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1 Chronicles 11 New English Translation (NET Bible)

David Becomes King

11 All Israel joined David at Hebron and said, “Look, we are your very flesh and blood![a] In the past, even when Saul was king, you were Israel’s commanding general.[b] The Lord your God said to you, ‘You will shepherd my people Israel; you will rule over my people Israel.’” When all the leaders[c] of Israel came to the king at Hebron, David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the Lord. They anointed David king over Israel, in keeping with the Lord’s message that came through Samuel.[d]

David Conquers Jerusalem

David and the whole Israelite army[e] advanced to Jerusalem (that is, Jebus).[f] (The Jebusites, the land’s original inhabitants, lived there.)[g] The residents of Jebus said to David, “You cannot invade this place!” But David captured the fortress of Zion (that is, the City of David). [h] David said, “Whoever attacks[i] the Jebusites first will become commanding general!”[j] So Joab son of Zeruiah attacked[k] first and became commander.[l] David lived in the fortress; for this reason it is called the City of David. He built up the city around it, from the terrace to the surrounding walls;[m] Joab restored the rest of the city. David’s power steadily grew, for the Lord of Heaven’s Armies was with him.[n]

David’s Warriors

10 These were the leaders of David’s warriors who, together with all Israel, stood courageously with him in his kingdom by installing him as king, in keeping with the Lord’s message concerning Israel. 11 This is the list of David’s warriors:[o]

Jashobeam, a Hacmonite, was head of the officers.[p] He killed 300 men with his spear in a single battle.[q]

12 Next in command[r] was Eleazar son of Dodo the Ahohite. He was one of the three elite warriors. 13 He was with David in Pas Dammim[s] when the Philistines assembled there for battle. In an area of the field that was full of barley, the army retreated before the Philistines, 14 but then they made a stand in the middle of that area. They defended it[t] and defeated the Philistines; the Lord gave them a great victory.[u]

15 Three of the thirty leaders went down to David at the rocky cliff at the cave of Adullam, while a Philistine force was camped in the Valley of Rephaim. 16 David was in the stronghold at the time, while a Philistine garrison was in Bethlehem. 17 David was thirsty and said, “How I wish someone would give me some water to drink[v] from the cistern in Bethlehem near the city gate!” 18 So the three elite warriors[w] broke through the Philistine forces and drew some water from the cistern in Bethlehem near the city gate. They carried it back to David, but David refused to drink it. He poured it out as a drink offering to the Lord 19 and said, “God forbid that I should do this![x] Should I drink the blood of these men who risked their lives?”[y] Because they risked their lives to bring it to him, he refused to drink it. Such were the exploits of the three elite warriors.[z]

20 Abishai the brother of Joab was head of the three[aa] elite warriors. He killed 300 men with his spear[ab] and gained fame along with the three elite warriors.[ac] 21 From[ad] the three he was given double honor and he became their officer, even though he was not one of them.[ae]

22 Benaiah son of Jehoiada was a brave warrior from Kabzeel who performed great exploits. He struck down the two sons of Ariel of Moab;[af] he also went down and killed a lion inside a cistern on a snowy day. 23 He even killed an Egyptian who was 7½ feet[ag] tall. The Egyptian had a spear in his hand as big as the crossbeam of a weaver’s loom; Benaiah attacked[ah] him with a club. He grabbed the spear out of the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear. 24 Such were the exploits of Benaiah son of Jehoiada, who gained fame along with the three elite warriors. 25 He received honor from[ai] the thirty warriors, though he was not one of the three elite warriors. David put him in charge of his bodyguard.

26 The mighty warriors were:

Asahel the brother of Joab,

Elhanan son of Dodo, from Bethlehem,

27 Shammoth the Harorite,[aj]

Helez the Pelonite,[ak]

28 Ira son of Ikkesh the Tekoite,

Abiezer the Anathothite,

29 Sibbekai[al] the Hushathite,

Ilai[am] the Ahohite,

30 Maharai the Netophathite,

Heled son of Baanah the Netophathite,

31 Ithai[an] son of Ribai from Gibeah in Benjaminite territory,

Benaiah the Pirathonite,

32 Hurai[ao] from the valleys of Gaash,

Abiel[ap] the Arbathite,

33 Azmaveth the Baharumite,[aq]

Eliahba the Shaalbonite,

34 the sons of Hashem[ar] the Gizonite,

Jonathan son of Shageh[as] the Hararite,

35 Ahiam son of Sakar[at] the Hararite,

Eliphal son of Ur,[au]

