Dan 8:3

8:3 a ram . . . two horns. According to v. 20, the ram and its horns represent the kings of the Medo-Persian Empire.

one was higher than the other, and . . . came up last. Medo-Persian history clarifies the symbolism. The Medes became independent of Assyria after 612 b.c. The Persians were under the control of the Medes, but eventually rose to prominence when Cyrus of Anshan defeated his Median overlord in 550 b.c. Cyrus (reigned 559–530 b.c.) called himself “King of the World.”