Hos 13:1

13:1 This begins an announcement of judgment for sins past (v. 1) and present (v. 2).

Ephraim. See note 4:17.

Baal. See 2:7, 8, 17; 9:10; 11:2.

died. Because of its idolatry, the northern kingdom (Ephraim) could be regarded as dead in trespasses and sins (cf. Eph. 2:1).