36 Hepher the Mekerathite,

Ahijah the Pelonite,

37 Hezro[av] the Carmelite,

Naarai son of Ezbai,

38 Joel the brother of Nathan,[aw]

Mibhar son of Hagri,

39 Zelek the Ammonite,

Naharai the Beerothite, the armor-bearer of Joab son of Zeruiah,

40 Ira the Ithrite,

Gareb the Ithrite,

41 Uriah the Hittite,

Zabad son of Achli,

42 Adina son of Shiza the Reubenite, leader of the Reubenites and the thirty warriors with him,

43 Hanan son of Maacah,

Joshaphat the Mithnite,

44 Uzzia the Ashterathite,

Shama and Jeiel, the sons of Hotham the Aroerite,

45 Jediael son of Shimri,

and Joha his brother, the Tizite,

46 Eliel the Mahavite,

and Jeribai and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam,

and Ithmah the Moabite,

47 Eliel,

and Obed,

and Jaasiel the Mezobaite.


  1. 1 Chronicles 11:1 tn Heb “look, your bone and your flesh [are] we.”
  2. 1 Chronicles 11:2 tn Heb “you were the one who led out and the one who brought in Israel.”
  3. 1 Chronicles 11:3 tn Heb “elders.”
  4. 1 Chronicles 11:3 tn Heb “by the hand of Samuel.”
  5. 1 Chronicles 11:4 tn Heb “all Israel.”
  6. 1 Chronicles 11:4 sn Jebus was an older name for the city of Jerusalem (cf. Josh 15:8; Judg 1:21).
  7. 1 Chronicles 11:4 tn Heb “and there [were] the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land.”
  8. 1 Chronicles 11:6 sn Verse 6 inserts into the narrative parenthetical information about Joab’s role in the conquest of the city. Verse 7 then picks up where v. 5 left off.
  9. 1 Chronicles 11:6 tn Or perhaps “strikes down.”
  10. 1 Chronicles 11:6 tn Heb “head and officer.”
  11. 1 Chronicles 11:6 tn Heb “went up.”
  12. 1 Chronicles 11:6 tn Heb “head.”
  13. 1 Chronicles 11:8 tn Heb “to that which surrounds.” On the referent here as “the surrounding walls,” see HALOT 740 s.v. סָבִיב.
  14. 1 Chronicles 11:9 tn Heb “and David went, going and becoming great, and the Lord of Heaven’s Armies [traditionally, Lord of hosts] was with him.”
  15. 1 Chronicles 11:11 tn Heb “and these are the number of the warriors who were David’s.”
  16. 1 Chronicles 11:11 tc The marginal reading (Qere) has “officers;” the consonantal text (Kethib) has “the Thirty” (see v. 15).
  17. 1 Chronicles 11:11 tn Heb “he was wielding his spear against 300, [who were] slain at one time.”
  18. 1 Chronicles 11:12 tn Heb “after him.”
  19. 1 Chronicles 11:13 tc Some read here “Ephes Dammim.” See 1 Sam 17:1.
  20. 1 Chronicles 11:14 tn Heb “delivered it.”
  21. 1 Chronicles 11:14 tn Heb “and the Lord delivered [with] a great deliverance.”
  22. 1 Chronicles 11:17 tn Heb “Who will give me water to drink?” On the rhetorical use of מִי (mi) here, see BDB 566 s.v. f.
  23. 1 Chronicles 11:18 tn Heb “the three,” referring to the three elite warriors mentioned in v. 12.
  24. 1 Chronicles 11:19 tn Heb “Far be it to me from my God from doing this.”
  25. 1 Chronicles 11:19 tn Heb “with their lives.” The same expression occurs later in this verse.
  26. 1 Chronicles 11:19 tn Heb “These things the three warriors did.”
  27. 1 Chronicles 11:20 tc The Syriac reads “thirty” here and at the beginning of v. 21; this reading is followed by some English translations (cf. NAB, NASB, NRSV, NLT).
  28. 1 Chronicles 11:20 tn Heb “he was wielding his spear against three hundred, [who were] slain.”
  29. 1 Chronicles 11:20 tn Heb “and to him [reading with the Qere] there was a name among the three.”
  30. 1 Chronicles 11:21 tn Or “more than.”
  31. 1 Chronicles 11:21 tn Heb “of the three.”
  32. 1 Chronicles 11:22 tc Heb “the two of Ariel, Moab.” The precise meaning of אֲרִיאֵל (ʾariʾel) is uncertain; some read “warrior.” The present translation assumes that the word is a proper name and that בְּנֵי (bene, “sons of”) has accidentally dropped from the text by homoioarcton (note the preceding שְׁנֵי, shene).
  33. 1 Chronicles 11:23 tn Heb “5 cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches for the standard cubit, this individual would be 7.5 feet (2.3 m) tall.
  34. 1 Chronicles 11:23 tn Heb “went down to.”
  35. 1 Chronicles 11:25 tn Or “more than.”
  36. 1 Chronicles 11:27 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:25 has the variant spelling of “Shammah.”
  37. 1 Chronicles 11:27 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:26 has the variant spelling of “Paltite.”
  38. 1 Chronicles 11:29 tn In 2 Sam 23:27 this individual’s name is given as “Mebunnai.”
  39. 1 Chronicles 11:29 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:28 has the variant “Zalmon.”
  40. 1 Chronicles 11:31 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:29 has the variant spelling “Ittai.”
  41. 1 Chronicles 11:32 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:28 has the variant spelling “Hiddai.”
  42. 1 Chronicles 11:32 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:31 has the variant spelling “Abi-Albon.”
  43. 1 Chronicles 11:33 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:31 has the variant spelling “Barhumite.”
  44. 1 Chronicles 11:34 tn In 2 Sam 23:32 this individual’s name is given as “Jashen.”
  45. 1 Chronicles 11:34 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:33 has the variant spelling “Shammah.”
  46. 1 Chronicles 11:35 tn In 2 Sam 23:33 this individual’s name is given as “Sharar.”
  47. 1 Chronicles 11:35 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:34 has the variant “Eliphelet son of Ahasbai the Maacathite.”
  48. 1 Chronicles 11:37 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:35 has the variant spelling “Hezrai.”
  49. 1 Chronicles 11:38 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:36 has the variant “Igal son of Nathan from Zobah.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 40 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 40[a]

