48:1 Manasseh and Ephraim. Joseph received the rights of firstborn and the double portion through Jacob’s adoption and elevation of his two sons to the status of founding fathers among Israel’s twelve tribes (37:8; 43:3; 1 Chr. 5:2 and notes). The adoption ritual included Jacob’s statements of authority (vv. 3, 4) and intent to adopt Ephraim and Manasseh (vv. 5–7), legal gestures (vv. 8–12), and words of blessing (vv. 15–16). An ancient text from the city of Ugarit (Ras Shamra) describes a similar adoption of a grandson (c. 1500 b.c.).