12:14 Ephraim has given bitter provocation. Again God’s covenant faithfulness (v. 13) is contrasted with Israel’s faithlessness. The Lord had been provoked by the worship of pagan gods (Deut. 32:21), but here even more offenses seem involved.
bloodguilt. This is a reference either to murder itself (4:2; 5:2; 6:8) or, as in ancient legal texts, to any capital crime. The verse concludes the lawsuit, and is parallel in structure to v. 2, which introduces the section. Covenant election entails covenant responsibility.