9:19 Why does he still find fault. By what right can God lay the blame for their sins on those He has hardened against Himself? Paul answers partially in terms of human experience (vv. 20, 21). It is unreasonable and irreverent for anyone to question the rightness of God’s ways. Potters have every right to do as they please with the clay (Is. 64:8). All belong to “the same lump” (cf. vv. 10–13) of fallen humanity in Adam (5:12–14); all actively sin even before God hardens them in sinning (1:18–28). That God should show mercy to any from the Adamic lump and create vessels of honor from it is the kindness of grace; that others should become vessels for lesser use is a matter of His sovereign prerogative and is itself a display of perfect justice towards them.