark had the transfiguration in mind insofar as it was a substantial prefiguring of the consummation of the kingdom. As such, the transfiguration would have been a tremendous confirmation to the disciples that even though Jesus had just finished speaking of his death (8:31; 9:31; 10:33), he was nonetheless the promised Messiah and things were proceeding according to God’s plan. The major problem with this interpretation is that some standing here…will not experience death seems to suggest that some of the hearers would die before the arrival of the kingdom, yet there is no indication any of Jesus’ hearers died in the six days between the statement here and the transfiguration. This suggests either the coming of the Spirit as the inauguration of the kingdom or the second coming with the ultimate establishment of the kingdom are more likely referents.
  5. Mark 9:2 tn Grk “And after six days.”
  6. Mark 9:2 sn In 1st century Judaism and in the NT, there was the belief that the righteous get new, glorified bodies in order to enter heaven (1 Cor 15:42-49; 2 Cor 5:1-10). This transformation means the righteous will share the glory of God. One recalls the way Moses shared the Lord’s glory after his visit to the mountain in Exod 34. So the disciples saw Jesus transfigured, and they were getting a sneak preview of the great glory that Jesus would have (only his glory is more inherent to him as one who shares in the rule of the kingdom).
  7. Mark 9:4 sn Commentators and scholars discuss why Moses and Elijah are present. The most likely explanation is that Moses represents the prophetic office (Acts 3:18-22) and Elijah pictures the presence of the last days (Mal 4:5-6), the prophet of the eschaton (the end times).
  8. Mark 9:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  9. Mark 9:5 tn Grk “And answering, Peter said to Jesus.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant and has not been translated.
  10. Mark 9:5 tn Or “dwellings,” “booths” (referring to the temporary booths constructed in the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles).sn Peter apparently wanted to celebrate the feast of Tabernacles or Booths that looked forward to the end and wanted to treat Moses, Elijah, and Jesus as equals by making three shelters (one for each). It was actually a way of expressing honor to Jesus, but the next few verses make it clear that it was not enough honor.
  11. Mark 9:6 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  12. Mark 9:7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  13. Mark 9:7 sn This cloud is the cloud of God’s presence and the voice is his as well.
  14. Mark 9:7 tn Grk “And there came a cloud, surrounding them.”
  15. Mark 9:7 tn Grk “my beloved Son,” or “my Son, the beloved [one].” The force of ἀγαπητός (agapētos) is often “pertaining to one who is the only one of his or her class, but at the same time is particularly loved and cherished” (L&N 58.53; cf. also BDAG 7 s.v. 1).
  16. Mark 9:7 sn The expression listen to him comes from Deut 18:15 and makes two points: 1) Jesus is a prophet like Moses, a leader-prophet, and 2) they have much yet to learn from him.
  17. Mark 9:11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  18. Mark 9:11 tn Grk “And they were asking him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated.
  19. Mark 9:11 tn Or “Why do the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  20. Mark 9:14 tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  21. Mark 9:15 tn Grk The participle προστρέχοντες (prostrechontes) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.
  22. Mark 9:18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  23. Mark 9:18 tn The words “to do so” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity and stylistic reasons.
  24. Mark 9:19 tn Grk “And answering, he said to them.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant, but the phrasing of the sentence was modified slightly to make it clearer in English.
  25. Mark 9:19 tn Grk “O.” The marker of direct address, (ō), is functionally equivalent to a vocative and is represented in the translation by “you.”
  26. Mark 9:19 tn Or “faithless.”sn The rebuke for lack of faith has OT roots: Num 14:27; Deut 32:5, 20; Isa 59:8.
  27. Mark 9:19 tn Grk “how long.”
  28. Mark 9:19 tn Or “put up with.” See Num 11:12; Isa 46:4.
  29. Mark 9:19 sn The pronouns you…you are plural, indicating that Jesus is speaking to a group rather than an individual.