For the music director, a psalm of David.

40 I relied completely[b] on the Lord,
and he turned toward me
and heard my cry for help.
He lifted me out of the watery pit,[c]
out of the slimy mud.[d]
He placed my feet on a rock
and gave me secure footing.[e]
He gave me reason to sing a new song,[f]
praising our God.[g]
May many see what God has done,
so that they might swear allegiance to him and trust in the Lord.[h]
How blessed[i] is the one[j] who trusts in the Lord[k]
and does not seek help from[l] the proud or from liars.[m]
O Lord, my God, you have accomplished many things;
you have done amazing things and carried out your purposes for us.[n]
No one can thwart you.[o]
I want to declare your deeds and talk about them,
but they are too numerous to recount.[p]
Receiving sacrifices and offerings are not your primary concern.[q]
You make that quite clear to me.[r]
You do not ask for burnt sacrifices and sin offerings.
Then I say,
“Look, I come!
What is written in the scroll pertains to me.[s]
I want to do what pleases you,[t] my God.
Your law dominates my thoughts.”[u]
I have told the great assembly[v] about your justice.[w]
Look, I spare no words.[x]
O Lord, you know this is true.
10 I have not failed to tell about your justice;[y]
I spoke about your reliability and deliverance.
I have not neglected to tell the great assembly about your loyal love and faithfulness.[z]
11 O Lord, you do not withhold[aa] your compassion from me.
May your loyal love and faithfulness continually protect me![ab]
12 For innumerable dangers[ac] surround me.
My sins overtake me
so I am unable to see;
they outnumber the hairs of my head
so my strength fails me.[ad]
13 Please be willing, O Lord, to rescue me!
O Lord, hurry and help me![ae]
14 May those who are trying to snatch away my life
be totally embarrassed and ashamed.[af]
May those who want to harm me
be turned back and ashamed.[ag]
15 May those who say to me, “Aha! Aha!”
be humiliated[ah] and disgraced.[ai]
16 May all those who seek you be happy and rejoice in you.
May those who love to experience[aj] your deliverance say continually,[ak]
“May the Lord be praised!”[al]
17 I am oppressed and needy.[am]
May the Lord pay attention to me.[an]
You are my helper and my deliverer.
O my God, do not delay.


