The closing is almost identical to 2 John. The use of the term friends implies a close relation among members of the early church.
Barclay, William. The Letters of John and Jude in DSBS. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1960.
Bettenson, Henry, ed. The Early Christian Fathers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Brooke, A. E. “The Johannine Epistles.” ICC. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1964.
Brown, Raymond. The Epistles of John. AB. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982.
Bruce, F. F. The Epistles of John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970.
Conner, W. T. The Epistles of John. Nashville: Broadman, 1957.
Dodd, C. H. “The Johannine Epistles.” MNTC. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1946.
Dunning, H. Ray. Grace, Faith and Holiness. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1988.
Ladd, George Eldon. A Theology of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975.
Marshall, I. Howard. “The Epistles of John.” ICC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.
Stott, J. R. W. “The Epistles of John.” TNTC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.
Wesley, John. Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament. London: Epworth, 1954.
_______. Letters to the Reverend John Wesley. Edited by John Telford. 8 vols. London: Epworth, 1931.
_______. Works of John Wesley. 3d ed. 14 vols. London: Wesleyan Methodist Book Room, 1872. Reprint, Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1978.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your free trial.
Starting your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus is easy. You’re already logged in with your Bible Gateway account. The next step is to enter your payment information. Your credit card won’t be charged until the trial period is over. You can cancel anytime during the trial period.
Click the button below to continue.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your subscription.
You’ve already claimed your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus. To subscribe at our regular subscription rate of $3.99/month, click the button below.
Want to get the most out of Bible Gateway? Find out why Bible Gateway Plus is the ultimate toolkit for anyone seeking to grow closer to the Word. For less than the cost of a latte, Plus membership gives you access to a complete digital Bible study library and reduced banner ads. Try it free for 30 days!