  30. Mark 9:20 tn Grk “him.”
  31. Mark 9:20 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  32. Mark 9:21 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  33. Mark 9:23 tc Most mss (A C3 Ψ 33 M) have τὸ εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι (to ei dunasai pisteusai, “if you are able to believe”), instead of τὸ εἰ δύνῃ (to ei dunē, “if you are able”; supported by א B C* L N* Δ ƒ1 579 892). Others have εἰ δύνῃ (or δυνάσαι) πιστεῦσαι (“if you are able to believe”; so D K Θ ƒ13 28 565 al), while still others have τοῦτο εἰ δύνῃ (touto ei dunē, “if you can [do] this”; so [P45] W). The reading that best explains the rise of the others is τὸ εἰ δύνῃ. The neuter article indicates that the Lord is now quoting the boy’s father who, in v. 22, says εἴ τι δύνῃ (ei ti dunē, “if you are able to do anything”). The article is thus used anaphorically (see ExSyn 238). However, scribes could easily have overlooked this idiom and would consequently read τὸ εἰ δύνῃ as the protasis of a conditional clause of the Lord’s statement. As such, it would almost demand the infinitive πιστεῦσαι, producing the reading τὸ εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι (“if you are able to believe, all things are possible…”). But the article here seems to be meaningless, prompting other scribes to modify the text still further. Some dropped the nonsensical article, while others turned it into the demonstrative τοῦτο and dropped the infinitive. It is clear that scribes had difficulty with the initial text here, and made adjustments in various directions. What might not be so clear is the exact genealogy of the descent of all the readings. However, τὸ εἰ δύνῃ is both a hard saying, best explains the rise of the other readings, and is supported by the best witnesses. It thus rightly deserves to be considered authentic.
  34. Mark 9:25 tn Or “commanded” (often with the implication of a threat, L&N 33.331).
  35. Mark 9:25 sn Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.
  36. Mark 9:26 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the boy) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  37. Mark 9:28 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  38. Mark 9:29 tc Most witnesses, even early and excellent ones (P45vid א2 A C D L W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 M lat co), have “and fasting” (καὶ νηστείᾳ, kai nēsteia) after “prayer” here. But this seems to be a motivated reading, due to the early church’s emphasis on fasting (TCGNT 85; cf., e.g., 2 Clem. 16:4; Pol. Phil 7:2; Did. 1:3; 7:4). That the most significant witnesses (א* B), as well as a few others (0274 k), lack καὶ νηστείᾳ, when a good reason for the omission is difficult to find, argues strongly for the shorter reading.
  39. Mark 9:30 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  40. Mark 9:30 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  41. Mark 9:31 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anthrōpōn) is considered by some to be used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NRSV, “into human hands”; CEV, “to people”). However, because this can be taken as a specific reference to the group responsible for Jesus’ arrest, where it is unlikely women were present (cf. Matt 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12), the word “men” has been retained in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” earlier in the verse.
  42. Mark 9:31 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  43. Mark 9:31 tn Grk “They will kill him, and being killed, after…” The redundancy in the statement has been removed in the translation.
  44. Mark 9:31 sn They will kill him and after three days he will rise. See the note at the end of Mark 8:30 regarding the passion predictions.
  45. Mark 9:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  46. Mark 9:33 sn Capernaum was a town located on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It existed since Hasmonean times and was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region. The population in the first century is estimated to be around 1,500. Capernaum became the hub of operations for Jesus’ Galilean ministry (Matt 4:13; Mark 2:1). In modern times the site was discovered in 1838 by the American explorer E. Robinson, and major excavations began in 1905 by German archaeologists H. Kohl and C. Watzinger. Not until 1968, however, were remains from the time of Jesus visible; in that year V. Corbo and S. Loffreda began a series of annual archaeological campaigns that lasted until 1985. This work uncovered what is thought to be the house of Simon Peter as well as ruins of the first century synagogue beneath the later synagogue from the fourth or fifth century A.D. Today gently rolling hills and date palms frame the first century site, a favorite tourist destination of visitors to the Galilee.
  47. Mark 9:33 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  48. Mark 9:37 tn This verb, δέχομαι (dechomai), is a term of hospitality (L&N 34.53).
  49. Mark 9:37 sn Children were very insignificant in ancient culture, so this child would be the perfect object lesson to counter the disciples’ selfish ambitions.
  50. Mark 9:41 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  51. Mark 9:41 tn Grk “in [the] name that of Christ you are.”