  1. Psalm 40:1 sn Psalm 40. The psalmist combines a song of thanksgiving for a recent act of divine deliverance (vv. 1-11) with a confident petition for renewed divine intervention (vv. 12-17).
  2. Psalm 40:1 tn Heb “relying, I relied.” The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verbal form to emphasize the verbal idea. The emphasis is reflected in the translation through the adverb “completely.” Another option is to translate, “I waited patiently” (cf. NASB, NIV, NRSV).
  3. Psalm 40:2 tn Heb “cistern of roaring.” The Hebrew noun בּוֹר (bor, “cistern, pit”) is used metaphorically here of Sheol, the place of death, which is sometimes depicted as a raging sea (see Ps 18:4, 15-16). The noun שָׁאוֹן (shaʾon, “roaring”) refers elsewhere to the crashing sound of the sea’s waves (see Ps 65:7).
  4. Psalm 40:2 tn Heb “from the mud of mud.” The Hebrew phrase translated “slimy mud” employs an appositional genitive. Two synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81.
  5. Psalm 40:2 tn Heb “he established my footsteps.”
  6. Psalm 40:3 sn A new song was appropriate because the Lord had intervened in the psalmist’s experience in a fresh and exciting way.
  7. Psalm 40:3 tn Heb “and he placed in my mouth a new song, praise to our God.”
  8. Psalm 40:3 tn Heb “may many see and fear and trust in the Lord.” The translation assumes that the initial prefixed verbal form is a jussive (“may many see”), rather than an imperfect (“many will see”). The following prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) conjunctive are taken as indicating purpose or result (“so that they might swear allegiance…and trust”) after the introductory jussive.
  9. Psalm 40:4 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1, 3; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
  10. Psalm 40:4 tn Heb “man.” See the note on the word “one” in Ps 1:1.
  11. Psalm 40:4 tn Heb “who has made the Lord his [object of] trust.”
  12. Psalm 40:4 tn Heb “and does not turn toward.”
  13. Psalm 40:4 tn Heb “those falling away toward a lie.”
  14. Psalm 40:5 tn Heb “many things you have done, you, O Lord my God, your amazing deeds and your thoughts toward us.” The precise meaning of the text is not clear, but the psalmist seems to be recalling the Lord’s miraculous deeds on Israel’s behalf (see Pss 9:1; 26:7), as well as his covenantal decrees and promises (see Ps 33:11).
  15. Psalm 40:5 tn Heb “there is none arrayed against you.” The precise meaning of the text is unclear, but the collocation עָרַךְ אֶל (ʿarakh ʾel, “array against”) is used elsewhere of military (Judg 20:30; 1 Chr 19:17) or verbal opposition (Job 32:14).
  16. Psalm 40:5 tn Heb “I will declare and I will speak, they are too numerous to recount.” The present translation assumes that the cohortatives are used in a hypothetical manner in a formally unmarked conditional sentence, “Should I try to declare [them] and speak [of them]…” (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV). For other examples of cohortatives in the protasis (“if” clause) of a conditional sentence, see GKC 320 §108.e. (It should be noted, however, that GKC understands this particular verse in a different manner. See GKC 320 §108.f, where it is suggested that the cohortatives are part of an apodosis with the protasis being suppressed.) Another option is to take the cohortatives as a declaration of the psalmist’s resolve to announce the truth expressed in the next line. In this case one might translate: “I will declare and speak [the truth]: They are too numerous to recount.”
  17. Psalm 40:6 tn Heb “sacrifice and offering you do not desire.” The statement is exaggerated for the sake of emphasis (see Ps 51:16 as well). God is pleased with sacrifices, but his first priority is obedience and loyalty (see 1 Sam 15:22). Sacrifices and offerings apart from genuine allegiance are meaningless (see Isa 1:11-20).
  18. Psalm 40:6 tn Heb “ears you hollowed out for me.” The meaning of this odd expression is debated (this is the only collocation of “hollowed out” and “ears” in the OT). It may have been an idiomatic expression referring to making a point clear to a listener. The LXX has “but a body you have prepared for me,” a reading which is followed in Heb 10:5.
  19. Psalm 40:7 tn Heb “in the roll of the scroll it is written concerning me.” Apparently the psalmist refers to the law of God (see v. 8), which contains the commandments God desires him to obey. If this is a distinctly royal psalm, then the psalmist/king may be referring specifically to the regulations of kingship prescribed in Deut 17:14-20. See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 315.
