12:1 a woman. The imagery calls to mind Joseph’s dream (Gen. 37:9, 10) and the picture of Jerusalem bringing forth the Messiah and His remnant (Is. 54:1–4; 66:7–13; Mic. 5:3). The Old Testament saints collectively are in view. Mary the mother of Jesus is included in this group, but only as an outstanding member of the whole. The later history shows that the New Testament saints also are included (vv. 13–17). The light-bearing character of the woman foreshadows the glory of the new Jerusalem (21:11, 22–27). In her privileges the church now already partakes in the blessings to come. But she is still buffeted by Satan (chs. 12–14 note).