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13:1 This begins an announcement of judgment for sins past (v. 1) and present (v. 2).
Ephraim. See note 4:17.
Baal. See 2:7, 8, 17; 9:10; 11:2.
died. Because of its idolatry, the northern kingdom (Ephraim) could be regarded as dead in trespasses and sins (cf. Eph. 2:1).