  20. Psalm 40:8 tn Or “your will.”
  21. Psalm 40:8 tn Heb “your law [is] in the midst of my inner parts.” The “inner parts” are viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s thought life and moral decision making.
  22. Psalm 40:9 sn The great assembly is also mentioned in Pss 22:25 and 35:18.
  23. Psalm 40:9 tn Heb “I proclaim justice in the great assembly.” Though “justice” appears without a pronoun here, the Lord’s just acts are in view (see v. 10). His “justice” (צֶדֶק, tsedeq) is here the deliverance that originates in his justice; he protects and vindicates the one whose cause is just.
  24. Psalm 40:9 tn Heb “Look! My lips I do not restrain.”
  25. Psalm 40:10 tn Heb “your justice I have not hidden in the midst of my heart.”
  26. Psalm 40:10 tn Heb “I have not hidden your loyal love and reliability.”
  27. Psalm 40:11 tn Some (cf. NIV, NRSV) translate the verb as a request (“do not withhold”), but elsewhere in the psalms the second masculine singular prefixed form, when addressed to God and preceded by לֹא (loʾ), is always indicative in mood and never has the force of a prayer (see Pss 16:10; 22:2; 44:9 51:16-17; 60:10; 108:11; cf. NEB, NASB).
  28. Psalm 40:11 tn In this line the psalmist makes the transition from confidence to petition (see v. 13). Since the prefixed verbal form in the preceding line is imperfect/indicative, one could take the verb in this line as imperfect as well and translate, “your loyal love and faithfulness continually protect me” (cf. NEB). However, the כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the next verse, if causal (“because”), is best understood as introducing a motivating argument in support of a petition. For this reason v. 11b is best taken as a prayer with the prefixed form being understood as jussive (cf. NIV, NRSV). For parallels to the proposed construction (jussive followed by כִּי + perfect introducing motivating argument), see Ps 25:21, as well as Pss 10:2-3; 22:8.
  29. Psalm 40:12 tn Or “sinful deeds.” The Hebrew term used here can have a nonmoral nuance (“dangers”) or a moral one (“sinful deeds”) depending on the context. The next line (see “my sins”) seems to favor the moral sense, but the psalmist also speaks of enemies shortly after this (v. 14).
  30. Psalm 40:12 tn Heb “and my heart abandons me.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of emotional strength and courage. For a similar idea see Ps 38:10.
  31. Psalm 40:13 tn Heb “hurry to my help.” See Pss 22:19; 38:22.
  32. Psalm 40:14 tn Heb “may they be embarrassed and ashamed together, the ones seeking my life to snatch it away.”
  33. Psalm 40:14 tn The four prefixed verbal forms in this verse (“may those…be…embarrassed and ashamed…may those…be turned back and ashamed”) are understood as jussives. The psalmist is calling judgment down on his enemies.sn See Ps 35:4 for a similar prayer.
  34. Psalm 40:15 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive in this imprecation.
  35. Psalm 40:15 tn Heb “May they be humiliated according to their shame, those who say to me, ‘Aha! Aha!’”
  36. Psalm 40:16 tn Heb “those who love,” which stands metonymically for its cause, the experience of being delivered by the Lord.
  37. Psalm 40:16 tn The three prefixed verbal forms prior to the quotation are understood as jussives. The psalmist balances out his imprecation against his enemies with a prayer of blessing upon the godly.
  38. Psalm 40:16 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive, “may the Lord be magnified [in praise].” Another option is to take the verb as an imperfect, “the Lord is great” (cf. NRSV). See Ps 35:27.
  39. Psalm 40:17 sn See Pss 35:10; 37:14.
  40. Psalm 40:17 tn The prefixed verbal form may be taken as a jussive of prayer (as in the present translation; cf. NIV) or as an imperfect, “The Lord will pay attention to me” (cf. NRSV). The parallel in Ps 70:5 has, “O God, hurry to me!” For this reason some prefer to emend יַחֲשָׁב (yakhashav, “may he pay attention”) to חוּשָׁה (khushah, “hurry!”). The syntax of the Hebrew text is awkward; elsewhere when the Qal of חָשַׁב (khashav, “reckon; consider”) is collocated with the preposition ל (lamed) and a pronominal suffix there is an accompanying direct object or additional prepositional phrase/adverbial accusative (see Gen 15:6; 2 Sam 19:19; Job 13:24; 19:11; 33:10; Pss 32:2; 41:7; Amos 6:5).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Mark 8 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Feeding of the Four Thousand