  52. Mark 9:41 tn Or “bear the Messiah’s”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.
  53. Mark 9:42 tn Grk “the millstone of a donkey.” This refers to a large flat stone turned by a donkey in the process of grinding grain (BDAG 661 s.v. μύλος 2; L&N 7.68-69). The same term is used in the parallel account in Matt 18:6.sn The punishment of drowning with a heavy weight attached is extremely gruesome and reflects Jesus’ views concerning those who cause others who believe in him to sin.
  54. Mark 9:43 tn Grk “than having.”
  55. Mark 9:43 sn The word translated hell is “Gehenna” (γέεννα, geenna), a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew words ge hinnom (“Valley of Hinnom”). This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5-6; 32:35), and it came to be used as a place where human excrement and rubbish were disposed of and burned. In the intertestamental period, it came to be used symbolically as the place of divine punishment (cf. 1 En. 27:2; 90:26; 4 Ezra 7:36). This Greek term also occurs in vv. 45, 47.
  56. Mark 9:43 tc Most later mss have 9:44 here and 9:46 after v. 45: “where their worm never dies and the fire is never quenched” (identical with v. 48). Verses 44 and 46 are present in A D Θ ƒ13 M lat syp,h, but lacking in significant Alexandrian mss and several others (א B C L W Δ Ψ 0274 ƒ1 28 565 892 co). This appears to be a scribal addition from v. 48 and is almost certainly not an original part of the Greek text of Mark. The present translation follows NA28 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.
  57. Mark 9:45 tn Grk “than having.”
  58. Mark 9:45 tc See tc note at the end of v. 43.
  59. Mark 9:47 tn Grk “throw it out.”
  60. Mark 9:47 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself.
  61. Mark 9:47 tn Grk “than having.”
  62. Mark 9:49 tc The earliest mss ([א] B L [W] Δ 0274 ƒ1,13 28* 565 700 sys sa) have the reading adopted by the translation. Codex Bezae (D) and several Itala read “Every sacrifice will be salted with salt.” The majority of other mss (A C Θ Ψ M lat syp,h) have both readings, “Everyone will be salted with fire, and every sacrifice will be salted with salt.” An early scribe may have written the LXX text of Lev 2:13 (“Every sacrifice offering of yours shall be salted with salt”) in the margin of his ms. At a later stage, copyists would either replace the text with this marginal note or add the note to the text. The longer reading thus seems to be the result of the conflation of the Alexandrian reading “salted with fire” and the Western reading “salted with salt.” The reading adopted by the text enjoys the best support and explains the other readings in the ms tradition. sn The statement everyone will be salted with fire is difficult to interpret. It may be a reference to (1) unbelievers who enter hell as punishment for rejection of Jesus, indicating that just as salt preserves so they will be preserved in their punishment in hell forever; (2) Christians who experience suffering in this world because of their attachment to Christ; (3) any person who experiences suffering in a way appropriate to their relationship to Jesus. For believers this means the suffering of purification, and for unbelievers it means hell, i.e., eternal torment.
  63. Mark 9:50 sn Salt was used as seasoning or fertilizer (BDAG 41 s.v. ἅλας a), or as a preservative. If salt ceased to be useful, it was thrown away. With this illustration Jesus warned about a disciple who ceased to follow him.
  64. Mark 9:50 sn The difficulty of this saying is understanding how salt could lose its saltiness since its chemical properties cannot change. It is thus often assumed that Jesus was referring to chemically impure salt, perhaps a natural salt which, when exposed to the elements, had all the genuine salt leached out, leaving only the sediment or impurities behind. Others have suggested the background of the saying is the use of salt blocks by Arab bakers to line the floor of their ovens: Under the intense heat these blocks would eventually crystallize and undergo a change in chemical composition, finally being thrown out as unserviceable. A saying in the Talmud (b. Bekhorot 8b) attributed to R. Joshua ben Chananja (ca. a.d. 90), recounts how when he was asked the question “When salt loses its flavor, how can it be made salty again?” is said to have replied, “By salting it with the afterbirth of a mule.” He was then asked, “Then does the mule (being sterile) bear young?” to which he replied: “Can salt lose its flavor?” The point appears to be both are impossible. The saying, while admittedly late, suggests that culturally the loss of flavor by salt was regarded as an impossibility. Genuine salt can never lose its flavor. In this case the saying by Jesus here may be similar to Matt 19:24, where it is likewise impossible for the camel to go through the eye of a sewing needle.
New English Translation (NET)

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