Amos 1:9

1:9 Tyre. One of two major Phoenician cities (the other is Sidon) mentioned in the Canaanite Amarna letters (14th century b.c.). The name itself means “flint.” Tyre was built on a large rock in the sea and was considered virtually impregnable until the fourth century b.c., when Alexander the Great conquered the city by building a causeway out to the city.

delivered up a whole people. See notes on v. 6.

did not remember the covenant. This phrase denotes the keeping of covenant obligations and is a standard phrase in ancient international covenants or treaties (cf. Gen. 9:15; Ex. 2:24; Lev. 26:42). Tyre did not keep its treaties with Israel.

of brotherhood. In the ancient Near East, kings entering into treaties styled themselves “brothers.” So Hiram of Tyre called Solomon “my brother” (1 Kin. 9:13; cf. 1 Kin. 5:12), against a background of treaty relations with David (2 Sam. 5:11). Later, Ahab continued the close relation with Phoenicia by marrying Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, the king of Sidon (1 Kin. 16:31).