Gen 15:18

15:18 covenant. God’s covenant with Abraham closely parallels ancient Near Eastern royal land grants made by kings to loyal servants and their descendants in perpetuity.

from the river . . . Euphrates. Delineation of borders was an important part of the ancient royal land grants.

river of Egypt. It is debated whether the brook of Egypt, the Wadi el Arish in northeastern Sinai (Num. 34:5), or the eastern branch of the Nile delta is in view. See 1 Kin. 4:21.