In those days there was another large crowd with nothing to eat. So[a] Jesus[b] called his disciples and said to them, “I have compassion on the crowd, because they have already been here with me three days, and they have nothing to eat. If I send them home hungry, they will faint on the way, and some of them have come from a great distance.” His disciples answered him, “Where can someone get enough bread in this desolate place to satisfy these people?” He asked them, “How many loaves do you have?” They replied, “Seven.” Then[c] he directed the crowd to sit down on the ground. After he took the seven loaves and gave thanks, he broke them and began giving them to the disciples to serve. So[d] they served the crowd. They also had a few small fish. After giving thanks for these, he told them to serve these as well. Everyone[e] ate and was satisfied, and they picked up the broken pieces left over, seven baskets full. There were about 4,000[f] who ate.[g] Then he dismissed them.[h] 10 Immediately he got into a boat[i] with his disciples and went to the district of Dalmanutha.[j]

The Demand for a Sign

11 Then the Pharisees[k] came and began to argue with Jesus, asking for[l] a sign from heaven[m] to test him. 12 Sighing deeply in his spirit he said, “Why does this generation look for a sign? I tell you the truth,[n] no sign will be given to this generation.” 13 Then[o] he left them, got back into the boat, and went to the other side.

The Yeast of the Pharisees and Herod

14 Now[p] they had forgotten to take bread, except for one loaf they had with them in the boat. 15 And Jesus[q] ordered them,[r] “Watch out! Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees[s] and the yeast of Herod!” 16 So they began to discuss with one another about having no bread.[t] 17 When he learned of this,[u] Jesus said to them, “Why are you arguing[v] about having no bread? Do you still not see or understand? Have your hearts been hardened? 18 Though you have eyes, don’t you see? And though you have ears, can’t you hear?[w] Don’t you remember? 19 When I broke the five loaves for the 5,000, how many baskets full of pieces did you pick up?” They replied, “Twelve.” 20 “When I broke the seven loaves for the 4,000, how many baskets full of pieces did you pick up?” They replied,[x] “Seven.” 21 Then[y] he said to them, “Do you still not understand?”[z]

A Two-stage Healing

22 Then[aa] they came to Bethsaida. They brought a blind man to Jesus[ab] and asked him to touch him. 23 He took the blind man by the hand and brought him outside of the village. Then[ac] he spit on his eyes, placed his hands on his eyes[ad] and asked, “Do you see anything?” 24 Regaining his sight[ae] he said, “I see people, but they look like trees walking.” 25 Then Jesus[af] placed his hands on the man’s[ag] eyes again. And he opened his eyes,[ah] his sight was restored, and he saw everything clearly. 26 Jesus[ai] sent him home, saying, “Do not even go into the village.”[aj]

Peter’s Confession

27 Then Jesus and his disciples went to the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples,[ak] “Who do people say that I am?” 28 They said,[al] “John the Baptist, others say Elijah,[am] and still others, one of the prophets.” 29 He asked them, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter answered him,[an] “You are the Christ.”[ao] 30 Then[ap] he warned them not to tell anyone about him.[aq]

First Prediction of Jesus’ Death and Resurrection

31 Then[ar] Jesus[as] began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer[at] many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and experts in the law,[au] and be killed, and after three days rise again. 32 He spoke openly about this. So[av] Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. 33 But after turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, “Get behind me, Satan. You are not setting your mind on God’s interests, but on man’s.”[aw]

Following Jesus

34 Then[ax] Jesus[ay] called the crowd, along with his disciples, and said to them, “If anyone wants to become my follower,[az] he must deny[ba] himself, take up his cross,[bb] and follow me. 35 For whoever wants to save his life[bc] will lose it,[bd] but whoever loses his life because of me and because of the gospel[be] will save it. 36 For what benefit is it for a person[bf] to gain the whole world, yet[bg] forfeit his life? 37 What can a person give in exchange for his life? 38 For if anyone is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him[bh] when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.”


