23:1–12 Job’s thoughts vacillate. In ch. 9 he doubted God would give him a hearing. In ch. 13 he is convinced he will get a hearing and be vindicated. In 17:1 he is convinced only death awaits him, but also his counselors will not triumph and he will be vindicated (17:10–16). That conviction reaches its zenith in 19:25–27, and from then on he never again doubts it, as these verses and especially ch. 31 prove.