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3:16 The Lord roars. The Lord’s voice is so powerful that even the earth and the sky tremble (Ps. 29:3–9; Jer. 25:30; Amos 1:2).
refuge . . . stronghold. Yet in the midst of the extraordinary manifestations of the Lord’s anger against the nations, the Lord protects His covenant people (Is. 25:4; Ps. 46:1).