  1. Mark 8:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  2. Mark 8:1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  3. Mark 8:6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  4. Mark 8:6 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  5. Mark 8:8 tn Grk “They.”
  6. Mark 8:9 sn The parallel in Matt 15:32-39 notes that the 4,000 were only men, a point not made explicit in Mark.
  7. Mark 8:9 tn The words “who ate” are not in the Greek text but have been supplied for clarity.
  8. Mark 8:9 sn Mark 8:1-10. Many commentators, on the basis of similarities between this account of the feeding of the multitude (8:1-10) and that in 6:30-44, have argued that there is only one event referred to in both passages. While there are similarities in language and in the response of the disciples, there are also noticeable differences, including the different number present on each occasion (i.e., 5,000 in chap. 6 and 4,000 here). In the final analysis, the fact that Jesus refers to two distinct feedings in 8:18-20 settles the issue; this passage represents another very similar incident to that recorded in 6:30-44.
  9. Mark 8:10 sn See the note at Mark 1:19 for a description of the first-century fishing boat discovered in 1986 near Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
  10. Mark 8:10 sn The exact location of Dalmanutha is uncertain. It is mentioned nowhere else in the NT. The parallel passage in Matt 15:39 reads either “Magdala” (which is on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee) or “Magadan” (which is the better attested reading but is otherwise unknown). A small anchorage north of Magdala and west of Capernaum investigated in 1970 during a period of low lake levels in the Sea of Galilee has been suggested as the possible location of Dalmanutha (M. Nun, “Ancient Anchorages and Harbors in the Sea of Galilee,” Nature and Land 5 (1971): 212-19) but there is no scholarly consensus.
  11. Mark 8:11 sn See the note on Pharisees in 2:16.
  12. Mark 8:11 tn Grk “seeking from him.” The participle ζητοῦντες (zētountes) shows the means by which the Pharisees argued with Jesus.
  13. Mark 8:11 sn What exactly this sign would have been, given what Jesus was already doing, is not clear. But here is where the fence-sitters reside, refusing to commit to him.
  14. Mark 8:12 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  15. Mark 8:13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  16. Mark 8:14 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  17. Mark 8:15 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  18. Mark 8:15 tn Grk “was giving them orders, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  19. Mark 8:15 sn See the note on Pharisees in 2:16.
  20. Mark 8:16 tn Grk “And they were discussing with one another that they had no bread.”
  21. Mark 8:17 tn Or “becoming aware of it.”
  22. Mark 8:17 tn Or “discussing.”
  23. Mark 8:18 tn Grk “do you not hear?”
  24. Mark 8:20 tc ‡ A difficult textual problem is found here, involving three different variants: καὶ λέγουσιν (kai legousin) is found in א; οἱ δὲ εἶπον (hoi de eipon) is the reading of P45 A D W Θ ƒ1,13 33 M it; and καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ (kai legousin autō) is supported by B C L (Δ 579 892). The first two variants would not be translated differently; the third reading, however, would add “to him” after “they replied.” What complicates the issue is that the external evidence is fairly evenly split between the second and third readings, though the first reading is in agreement with the second reading in lacking the dative pronoun. Indeed, another layout of the problem here could treat this as two distinct problems: καὶ λέγουσιν vs. οἱ δὲ εἶπον and αὐτῷ vs. omission of the word. In this second arrangement of the problem, the reading without the pronoun has slightly stronger support (P45 א A D W Θ ƒ1,13 33 M it). Internally, Mark never elsewhere uses the form εἶπον for the third person plural indicative form of this verb (it is always εἶπαν [eipan]). And although only one other time in Mark is the object lacking after λέγουσιν (6:38), it is a similar context (viz., the disciples’ response before Jesus feeds the 5000). Very tentatively, the reading that is followed here is καὶ λέγουσιν. NA28 puts αὐτῷ in brackets, indicating some doubt as to its authenticity.
  25. Mark 8:21 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to indicate the implied sequence in the narrative.
  26. Mark 8:21 sn Do you still not understand? The disciples in Mark’s Gospel often misunderstood the miracles of Jesus as well as his teaching. Between Matthew, Mark, and Luke, Mark paints the most revealing portrait of the shortcomings of the Twelve (cf. 6:51-52; 7:17-19; 8:1-10, 14-21, 27-30, 33; 9:5, 10, 33; 10:28, 35-45; 14:19, 29-31, 32-37, 50, 66-72).
  27. Mark 8:22 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  28. Mark 8:22 tn Grk “to him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  29. Mark 8:23 tn Grk “village, and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  30. Mark 8:23 tn Grk “on him,” but the word πάλιν in v. 25 implies that Jesus touched the man’s eyes at this point.
  31. Mark 8:24 tn The verb ἀναβλέπω, though normally meaning “look up,” when used in conjunction with blindness means “regain sight.”
  32. Mark 8:25 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  33. Mark 8:25 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the blind man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  34. Mark 8:25 tn Or “he looked intently”; or “he stared with eyes wide open” (BDAG 226 s.v. διαβλέπω 1).
