a throne stood in heaven. God’s kingly rule is a fundamental theme of the book. In the Old Testament, the tabernacle (Ex. 25–40) and temple (1 Kin. 5–7; 2 Chr. 2–4) were shadows of God’s throne room in heaven (Ex. 25:40; Heb. 8:5, 6; 9:1–14). John sees the heavenly original rather than an earthly copy. Revelation fittingly contains many allusions to the temple (3:12; 7:15; 11:19; 14:15, 17; 15:5–16:1; 16:17; 21:22) and to elements within it. For example, there are the lamps (1:12; 4:5), the living creatures like cherubim (4:6–9), incense and prayer (5:8), songs of praise like those offered by the Levitical singers in the Old Testament (4:8, 11; 5:9–13; 1 Chr. 16), a sacrifice (5:6, 9), the ark of the covenant (11:19), the altar (11:1), and the outer court (11:2).
one seated on the throne. The details of God’s appearance are not described, reminding us that His greatness and glory always exceed human comprehension. See note 1:12–20.
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