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The closing is almost identical to 2 John. The use of the term friends implies a close relation among members of the early church.
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Bettenson, Henry, ed. The Early Christian Fathers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
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Bruce, F. F. The Epistles of John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970.
Conner, W. T. The Epistles of John. Nashville: Broadman, 1957.
Dodd, C. H. “The Johannine Epistles.” MNTC. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1946.
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Ladd, George Eldon. A Theology of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975.
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Wesley, John. Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament. London: Epworth, 1954.
_______. Letters to the Reverend John Wesley. Edited by John Telford. 8 vols. London: Epworth, 1931.
_______. Works of John Wesley. 3d ed. 14 vols. London: Wesleyan Methodist Book Room, 1872. Reprint, Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1978.