  35. Mark 8:26 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  36. Mark 8:26 tc Codex Bezae (D) replaces “Do not even go into the village” with “Go to your house, and do not tell anyone, not even in the village.” Other mss with some minor variations (Θ ƒ13 28 565 2542) expand on this prohibition to read “Go to your house, and if you go into the village, do not tell anyone.” There are several other variants here as well. While these expansions are not part of Mark’s original text, they do accurately reflect the sense of Jesus’ prohibition.
  37. Mark 8:27 tn Grk “he asked his disciples, saying to them.” The phrase λέγων αὐτοῖς (legōn autois) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  38. Mark 8:28 tn Grk “And they said to him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  39. Mark 8:28 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.
  40. Mark 8:29 tn Grk “Answering, Peter said to him.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Peter answered him.”
  41. Mark 8:29 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn The term χριστός (christos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
  42. Mark 8:30 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to indicate the conclusion of the episode.
  43. Mark 8:30 sn Mark 8:27-10:52. The entire section 8:27-10:52 is built around three passion predictions of Jesus (8:31; 9:31; 10:33). These predictions form the structure of the section, the content for the section (Jesus’ suffering, death, and the meaning of genuine discipleship) and the mood of the section (i.e., a somber mood). What is interesting is that after each passion prediction, Mark records both the misunderstanding of the disciples and then Jesus’ teaching on the nature of his death and what genuine discipleship is all about: (1) denying oneself (8:34-38); (2) humility and serving (9:33-37); (3) suffering, humble service, and not lording it over people (10:35-45). For further discussion of the structure of the passage, see W. L. Lane, Mark (NICNT), 292-94.
  44. Mark 8:31 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  45. Mark 8:31 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  46. Mark 8:31 sn The necessity that the Son of Man suffer is the particular point that needed emphasis, since for many 1st century Jews the Messiah was a glorious and powerful figure, not a suffering one.
  47. Mark 8:31 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  48. Mark 8:32 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “So” to indicate Peter’s rebuke is in response to Jesus’ teaching about the suffering of the Son of Man.
  49. Mark 8:33 tn Grk “people’s.”
  50. Mark 8:34 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  51. Mark 8:34 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  52. Mark 8:34 tn Grk “to follow after me.”
  53. Mark 8:34 tn This translation better expresses the force of the Greek third person imperative than the traditional “let him deny,” which could be understood as merely permissive.
  54. Mark 8:34 sn To bear the cross means to accept the rejection of the world for turning to Jesus and following him. Discipleship involves a death that is like a crucifixion; see Gal 6:14.
  55. Mark 8:35 tn Grk “soul” (throughout vv. 35-37). The Greek ψυχή (psuchē) has many different meanings depending on the context. The two primary meanings here are the earthly life (animate life, sometimes called “physical life”) and the inner life (the life that transcends the earthly life, sometimes called “the soul”). The fact that the Greek term can have both meanings creates in this verse both a paradox and a wordplay. The desire to preserve both aspects of ψυχή (psuchē) for oneself creates the tension here (cf. BDAG 1099 s.v. 1.a; 2.d,e). Translation of the Greek term ψυχή (psuchē) presents a particularly difficult problem in this verse. Most English versions since the KJV have translated the term “life.” This preserves the paradox of finding one’s “life” (in the sense of earthly life) while at the same time really losing it (in the sense of “soul” or transcendent inner life) and vice versa, but at the same time it obscures the wordplay that results from the same Greek word having multiple meanings. To translate as “soul,” however, gives the modern English reader the impression of the immortal soul at the expense of the earthly life. On the whole it is probably best to use the translation “life” and retain the paradox at the expense of the wordplay.
  56. Mark 8:35 sn The Greek word translated life can refer to both earthly, physical life and inner, transcendent life (one’s “soul”). In the context, if a person is not willing to suffer the world’s rejection and persecution in order to follow Jesus but instead seeks to retain his physical life, then that person will lose both physical life and inner, transcendent life (at the judgment). On the other hand, the one who willingly gives up earthly, physical life to follow Jesus (“loses his life because of me and because of the gospel”) will ultimately find one’s “soul” (note that the parallel in John’s Gospel speaks of “guarding one’s ‘soul’ for eternal life” (John 12:25).
  57. Mark 8:35 tn Or “for my sake and for the gospel.” The traditional rendering “for my sake” can be understood in the sense of “for my benefit,” but the Greek term ἕνεκα (heneka) indicates the cause or reason for something (BDAG 334 s.v. 1). Here the phrase “because of” was repeated before “the gospel” for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
  58. Mark 8:36 tn Grk “a man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) is used in a generic sense here to refer to both men and women.
  59. Mark 8:36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  60. Mark 8:38 sn How one responds now to Jesus and his teaching is a reflection of how Jesus, as the Son of Man who judges, will respond then in the final judgment.
New English Translation (NET)

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