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Asbury Bible Commentary – V. God's Proper Leader (2:20–23)
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V. God's Proper Leader (2:20–23)

The word of the Lord came to Haggai a second time on the same day with a message for Zerubbabel. Again Haggai picked up the idea of God shaking the nations (2:6-9), only this time not only would the economic situation be changed, but political power would be restructured. The shaking of the nations would be an eschatological intervention by God into world history, causing the nations to destroy themselves through war, massive fratricide (cf. Ge 4:8; Jdg 7:22).

The new order to be established would be ruled by God from his new temple. Zerubbabel would be God's viceroy. The terms servant and signet ring in the political terminology of the day indicated that Zerubbabel would function as the royal representative with broad powers but always exercised in the name of the true Sovereign. As he had been the governor under the king, Darius, so would he continue to function under the true Sovereign, Yahweh—the Lord Almighty. Haggai's final word affirmed the presence of the Lord in the midst of the community. He was there to sanctify the work of building the temple, to bless the economic conditions of the community, and to rule through his chosen leader.


Achtemeier, Elizabeth. Nahum—Malachi. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox, 1986.

Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. TOTC. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1975.

Dunning, H. Ray. “Haggai.” BBC. 10 vols. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1966. Vol. 5.

Meyers, Carol L. and Eric M. Meyers. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8. AB. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987.

Petersen, David L. Haggai and Zechariah 1-8: A Commentary. OTL. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.