3:1 Luke’s lengthy chronological reference comes at the beginning of John’s ministry, probably about a.d. 27–29.
Pontius Pilate. In his will, Herod the Great left Judea to his son Archelaus, and other territories to his sons Philip and Antipas. But Archelaus ruled so badly that the Romans removed him in a.d. 6 and appointed their own governor. Pontius Pilate was the fifth governor of Judea, serving there from a.d. 26–36.
tetrarch. A tetrarch was a kind of petty prince. “Herod” here is Herod Antipas. Philip’s region was northeast of the Sea of Galilee. Nothing more is known of Lysanias, but Abilene was north of the other regions.