9:4 because of my righteousness. Note the threefold emphasis in this section (vv. 4–6) that the victory was not because of Israel’s goodness, but was entirely the work of God’s grace. Repetition was characteristic of Hebrew literature, and aided learning and memorization. Genesis 21:1 is a prime example of this characteristic, misunderstood by critics who insist that ancient Near Eastern literature should resemble the crisp economy that ideally characterizes modern Western journalism. This prejudice has led to the unwarranted conclusion that the Pentateuch must be the product of “cutting and pasting” documents from different authors.