3:16 pain . . . bring forth children. Pain is experienced even at a point of great fulfillment for the woman. Nevertheless, in her role of bearing and raising children of promise in Jesus Christ, the woman is privileged to participate in God’s plan to create a people for Himself (v. 15; cf. 1 Tim. 2:15).
desire. The phrase “he shall rule over you” and the parallel wording in 4:7 suggests that her desire is to dominate. The marriage ordinance continues, but is frustrated by the battle of the sexes.
rule over you. The harmony, intimacy, and complementarity of the pre-Fall marriage relationship (2:21–24 and notes) are corrupted by sin, and marred by domination and enforced submission. The restoration of these relationships takes place through new life in Christ (Eph. 5:22–33).