1:10 the fullness of time. This does not refer simply to the future. Christ has already come to bring redemption and adoption (Gal. 4:4). By virtue of His death and resurrection, He has already assumed headship over the church, and, though behind the scenes, He already rules the universe (Acts 2:32–36; Col. 1:15–20). Still, a future emphasis dominates. The visible unity of the church is a foretaste of Christ’s eventual visible rule over all things. This is why Paul stresses the unity of Jew and Gentile in the church (vv. 11–14; 2:11–22), and the practice of love among Christians (4:2, 15; 4:32–5:2, 21–23). The theme introduced here in vv. 9–12 is expanded in 3:2–12.