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1:20 beasts of the field. Even the animals join Joel in his cry (Job 38:41; Ps. 104:21; 147:9).
fire has devoured. Divine judgment is often depicted as fire (Deut. 32:22; Ps. 50:3; 97:3). The metaphor describes the effects of drought (cf. 2:3, where the “fire” of locust devastation is depicted).