A lack of fertility, especially the inability of a woman to conceive.
Fertility, as opposed to barrenness, a sign of God’s blessing
The barren woman
Examples of barren women Ge 16:1 Sarah; Ge 29:31 Rachel; Jdg 13:3 Manoah’s wife; 1Sa 2:5 Hannah; Lk 1:7 Elizabeth; Lk 1:36-37 The ability to bear a child in these circumstances, especially in old age, was seen as a sign of God’s blessing and his miraculous power.
Childlessness was not always the result of barrenness Dt 28:41
Barrenness might be an advantage in some circumstances Lk 23:29 Referring to the disasters about to come upon Jerusalem.
Metaphorically, barrenness may describe an unproductive or desperate condition