The closing is almost identical to 2 John. The use of the term friends implies a close relation among members of the early church.
Barclay, William. The Letters of John and Jude in DSBS. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1960.
Bettenson, Henry, ed. The Early Christian Fathers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Brooke, A. E. “The Johannine Epistles.” ICC. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1964.
Brown, Raymond. The Epistles of John. AB. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982.
Bruce, F. F. The Epistles of John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970.
Conner, W. T. The Epistles of John. Nashville: Broadman, 1957.
Dodd, C. H. “The Johannine Epistles.” MNTC. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1946.
Dunning, H. Ray. Grace, Faith and Holiness. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1988.
Ladd, George Eldon. A Theology of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975.
Marshall, I. Howard. “The Epistles of John.” ICC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.
Stott, J. R. W. “The Epistles of John.” TNTC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.
Wesley, John. Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament. London: Epworth, 1954.
_______. Letters to the Reverend John Wesley. Edited by John Telford. 8 vols. London: Epworth, 1931.
_______. Works of John Wesley. 3d ed. 14 vols. London: Wesleyan Methodist Book Room, 1872. Reprint, Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1978.
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