Bible Book List
Reformation Study Bible – Rom 9:11
Rom 9:11

9:11 they were not yet born. The case of Jacob and Esau clinches the argument in three ways: (a) because they were twins, as nearly equal in nature as possible; (b) because the purpose of God reversed even the small distinction that did exist, by causing the older brother to serve the younger; (c) because the purpose of God was stated before they were born (and therefore was not dependent on their actions). Election is not based on foreseen actions, deeds, or faith. Rather, it is based on God’s sovereign predestinating grace.