The closing is almost identical to 2 John. The use of the term friends implies a close relation among members of the early church.
Barclay, William. The Letters of John and Jude in DSBS. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1960.
Bettenson, Henry, ed. The Early Christian Fathers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Brooke, A. E. “The Johannine Epistles.” ICC. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1964.
Brown, Raymond. The Epistles of John. AB. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982.
Bruce, F. F. The Epistles of John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970.
Conner, W. T. The Epistles of John. Nashville: Broadman, 1957.
Dodd, C. H. “The Johannine Epistles.” MNTC. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1946.
Dunning, H. Ray. Grace, Faith and Holiness. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1988.
Ladd, George Eldon. A Theology of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975.
Marshall, I. Howard. “The Epistles of John.” ICC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.
Stott, J. R. W. “The Epistles of John.” TNTC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.
Wesley, John. Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament. London: Epworth, 1954.
_______. Letters to the Reverend John Wesley. Edited by John Telford. 8 vols. London: Epworth, 1931.
_______. Works of John Wesley. 3d ed. 14 vols. London: Wesleyan Methodist Book Room, 1872. Reprint, Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1978.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your free trial.
Starting your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus is easy. You’re already logged in with your Bible Gateway account. The next step is to enter your payment information. Your credit card won’t be charged until the trial period is over. You can cancel anytime during the trial period.
Click the button below to continue.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your subscription.
You’ve already claimed your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus. To subscribe at our regular subscription rate of $3.99/month, click the button below.
Try Bible Gateway Plus, a brand-new service that lets you experience Bible Gateway free of banner ads! It also gives you instant access to over 40 Bible study and inspirational devotional books, including the NIV Study Bible. With Bible Gateway Plus, you can experience and understand God's Word in life-changing new ways, without the distraction of ads. Try it free for 30 days—you can cancel at any time. Following your 30-day free trial, Bible Gateway Plus is only $3.99/month.